196 Works

Observed Precipitation, Temperature, and Snow Water Equivalent for the Rio Grande headwaters from 1905-2015

David Gutzler
This file summarizes the data found in RG_obs_PTSWEQ.csv used in the analysis of the contribution of precipitation, temperature, and SWE to the interannual variability of runoff generation in the Rio Grande headwaters.

Do Loss Aversion and the Ownership Effect Bias Content Validation Procedures?

Vanessa Svihla & Amber Gallup
In making validity arguments, a central consideration is whether the instrument fairly and adequately covers intended content, and this is often evaluated by experts. While common procedures exist for quantitatively assessing this, the effect of loss aversion—a cognitive bias that would predict a tendency to retain items—on these procedures has not been investigated. For more novel constructs, experts are typically drawn from adjacent domains. In such cases, a related cognitive bias, the ownership effect, would...

Data from: Low serum sodium levels at hospital admission: outcomes among 2.3 million hospitalized patients

Saleem Al Mawed, V. Shane Pankratz, Kelly Chong, Matthew Sandoval, Maria-Eleni Roumelioti & Mark Unruh
Background: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder among hospitalized patients. Controversies still exist over the relationship between hyponatremia and outcomes of hospitalized patients. Methods: To analyze the association of low serum sodium levels at hospital admission with in-hospital mortality and patient disposition and to compare the distribution of the risk of death associated with hyponatremia across the lifespan of hospitalized patients, we conducted an observational study of 2.3 million patients using data extracted from...

Data from: Exploring microbial dark matter to resolve the deep archaeal ancestry of eukaryotes

Jimmy H. Saw, Anja Spang, Katarzyna Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Lina Juzokaite, Jeremy A. Dodsworth, Senthil Murugapiran, Dan R. Colman, Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, Brian P. Hedlund, Lionel Guy & Thijs J.G. Ettema
The origin of eukaryotes represents an enigmatic puzzle, which is still lacking a number of essential pieces. Whereas it is currently accepted that the process of eukaryogenesis involved an interplay between a host cell and an alphaproteobacterial endosymbiont, we currently lack detailed information regarding the identity and nature of these players. A number of studies have provided increasing support for the emergence of the eukaryotic host cell from within the archaeal domain of life, displaying...

Data from: Fire frequency drives habitat selection by a diverse herbivore guild impacting top–down control of plant communities in an African savanna

Deron E. Burkepile, Dave I. Thompson, Richard W. S. Fynn, Sally E. Koerner, Stephanie Eby, Navashni Govender, Nicole Hagenah, Nathan P. Lemoine, Katherine J. Matchett, Kevin R. Wilcox, Scott L. Collins, Kevin P. Kirkman, Alan K. Knapp & Melinda D. Smith
In areas with diverse herbivore communities such as African savannas, the frequency of disturbance by fire may alter the top–down role of different herbivore species on plant community dynamics. In a seven year experiment in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we examined the habitat use of nine common herbivore species across annually burned, triennially burned and unburned areas. We also used two types of exclosures (plus open access controls) to examine the impacts of...

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity has a weak effect on diversity during community assembly in tallgrass prairie

Sara G. Baer, John M. Blair & Scott L. Collins
Understanding what constrains the persistence of species in communities is at the heart of community assembly theory and its application to conserving and enhancing biodiversity. The “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” predicts greater species coexistence in habitats with greater resource variability. In the context of community assembly, environmental heterogeneity may influence the variety and strength of abiotic conditions and competitive interactions (environmental filters) to affect the relative abundance of species and biodiversity. We manipulated key resources that...

Data from: Fungal symbionts maintain a rare plant population but demographic advantage drives the dominance of a common host

Yan-Yi Anny Chung, Thomas E. X. Miller, Jennifer A. Rudgers & Tom E. X. Miller
1. A potential driver of species abundance that remains understudied is the interaction between host species and their microbial symbionts. Beneficial symbionts could promote the dominance of common host species by increasing their population growth rates more than they do for rare species, and symbiont benefits could be important for maintaining rare species in communities. Alternatively, intrinsic differences in demography, independent of interactions with symbionts, could be the main driver of species’ relative abundances. 2....

