47 Works

Data from: Acclimatization of symbiotic corals to mesophotic light environments through wavelength transformation by fluorescent protein pigments

Edward G. Smith, Cecilia D'Angelo, Yoni Sharon, Dan Tchernov & Joerg Wiedenmann
The depth distribution of reef-building corals exposes their photosynthetic symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium to extreme gradients in the intensity and spectral quality of the ambient light environment. Characterizing the mechanisms used by the coral holobiont to respond to the low intensity and reduced spectral composition of the light environment in deeper reefs (greater than 20 m) is fundamental to our understanding of the functioning and structure of reefs across depth gradients. Here, we demonstrate...

Weak evidence of carry-over effects of overwinter climate and habitat productivity on spring passage of migratory songbirds at a northern stopover site in Ontario

Lisa Horn, Tarmo Remmel & Bridget Stutchbury
Reduced rainfall in tropical regions decreases the availability of food resources for overwintering songbirds, with negative impacts on their body condition. Increasingly dry conditions at tropical wintering sites as a result of climate change may impact the ability of temperate-breeding songbirds to prepare for and execute their spring migration. We studied the carry-over effects of natural climatic fluctuations created by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in tropical overwintering areas on seven long-distance migratory songbirds...

Data from: The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in reward valuation and future thinking during intertemporal choice

Elisa Ciaramelli & R. Shayna Rosenbaum
The paper investigates the effect of reward magnitude and episodic future thinking (EFT) cues on delay discounting (DD) in 12 patients with lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC patients) and 41 healthy controls. In the Standard condition, participants viewed pairs of monetary amounts (of different magnitude) and were asked to make hypothetical choices between smaller-immediate rewards and larger rewards available after a delay. In the EFT condition, participants imagined personal events to occur at...

Perception of Upright under Created Gravity - Wo ist Oben? Messung der Wahrnehmung des Perceptual Upright (PU) mit Hilfe des OCHART-Tests unter den wechselnden Gravitationsbedingungen in einer Zentrifuge

R. Herpers, L.R. Harris, M. Jenkin, T. Hofhammer, A. Noppe, S. Felsner & H. Hecht
Technical Report / Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Computer Science, 02-2015

Data from: Association between commercial funding of Canadian patient groups and their views about funding of medicines: an observational study

Joel Lexchin
Background: Patient groups represent the interest of their members when it comes to drug funding. Many patient groups receive grants from pharmaceutical companies that make products being considered for funding. This research examines whether there is an association between the positions that Canadian groups take about the products and conflicts of interest with the companies. Methods: The Common Drug Review (CDR) and panCanadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) make recommendations to Canadian provincial and federal drug...

Data from: A portfolio effect of shrub canopy height on species richness in both stressful and competitive environments

Kari Anne Bråthen & Christopher Lortie
Facilitating effects of benefactor plants on plant species richness have been commonly tested in stressful habitats because competitive effects are assumed to predominate in more productive habitats. Here, we examine this assumption by testing whether benefactor plants can nonetheless be facilitating in competitive environments. We provide a conceptual framework describing how a trait of benefactor plants, canopy height of shrubs, can have a portfolio of facilitative effects on species richness in more competitive environments, and...

Data from: Seasonal shifts in the insect gut microbiome are concurrent with changes in cold tolerance and immunity

Laura V. Ferguson, Pranav Dhakal, Jacqueline E. Lebenzon, David E. Heinrichs, Carol Bucking & Brent J. Sinclair
1. Seasonal changes in the environment, such as varying temperature, have the potential to change the functional relationship between ectothermic animals, such as insects, and their microbiomes. Our objectives were to determine: a) whether seasonal changes in temperature shift the composition of the insect gut microbiome, and b) if changes in the microbiome are concomitant with changes in the physiology of the host, including the immune system and response to cold. 2. We exposed laboratory...

Data from: Electricity and water conservation on college and university campuses in response to national competitions among dormitories: quantifying relationships between behavior, conservation strategies and psychological metrics

John E. Petersen, Cynthia M. Frantz, , Tess M. Yanisch, Evan Tincknell & Noel Myers
“Campus Conservation Nationals” (CCN) is a recurring, nation-wide electricity and water-use reduction competition among dormitories on college campuses. We conducted a two year empirical study of the competition’s effects on resource consumption and the relationship between conservation, use of web technology and various psychological measures. Significant reductions in electricity and water use occurred during the two CCN competitions examined (n = 105,000 and 197,000 participating dorm residents respectively). In 2010, overall reductions during the competition...

