218 Works

Microbiomes associated with avian malaria survival differ between susceptible Hawaiian honeycreepers and sympatric malaria-resistant introduced birds

Amanda Navine, Kristina Paxton, Eben Paxton, Patrick Hart, Jeffrey Foster, Nancy McInerney, Robert Fleischer & Elin Videvall
Of the estimated 55 Hawaiian honeycreepers (subfamily Carduelinae) only 17 species remain, 9 of which the International Union for Conservation of Nature considers endangered. Among the most pressing threats to honeycreeper survival is avian malaria, caused by the introduced blood parasite Plasmodium relictum, which is increasing in distribution in Hawai`i as a result of climate change. Preventing further honeycreeper decline will require innovative conservation strategies that confront malaria from multiple angles. Research on mammals revealed...

The bite force-gape relationship as an avenue of biomechanical adaptation to trophic niche in two salmonid fishes

Elska B. Kaczmarek & Nicholas J. Gidmark
All skeletal muscles produce their largest forces at a single optimal length, losing force when stretched or shortened. In vertebrate feeding systems, this fundamental force-length relationship translates to variation in bite force across gape, which affects the food types that can be eaten effectively. We measured the bite force-gape curves of two sympatric species: king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Cranial anatomical measurements are not significantly different between species, however, peak bite...

Data from: The prevalence of MS in the United States: a population-based estimate using health claims data

Mitchell T. Wallin, William J. Culpepper, Jonathan D. Campbell, Lorene M. Nelson, Annette Langer-Gould, Ruth Ann Marrie, Gary R. Cutter, Wendy E. Kaye, Laurie Wagner, Helen Tremlett, Stephen L. Buka, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, Barbara Topol, Lie H. Chen & Nicholas G. LaRocca
Objective: To generate a national multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence estimate for the United States by applying a validated algorithm to multiple administrative health claims (AHC) datasets. Methods: A validated algorithm was applied to private, military, and public AHC datasets to identify adult cases of MS between 2008 and 2010. In each dataset, we determined the 3-year cumulative prevalence overall and stratified by age, sex, and census region. We applied insurance-specific and stratum-specific estimates to the...

Data from: Prediction of forest aboveground net primary production from high-resolution vertical leaf-area profiles

K. C. Cushman & James R. Kellner
Temperature and precipitation explain about half the variation in aboveground net primary production (ANPP) among tropical forest sites, but determinants of remaining variation are poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that the amount of leaf area, and its vertical arrangement, predicts ANPP when other variables are held constant. Using measurements from airborne lidar in a lowland Neotropical rain forest, we quantify vertical leaf-area profiles and develop models of ANPP driven by leaf area and...

Data from: Ecomorphological determinations in the absence of living analogs: the predatory behavior of the marsupial lion (Thylacoleo carnifex) as revealed by elbow-joint morphology

Borja Figueirido, Alberto Martín-Serra & Christine M. Janis
Thylacoleo carnifex, or the "pouched lion" (Mammalia: Marsupialia: Diprotodontia: Thylacoleonidae) was a carnivorous marsupial that inhabited Australia during the Pleistocene. Although today all authors agree that Thylacoleo had a hypercarnivorous diet, the way in which it killed its prey remains uncertain. Here we use geometric morphometrics to capture the shape of the elbow joint (i.e., the posterior articular surface of the distal humerus) in a wide sample of extant mammals of known behavior to determine...

Data from: Targeted approach to identify genetic loci associated with evolved dioxin tolerance in Atlantic Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

Dina A. Proestou, Patrick Flight, Denise Champlin & Diane Nacci
Background: The most toxic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants are categorized as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) to which extreme tolerance has evolved independently and contemporaneously in (at least) four populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Surprisingly, the magnitude and phenotype of DLC tolerance is similar among these killifish populations that have adapted to varied, but highly aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated urban/industrialized estuaries of the US Atlantic coast. Multiple tolerant and neighboring sensitive killifish populations were compared with the expectation that...

Data from: Incompressible fluid plays a mechanical role in the development of passive muscle tension

David A. Sleboda & Thomas J. Roberts
Over short time scales, muscle fibres maintain a nearly constant volume of intracellular fluid. This fluid is essential to normal biochemical function, but its role in determining the mechanical properties of muscle has been considered in only a few theoretical analyses. Here we investigate the mechanical role of fluid in a fundamental property of muscle, its development of passive tension in response to stretch. We test a model of muscle structure in which incompressible fluid...