Data from: Fitness decline in spontaneous mutation accumulation lines of Caenorhabditis elegans with varying effective population sizes

Vaishali Katju, Lucille B. Packard, Lijing Bu, Peter David Keightley & Ulfar Bergthorsson
The rate and fitness effects of new mutations have been investigated by mutation accumulation (MA) experiments in which organisms are maintained at a constant minimal population size to facilitate the accumulation of mutations with minimal efficacy of selection. We evolved 35 MA lines of Caenorhabditis elegans in parallel for 409 generations at three population sizes (N = 1, 10, and 100), representing the first spontaneous long-term MA experiment at varying population sizes with corresponding differences...

Data from: Isotopic niches support the resource breadth hypothesis

Jonathan A. Rader, Seth D. Newsome, Pablo Sabat, R. Terry Chesser, Michael E. Dillon & Carlos Martínez Del Rio
Because a broad spectrum of resource use allows species to persist in a wide range of habitat types, and thus permits them to occupy large geographical areas, and because broadly distributed species have access to more diverse resource bases, the resource breadth hypothesis posits that the diversity of resources used by organisms should be positively related with the extent of their geographic ranges. We investigated isotopic niche width in a small radiation of South American...

Data for: Evaluating the impact of physical frailty during ageing in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Melissa Emery Thompson, Stephanie Fox, Kris Sabbi, Emily Otali, Nicole Thompson Gonzalez, Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham & Zarin Machanda
While declining physical performance is an expected consequence of aging, human clinical research has placed increasing emphasis on physical frailty as a predictor of death and disability in the elderly. We examined non-invasive measures approximating frailty in a richly-sampled longitudinal dataset on wild chimpanzees. Using urinary creatinine to assess lean body mass, we demonstrated moderate but significant declines in physical condition with age in both sexes. While older chimpanzees spent less of their day in...

Data from: Trophic plasticity in a common reef-building coral: Insights from δ13C analysis of essential amino acids

Michael Fox, Emma Elliott Smith, Jennifer Smith & Seth Newsome
1. Reef-building corals are mixotrophic organisms that can obtain nutrition from endosymbiotic microalgae (autotrophy) and particle capture (heterotrophy). Heterotrophic nutrition is highly beneficial to many corals, particularly in times of stress. Yet the extent to which different coral species rely on heterotrophic nutrition remains largely unknown because it is challenging to quantify. 2. We developed a quantitative approach to investigate coral nutrition using carbon isotope (δ13C) analysis of six essential amino acids (AAESS) in a...

Wild chimpanzees exhibit human-like aging of glucocorticoid regulation

Melissa Emery Thompson, Stephanie Fox, Andreas Berghaenel, Kris Sabbi, Sarah Phillips-Garcia, Drew Enigk, Emily Otali, Zarin Machanda, Richard Wrangham & Martin Muller
Cortisol, a key product of the stress response, has critical influences on degenerative aging in humans. In turn, cortisol production is affected by senescence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to progressive dysregulation and increased cortisol exposure. These processes have been studied extensively in industrialized settings, but few comparative data are available from humans and closely-related species living in natural environments, where stressors are very different. Here, we examine age-related changes in urinary cortisol in...

Predicting amphibian intraspecific diversity with machine learning: Challenges and prospects for integrating traits, geography, and genetic data

Lisa Barrow
The growing availability of genetic datasets, in combination with machine learning frameworks, offer great potential to answer long-standing questions in ecology and evolution. One such question has intrigued population geneticists, biogeographers, and conservation biologists: What factors determine intraspecific genetic diversity? This question is challenging to answer because many factors may influence genetic variation, including life history traits, historical influences, and geography, and the relative importance of these factors varies across taxonomic and geographic scales. Furthermore,...