Chapter 2 Raw Data

Ryan Spafford
Plant invasions likely impact entire arthropod communities but most research focuses either on insect controls or select target plant species. In Western Montana, USA, vegetation and arthropod communities were compared between intermountain grassland habitats uninvaded by spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and habitats corresponding with increasing levels of invasion. Arthropods were sampled using a diverse array of sampling methods. Arthropod data were analyzed both at the community and trophic level. Native plant species richness and percent...

European Identity in Cinema in the Age of Globalized Migration

Temenuga Trifonova & Raphaële Bertho

Data from: Dietary habits of polar bears in Foxe Basin, Canada: possible evidence of a trophic regime shift mediated by a new top predator

Melissa P. Galicia, Gregory W. Thiemann, Markus G. Dyck, Steven H. Ferguson & Jeff W. Higdon
Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations in several areas with seasonal sea ice regimes have shown declines in body condition, reproductive rates, or abundance as a result of declining sea ice habitat. In the Foxe Basin region of Nunavut, Canada, the size of the polar bear subpopulation has remained largely stable over the past 20 years, despite concurrent declines in sea ice habitat. We used fatty acid analysis to examine polar bear feeding habits in Foxe...

Data from: The effect of habitat fragmentation on finescale population structure of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

M. Kathrine A. Crosby, Lawrence E. Licht & Jinzhong Fu
We examined the impact of recent anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) breeding sites in Wellington County of Ontario, Canada. In addition to geographic distance (average pairwise distance ~22 km, greatest distance ~50.22 km), four landscape features hypothesized to contribute to genetic differentiation between breeding sites were considered: road density, a major highway (highway 401), canopy cover, and watershed discontinuity. Analysis of data from 396 samples across nine breeding...

Modelling the impact of antibody-dependent enhancement on disease severity of ZIKV and DENV sequential and co-infection

Biao Tang, Yanni Xiao, Beate Sander, Manisha A. Kulkarni & Jianhong Wu
Human infections with viruses of the genus Flavivirus, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are of increasing global importance. Due to antibody dependent enhancement, secondary infection with one Flavivirus following primary infection with another {\it Flavivirus} can result in a significantly larger peak viral load with a much higher risk of severe disease. Although several mathematical models have been developed to quantify the virus dynamics in the primary and secondary infections of DENV,...

Data from: Positive associations with native shrubs are intense and important for an exotic invader but not the native annual community across an aridity gradient

Jacob Lucero, Merav Seifan, Ragan Callaway & Christopher Lortie
AIM AND LOCATION: Positive interactions influence the assembly of plant communities globally, particularly in stressful environments like deserts. However, few studies have measured the intensity and relative importance of positive interactions involving native and invasive species along aridity gradients. These measures are essential for predicting how dryland communities will respond to biological invasions and environmental change. Here, we measured the intensity and importance of positive associations formed between native shrubs and the annual plant community,...

Shrub density effects on the community structure and composition of a desert animal community

Mario Zuliani, Christopher Lortie & Nargol Ghazian
Positive interactions between shrubs and animals are frequent in desert ecosystems. Shrub canopies can provide refuge to some animal species from predators and shelter from stressful environmental conditions by ameliorating high temperatures through lowering the amplitude of variation. Consequently, there have been many contrasts of shrub versus open effects; however, we extend this approach further by testing these effects on a gradient of shrub densities in the Carrizo National Monument, California. We tested the hypothesis...

Data from: Multisensory control of orientation in tethered flying Drosophila

Timothy A. Currier & Katherine I. Nagel
A longstanding goal of systems neuroscience is to quantitatively describe how the brain integrates sensory cues over time. Here we develop a closed-loop orienting paradigm in Drosophila to study the algorithms by which cues from two modalities are integrated during ongoing behavior. We find that flies exhibit two behaviors when presented simultaneously with an attractive visual stripe and aversive wind cue. First, flies perform a turn sequence where they initially turn away from the wind...

Chapter 3 Raw Data

Ryan Spafford
Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Further, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community-level. The purpose of this...

