198 Works

Data from: A phylogenetic, biogeographic, and taxonomic study of all extant species of Anolis (Squamata; Iguanidae)

Steven Poe, Adrian Nieto-Montes De Oca, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Kevin De Queiroz, Julian A. Velasco, Brad Truett, Levi N. Gray, Mason J. Ryan, Gunther Kohler, Fernando Ayala-Varela & Ian Latella
Anolis lizards (anoles) are textbook study organisms in evolution and ecology. Although several topics in evolutionary biology have been elucidated by the study of anoles, progress in some areas has been hampered by limited phylogenetic information on this group. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of all 379 extant species of Anolis, with new phylogenetic data for 139 species including new DNA data for 101 species. We use the resulting estimates as a basis for...

Data from: Propagule pressure and genetic diversity enhance colonization by a ruderal species: a multi-generation field experiment

Stephen M. Hovick & Kenneth D. Whitney
Colonization is a critical filter, setting the stage for short-term and long-term population success. Increased propagule pressure (e.g., more founding individuals) usually enhances colonization; however, this pattern may be driven by purely numeric effects, population genetic diversity effects, or both. To determine the independent and interactive effects of propagule pressure and genetic diversity, we conducted a seed addition experiment in the field using the ruderal annual Arabidopsis thaliana. Propagule pressure treatments spanned five levels, from...

Data from: Impacts of inference method and dataset filtering on phylogenomic resolution in a rapid radiation of ground squirrels (Xerinae: Marmotini)

Bryan S. McLean, Kayce C. Bell, Julia M. Allen, Kristofer M. Helgen, Joseph A. Cook & Julie M Allen
Phylogenomic datasets are illuminating many areas of the Tree of Life. However, the large size of these datasets alone may be insufficient to resolve problematic nodes in the most rapid evolutionary radiations, because inferences in zones of extraordinarily low phylogenetic signal can be sensitive to the model and method of inference, as well as the information content of loci employed. We used a dataset of >3,950 ultraconserved element (UCE) loci from a classic mammalian radiation,...

Data from: Implementation of electronic charting is not associated with significant change in physician productivity in an academic emergency department

Dusadee Sarangarm, Gregory Lamb, Steven Weiss, Amy Ernst & Lorraine Hewitt
Objectives: To compare physician productivity and billing before and after implementation of electronic charting in an academic ED. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, blinded, observational study compared the 6 months pre-implementation (January to June 2012) with the 6 months post-implementation one year later (January to June 2013). Thirty-one ED physicians were recruited, with each physician acting as his/her own control in a before-after design. Productivity was measured via total number of encounters and “productivity index”...

Data from: Non-random latitudinal gradients in range size and niche breadth predicted by spatial patterns of climate

Erin E. Saupe, Corinne E. Myers, A. Townsend Peterson, Jorge Soberón, Joy Singarayer, Paul Valdes & Huijie Qiao
Aim. Tropical species are thought to experience and be adapted to narrow ranges of abiotic conditions. This idea has been invoked to explain a broad array of biological phenomena, including the latitudinal diversity gradient and differential rates of speciation and extinction. However, debate continues regarding the broad-scale applicability of this pattern and potential processes responsible. Here, we use a simulation approach to test two propositions: (1) strong geographic patterns of variation in realized niche breadth...

Supporting data for identifying microclimate tree seedling refugia in post-wildfire landscapes

Matthew Hurteau, Christopher Marsh & Dan Krofcheck
High-severity wildfire in arid regions has caused ecological state change, transforming previously forested areas into shrublands. This dramatically alters the climatic envelope for tree seedlings, rendering the likelihood of returning post-wildlife landscapes to their previous state relatively low. We used a combination of sUAS imagery, satellite data and in-situ microclimate data recordings, together with a machine learning approach, to model monthly near-ground minimum, mean and max temperature as well as relative humidity and vapor pressure...

Plant traits and soil fertility mediate productivity losses under extreme drought in C3 grasslands

Wentao Luo, Robert Griffin-Nolan, Wang Ma, Bo Liu, Xiaoan Zuo, Chong Xu, Qiang Yu, Yahuang Luo, Pierre Mariotte, Melinda Smith, Scott Collins, Alan Knapp, Zhengwen Wang & Xingguo Han
Extreme drought decreases aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in most grasslands, but the magnitude of ANPP reductions varies especially in C3-dominated grasslands. Because the mechanisms underlying such differential ecosystem responses to drought are not well-resolved, we experimentally imposed an extreme 4-year drought (2015-2018) in two C3 grasslands that differed in aridity. These sites had similar annual precipitation and dominant grass species (Leymus chinensis) but different annual temperatures and thus water availability. Drought treatments differentially affected...