Supporting data for changing climate reallocates the carbon debt of frequent-fire forests

Matthew Hurteau, Marissa Goodwin, Harold Zald & Malcolm North
Ongoing climate change will likely alter the carbon carrying capacity of forests as they adjust to climatic extremes and changing disturbance regimes. Increasing drought frequency and severity are already causing widespread tree mortality events, which can exacerbate the carbon debt that has developed as a result of fire-exclusion. Reducing tree density and surface fuels decreases the risk of high-severity wildfire and may also limit drought-induced mortality by reducing competition. We utilized a long-term thinning and...

Oral cholestyramine prevents the enrichment of diverse daptomycin-resistance mutations in intestinal Enterococcus faecium populations

Valerie Morley
Background and Objectives: Previously, we showed proof-of-concept in a mouse model that oral administration of cholestyramine prevented enrichment of daptomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during daptomycin therapy. Cholestyramine binds daptomycin in the gut, which removes daptomycin selection pressure and so prevents the enrichment of resistant clones. Here, we investigated two open questions related to this approach: 1) can cholestyramine prevent the enrichment of diverse daptomycin mutations emerging de novo in the gut?...

Future fire-driven landscape changes along a southwestern US elevation gradient

Matthew Hurteau & Cecile Remy
Over the 21st century, the combined effects of increased fire activity and climate changes are expected to altered forest composition and structure in many ecosystems by changing post-fire successional trajectories and recovery. The southwestern US mountains encompass varied vegetation types and species according to elevation which do not respond the same to changing climate and fire regime. Moreover, fire exclusion applied during the early 20th century has altered forest structure and fuel loads compared to...

Distinguishing between dispersal and vicariance: A novel approach using anti-tropical taxa across the fish Tree of Life

William Ludt & Corinne Myers
Aim: Anti-tropical taxa are species split by the tropics into disjunct northern and southern populations. These distributions occur throughout the Tree of Life, but the mechanisms proposed to drive this pattern are debated and generally fit into two categories: dispersal and vicariance. Here we quantitatively test the prevalence of dispersal and vicariance as plausible drivers of anti-tropical marine distributions using intra-specific anti-tropical marine fishes as a model system. Location: Primarily Indo-Pacific. Major Taxa Studied: Marine...

Disentangling lousy relationships: Comparative phylogenomics of two sucking louse lineages parasitizing chipmunks

Kayce Bell, Julie M. Allen, Kevin P. Johnson, John R. Demboski & Joseph A. Cook
The evolution of obligate parasites is often interpreted in light of their hosts’ evolutionary history. An expanded approach is to examine the histories of multiple lineages of parasites that inhabit similar environments on a particular host lineage. Western North American chipmunks (genus Tamias) have a broad distribution, a history of divergence with gene flow, and host two species of sucking lice (Anoplura), Hoplopleura arboricola and Neohaematopinus pacificus. From total genomic sequencing, we obtained sequences of...

Complex histories of gene flow and a mitochondrial capture event in a non-sister pair of bird

Ethan Gyllenhaal, Michael Andersen, Jenna McCullough, Xena Mapel, Tri Haryoko, Knud Jønsson & Leo Joseph
Hybridization, introgression, and reciprocal gene flow during speciation, specifically the generation of mitonuclear discordance, are increasingly observed as parts of the speciation process. Genomic approaches provide insight into where, when, and how adaptation operates during and after speciation and can measure historical and modern introgression. Whether adaptive or neutral in origin, hybridization can cause mitonuclear discordance by placing the mitochondrial genome of one species (or population) in the nuclear background of another species. The latter,...