Mapping Digital Media: Canada

Jonathan Obar, Gregory Taylor, Derek Antoine, Rena Bivens, Nadia Caidi, Arndis Johnson, Catherine Middleton & David Skinner
The Mapping Digital Media project examines the global opportunities and risks created by the transition from traditional to digital media. Covering 60 countries, the project examines how these changes affect the core democratic service that any media system should provide: news about political, economic, and social affairs. Canadians are among the most engaged and active users of digital media in the world, and digitization has had particular consequences for such a vast, largely urbanized and...

The rheological behavior of CO2 ice: application to glacial flow on Mars

Andrew Cross, David L. Goldsby, Travis F. Hager & Isaac B. Smith
Vast amounts of solid CO2 reside in topographic basins of the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) on Mars and exhibit morphological features indicative of glacial flow. Previous experimental studies showed that coarse-grained CO2 ice is 1–2 orders of magnitude weaker than water ice under Martian polar conditions. Here we present data from a series of deformation experiments on high-purity, fine-grained CO2 ice over a broader range of temperatures than previously explored (158–213 K). The experiments...

Escape from natural enemies depends on the enemies, the invader, and competition

Jacob Lucero, Nafiseh Arab, Sebastian Meyer, Robert Pal, Rebecca A. Fletcher, Dávid Nagy, Ragan M. Callaway & Wolfgang Weisser
The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) attributes the success of some exotic plant species to reduced top-down effects of natural enemies in the non-native range relative to the native range. Many studies have tested this idea, but very few have considered the simultaneous effects of multiple kinds of enemies on more than one invasive species in both the native and non-native ranges. Here, we examined the effects of two important groups of natural enemies – insect...

Overtone focusing in biphonic Tuvan throat singing

Christopher Bergevin
Khoomei is a unique singing style originating from the Central Asian republic of Tuva. Singers produce two pitches simultaneously: a booming low-frequency rumble alongside a hovering high-pitched whistle-like tone. The biomechanics of this biphonation are not well-understood. Here, we use sound analysis, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, and vocal tract modeling to demonstrate how biphonation is achieved by modulating vocal tract morphology. Tuvan singers show remarkable control in shaping their vocal tract to narrowly focus the...

Data from: The transcriptomic and evolutionary signature of social interactions regulating honey bee caste development

Svjetlana Vojvodic, Brian R. Johnson, Brock A. Harpur, Clement F. Kent, Amro Zayed, Kirk E. Anderson & Timothy A. Linksvayer
The caste fate of developing female honey bee larvae is strictly socially regulated by adult nurse workers. As a result of this social regulation, nurse-expressed genes as well as larval-expressed genes may affect caste expression and evolution. We used a novel transcriptomic approach to identify genes with putative direct and indirect effects on honey bee caste development, and we subsequently studied the relative rates of molecular evolution at these caste-associated genes. We experimentally induced the...

Data from: Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass-endophyte mutualism

Andrew J. Tanentzap, Mark Vicari & Dawn R. Bazely
Fungal endophytes modify plant–herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichloë festucae...

Data from: Smaller is better: drift in gaze measurements due to pupil dynamics

Jan Drewes, Weina Zhu, Yingzhou Hu & Xintian Hu
Camera-based eye trackers are the mainstay of eye movement research and countless practical applications of eye tracking. Recently, a significant impact of changes in pupil size on gaze position as measured by camera-based eye trackers has been reported. In an attempt to improve the understanding of the magnitude and population-wise distribution of the pupil-size dependent shift in reported gaze position, we present the first collection of binocular pupil drift measurements recorded from 39 subjects. The...

Data from: A novel locus on chromosome 1 underlies the evolution of a melanic plumage polymorphism in a wild songbird

Yann X.C. Bourgeois, Boris Delahaie, Mathieu Gautier, Emeline Lhuillier, Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Joris A.M. Bertrand, Josselin Cornuault, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Olivier Bouchez, Claire Mould, Jade Bruxaux, Hélène Holota, Borja Mila, Christophe Thébaud, Joris A. M. Bertrand & Yann X. C. Bourgeois
Understanding the mechanisms responsible for phenotypic diversification within and among species ultimately rests with linking naturally occurring mutations to functionally and ecologically significant traits. Colour polymorphisms are of great interest in this context because discrete colour patterns within a population are often controlled by just a few genes in a common environment. We investigated how and why phenotypic diversity arose and persists in the Zosterops borbonicus white-eye of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago), a colour polymorphic songbird...

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  • York University
  • New York University
  • University of Montana
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Duke University
  • Xi'an Jiaotong University
  • British Antarctic Survey
  • University of Leeds
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
  • University of Ottawa