Limited evidence for a positive relationship between hybridization and diversification across seed plant families

Nora Mitchell & Kenneth Whitney
Hybridization has experimental and observational ties to evolutionary processes and outcomes such as adaptation, speciation, and radiation. Although it has been hypothesized that hybridization and diversification are positively correlated, this idea remains largely untested empirically, and hybridization can also potentially reduce diversity. Here, we use a hybridization database on 170 seed plant families, life history information, and a time-calibrated phylogeny to test for phylogenetically-corrected associations between hybridization and diversification rates, while also taking into account...

Data from: Demography, life history trade-offs, and the gastrointestinal virome of wild chimpanzees

Jacob D. Negrey, Melissa Emery Thompson, Kevin E. Langergraber, Zarin P. Machanda, John C. Mitani, Martin N. Muller, Emily Otali, Leah A. Owens, Richard W. Wrangham & Tony L. Goldberg
In humans, senescence increases susceptibility to viral infection. However, comparative data on viral infection in free-living non-human primates—even in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos (Pan troglodytes and P. paniscus)—are relatively scarce, thereby constraining an evolutionary understanding of age-related patterns of viral infection. We investigated a population of wild eastern chimpanzees (P. t. schweinfurthii), using metagenomics to characterize viromes (full viral communities) in the feces of 42 sexually mature chimpanzees (22 males, 20 females)...

Two-step mixed model approach to analyzing differential alternative RNA splicing: Datasets and R scripts for analysis of alternative splicing

Li Luo, Huining Kang, Xichen Li, Scott Ness & Christine Stidley
Changes in gene expression can correlate with poor disease outcomes in two ways: through changes in relative transcript levels or through alternative RNA splicing leading to changes in relative abundance of individual transcript isoforms. The objective of this research is to develop new statistical methods in detecting and analyzing both differentially expressed and spliced isoforms, which appropriately account for the dependence between isoforms and multiple testing corrections for the multi-dimensional structure of at both the...

A revised classification of Glossopetalon (Crossosomataceae) based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing

Maya Allen & Tina Ayers
Glossopetalon inhabits arid regions in the American west and northern Mexico on limestone substrates. The genus comprises four species: G. clokeyi ; G. pungens ; G. texense ; and G. spinescens . Three of the species are narrow endemics. The fourth, G. spinescens , is a widespread species with six recognized varieties. All six varieties are intricately branched shrubs that have been difficult to identify due to a lack of clearly delineating morphological characters. Characters...

Inter- and intra-archipelago dynamics of population structure and gene flow in a Polynesian bird

Ethan Gyllenhaal, Xena Mapel, Tejashree Modak, Lucas DeCicco, Alivereti Naikatini, Ruth Utzurrum, Joshua Seamon, Jean-Claude Thibault, Alice Cibois, Michael Sorenson, Robert Moyle, Lisa Barrow & Michael Andersen
Islands are separated by natural barriers that prevent gene flow between terrestrial populations and promote allopatric diversification. Birds in the South Pacific are an excellent model to explore the interplay between isolation and gene flow due to the region’s numerous archipelagos and well-characterized avian communities. The wattled honeyeater complex (Foulehaio spp.) comprises three allopatric species that are widespread and common across Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, and Wallis and Futuna. Here, we explored patterns of diversification within...

Phylogenetic restriction of plant invasion in drought-stressed environments: implications for insect-pollinated plant communities in water-limited ecosystems

Andrew Simon, Hannah Marx & Brian Starzomski
Background: Plant-pollinator community diversity has been found to decrease under conditions of drought stress, however research into the temporal dimensions of this phenomenon remains limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of seasonal drought on the temporal niche dynamics of entomophilous flowering plants in a water-limited ecosystem. We hypothesized that closely related native and exotic plants would tend to share similar life history, and that peak flowering events would therefore coincide with phylogenetic clustering...

Does breeding season variation affect evolution of a sexual signaling trait in a tropical lizard clade?

Levi Gray, Anthony Barley, David Hillis, Carlos Pavón-Vázquez, Steven Poe & Brittney White
Sexually selected traits can be expected to increase in importance when the period of sexual behavior is constrained, such as in seasonally restricted breeders. Anolis lizard male dewlaps are classic examples of multifaceted signaling traits, with demonstrated intraspecific reproductive function reflected in courtship behavior. Fitch and Hillis found a correlation between dewlap size and seasonality in mainland Anolis using traditional statistical methods. Here, we present two tests of the Fitch-Hillis Hypothesis using new phylogenetic and...

Early stages of speciation with gene flow in the Amazilia Hummingbird (Amazilis amazilia) subspecies complex of Western South America

Sarah Cowles, Christopher Witt, Elisa Bonaccorso, Felix Grewe & J. Albert Uy
Disentangling the factors underlying the diversification of geographically variable species with a wide geographical range is essential to understanding the initial stages and drivers of the speciation process. The Amazilia Hummingbird, Amazilis amazilia, is found along the Pacific coast from northern Ecuador down to the Nazca Valley of Peru, and is currently classified as six phenotypically differentiated subspecies. Our aims were to resolve the evolutionary relationships of the six subspecies, to assess the geographical pattern...