Telemetry validated nitrogen stable isotope clocks identify ocean-to-estuarine habitat shifts in mobile organisms

Oliver Shipley, Alisa Newton, Michael Frisk, Gregory Henkes, Jake LaBelle, Merry Camhi, Michael Hyatt, Hans Walters & Jill Olin
1. Throughout their life history, many animals transition among heterogenous environments to facilitate behaviors such as reproduction, foraging, and predator avoidance. The dynamic environmental and biological conditions experienced by mobile species are integrated in the chemical composition of their tissues, providing retrospective insight into movement. 2. Here, we present a unique nitrogen stable isotope clocks (‘isotopic clocks’), which integrate tissue turnover rates, consumer stable isotope ratios, and habitat-specific isotope baselines and can be used to...

Functional changes in fortified places: Strategy and defensive architecture in the Medieval and Early Modern Era

Scott Kirk & Evan Sternberg
Data for Scott Kirk's Doctoral Dissertation. Dissertation Abstract: Defined as fortified elite Houses, castles are a cross-cultural phenomenon, best understood by pairing Niche Construction Theory (NCT) with the Lévi-Straussian concept of the House. NCT can be thought of as a theory of the built environment, thus the material configuration of castles and their placement on the landscape reflect elite socio-cultural requirements. My dissertation asks: How do changes in castle morphology and landscape placement reflect broad...

Still time for action: genetic conservation of imperiled South Canadian River fishes, Arkansas River Shiner (Notropis girardi), Peppered Chub (Macrhybopsis tetranema) and Plains Minnow (Hybognathus placitus)

Megan Osborne, Joanna Hatt, Eliza Gilbert & Stephen Davenport
Pelagic broadcast spawning cyprinids have declined throughout the North American Great Plains because of adverse habitat changes caused by river fragmentation and altered flow regimes. Despite losses elsewhere, a 218-river kilometer section of the South Canadian River maintains three of these imperiled species: Arkansas River Shiner, Peppered Chub and Plains Minnow. The objective of this study was to determine if species occupying the same river stretch and hence a shared environment, exhibit the same trajectory...

Single-arm, open-label, multicenter first in human study to evaluate the safety and performance of Dura Sealant Patch in reducing CSF leakage following elective cranial surgery: The ENCASE trial

Tristan Van Doormaal, Menno Germans, Menno Germans, Mariska Sie, Bart Brouwers, Andrew Carlson, Jan Willem Dankbaar, Jorn Fierstra, Paul Depauw, Pierre Robe & Luca Regli
Objective: The Dural Sealant Patch (DSP) is designed for watertight dural closure after cranial surgery. The goal of this study is to assess, for the first time, safety and performance of the DSP as a means of reducing CSF leakage in patients undergoing elective cranial intradural surgery with a dural closure procedure. Design: First in human, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study with 360 days (12 months) follow up. Setting: Three large tertiary reference neurosurgical centers, 2...

Elucidating gene expression adaptation of phylogenetically divergent coral holobionts under heat stress

Viridiana Avila-Magaña, Bishoy Kamel, Michael DeSalvo, Kelly Gómez-Campo, Susana Enríquez, Hiroaki Kitano, Rori Rohlfs, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto & Mónica Medina
As coral reefs struggle to survive under climate change, it is crucial to know whether they have the capacity to withstand changing conditions, particularly increasing seawater temperatures. Thermal tolerance requires the integrative response of the different components of the coral holobiont (coral host, algal photosymbiont, and associated microbiome). Here, using a controlled thermal stress experiment across three divergent Caribbean coral species, we attempt to dissect holobiont member metatranscriptome responses from coral taxa with different sensitivities...

The hidden legacy of megafaunal extinction: loss of functional diversity and resilience over the late Quaternary at Hall’s Cave

Carson P. Hedberg
This dataset contains trait data and R code used in the analysis for the paper “Hedberg, C.P., Lyons S.K., & Smith F.A. (2021). THe Hidden Legacy of megafaunal extinction: loss of functional diversity and resilience over the Late Quaternary at Hall's Cave. Global Ecology and Biogeography. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13428” We collected data for eight functional traits (mass, diet, arboreality, cursoriality, soil disturbance, group size, activity period, migration habit) that collectively describe a species’ ecological role and influence...

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