Geographic and temporal morphological stasis in the latest Cretaceous ammonoid Discoscaphites iris from the U.S. Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains

James Witts, Corinne Myers, Matthew Garb, Kayla Irizarry, Ekaterina Larina, Anastasia Rashkova & Neil Landman
We examine temporal and spatial variation in morphology of the ammonoid cephalopod Discoscaphites iris using a large dataset from multiple localities in the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of the United States Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains, spanning a distance of 2000 km along the paleoshoreline. Our results suggest that the fossil record of D. iris is consistent with no within species net accumulation of phyletic evolutionary change across morphological traits or the lifetime of this species....

Data from: Impact of antecedent soil moisture on runoff from a semiarid catchment

Gerhard Schoener & Mark C. Stone
Antecedent soil moisture is an important factor in the generation of runoff, but guidance for modeling moisture conditions in semiarid catchments is limited and conflicting. In this study, the impact of antecedent moisture was assessed at the plot scale (2.8 m2) using a portable rainfall simulator, and at the catchment scale based on observed precipitation and discharge for a 2.8 km2 watershed in central New Mexico. Performance of three loss models commonly used for hydrologic...

Data from: Monitoring soil moisture at the catchment scale – A novel approach combining antecedent precipitation index and radar-derived rainfall data

Gerhard Schoener & Mark C. Stone
Knowledge about soil moisture is important for event-based rainfall-runoff models but monitoring conditions at the catchment scale is not a trivial task. Soil moisture is highly variable in space and time, particularly in dry climates with seasonal and spatially heterogeneous rainfall. Point measurements are difficult to upscale, and remotely sensed (RS) data often lack in spatial or temporal resolution for local or regional studies. Longer latency periods – the time required before data becomes available...

The functional significance of panting as a mechanism of thermoregulation and its relationship to the critical thermal maxima in lizards

Caleb Loughran & Blair Wolf
Because most desert-dwelling lizards rely primarily on behavioral thermoregulation for the maintenance of active body temperatures, the effectiveness of panting as a thermoregulatory mechanism for evaporative cooling has not been widely explored. We measured changes in body temperature (Tb) with increasing air temperature (Ta) for seventeen species of lizards that range across New Mexico and Arizona and quantified the temperatures associated with the onset of panting, the capacity of individuals to depress Tb below Ta...

A Rigid, Thermally-Isolating Suspension for an ADR

Ruslan Hummatov, Linh N. Le, Felix T. Jaeckel & S. T. P. Boyd

Islands Within Islands: Bacterial Phylogenetic Structure and Consortia in Hawaiian Lava Caves and Fumaroles

Rebecca Prescott, Tatyana Zamkovaya, Stuart Donachie, Diana Northup, Joseph Mendley, Natalia Monsalve, Jimmy Saw, Alan Decho, Patrick Chain & Penelope Boston
Lava caves, tubes, and fumaroles in Hawai‘i present a range of volcanic, oligotrophic environments from different lava flows and host unexpectedly high levels of bacterial diversity. These features provide an opportunity to study the ecological drivers that structure bacterial community diversity and assemblies in volcanic ecosystems and compare the older, more stable environments of lava tubes, to the more variable and extreme conditions of younger, geothermally active caves and fumaroles. Using 16S rRNA amplicon-based sequencing...

Data from: Rensch's rule in large herbivorous mammals derived from metabolic scaling

Richard M. Sibly, Wenyun Zuo, Astrid Kodric-Brown & James H. Brown
Rensch’s rule, which states that the magnitude of sexual size dimorphism tends to increase with increasing body size, has evolved independently in three lineages of large herbivorous mammals: bovids (antelopes), cervids (deer), and macropodids (kangaroos). This pattern can be explained by a model that combines allometry, life-history theory, and energetics. The key features are that female group size increases with increasing body size and that males have evolved under sexual selection to grow large enough...

Data from: Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation and environmental opportunity

Jonathan L. Payne, Alison G. Boyer, James H. Brown, Seth Finnegan, Michal Kowaleski, , S. Kathleen Lyons, Craig R. McClain, Daniel W. McShea, Phillip M. Novack-Gottshall, Felisa A. Smith, Jennifer A. Stempien, Steve C. Wang, D. W. McShea, M. Kowalewski, J. L. Payne, R. A. Krause, S. C. Wang, P. M. Novack-Gottshall, A. G. Boyer, J. H. Brown & F. A. Smith
NOTE: See also http://bodysize.nescent.org. ABSTRACT: The maximum size of organisms has increased enormously since the initial appearance of life >3.5 billion years ago (Gya), but the pattern and timing of this size increase is poorly known. Consequently, controls underlying the size spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of the largest known fossil organisms demonstrates that maximum size increased by 16 orders of magnitude since life first appeared in...

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