Data from: Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, T. Mitchell Aide, Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Eben N. Broadbent, Robin L. Chazdon, Dylan Craven, Jarcilene S. De Almeida-Cortez, George A. L. Cabral, Ben H. J. De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan M. Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mario M. Espírito-Santo, María C. Fandino, Ricardo G. César, Jefferson S. Hall, José Luis Hernandez-Stefanoni, Catarina C. Jakovac … & Danaë M. A. Rozendaal
Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle1. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use2, 3, 4. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major...

Data from: Targeting global conservation funding to limit immediate biodiversity declines

Anthony Waldron, Arne O. Mooers, Daniel C. Miller, Nate Nibbelink, David Redding, Tyler S. Kuhn, J. Timmons Roberts & John L. Gittleman
Inadequate funding levels are a major impediment to effective global biodiversity conservation and are likely associated with recent failures to meet United Nations biodiversity targets. Some countries are more severely underfunded than others and therefore represent urgent financial priorities. However, attempts to identify these highly underfunded countries have been hampered for decades by poor and incomplete data on actual spending, coupled with uncertainty and lack of consensus over the relative size of spending gaps. Here,...

Data from: Stimulus discriminability may bias value-based probabilistic learning

Iris Schutte, Heleen A. Slagter, Anne G.E. Collins, Michael J. Frank, J. Leon Kenemans & Anne G. E. Collins
Reinforcement learning tasks are often used to assess participants' tendency to learn more from the positive or more from the negative consequences of one's action. However, this assessment often requires comparison in learning performance across different task conditions, which may differ in the relative salience or discriminability of the stimuli associated with more and less rewarding outcomes, respectively. To address this issue, in a first set of studies, participants were subjected to two versions of...

Data from: The effect of population bottlenecks on mutation rate evolution in asexual populations

Yevgeniy Raynes, Angela L. Halstead & Paul D. Sniegowski
In the absence of recombination, a mutator allele can spread through a population by hitchhiking with beneficial mutations that appear in its genetic background. Theoretical studies over the past decade have shown that the survival and fixation probability of beneficial mutations can be severely reduced by population size bottlenecks. Here, we use computational modelling and evolution experiments with the yeast S. cerevisiae to examine whether population bottlenecks can affect mutator dynamics in adapting asexual populations....

The preservation of cause and effect in the rock record

Daniel Ibarra, Michael D'Antonio & C. Kevin Boyce
Evolutionary events may impact the geological carbon cycle via transient imbalances in silicate weathering, and such events have been implicated as causes of glaciations, mass extinctions, and oceanic anoxia. However, suggested evolutionary causes often substantially predate the environmental effects to which they are linked—problematic when carbon cycle perturbations must be resolved in less than a million years. What is more, the geochemical signatures of such perturbations are recorded as they occur in widely distributed marine...

Code and data for \"Analyzing Collective Motion with Machine Learning and Topology\"

Dhananjay Bhaskar

Spacetimes, A New Vision for Islamic Pasts and Futures

Shahzad Bashir

A Woman’s Voice, A New Vision for Islamic Pasts and Futures

Shahzad Bashir

Reading the Stars, A New Vision for Islamic Pasts and Futures

Shahzad Bashir

Data from: Factors essential for L,D-transpeptidase-mediated peptidoglycan cross-linking and β-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli

Christiane Bouchier, Jean-Emmanuel Hugonnet, Michel Arthur, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Yves Brun, Michael Van Nieuwenhze, Louis B Rice, Alejandro Monton, Tanneke Den Blaauwen, Etienne Carbonnelle, Carole Veckerlé & Kuyek Tu
The target of β-lactam antibiotics is the D,D-transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) for synthesis of 4→3 cross-links in the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. Unusual 3→3 cross-links formed by L,D-transpeptidases were first detected in Escherichia coli more than four decades ago, however no phenotype has previously been associated with their synthesis. Here we show that production of the L,D-transpeptidase YcbB in combination with elevated synthesis of the (p)ppGpp alarmone by RelA lead to full...

Data from: Age‐dependent leaf physiology and consequences for crown‐scale carbon uptake during the dry season in an Amazon evergreen forest

Loren P. Albert, Jin Wu, Neill Prohaska, Plinio Barbosa De Camargo, Travis E. Huxman, Edgard S. Tribuzy, Valeriy Y. Ivanov, Rafael S. Oliveira, Sabrina Garcia, Marielle N. Smith, Raimundo Cosme Oliveira Junior, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Rodrigo Da Silva, Scott C. Stark, Giordane A. Martins, Deliane V. Penha & Scott R. Saleska
* Satellite and tower-based metrics of forest-scale photosynthesis generally increase with dry season progression across central Amazônia, but the underlying mechanisms lack consensus. * We conducted demographic surveys of leaf age composition, and measured age-dependence of leaf physiology in broadleaf canopy trees of abundant species at a central eastern Amazon site. Using a novel leaf-to-branch scaling approach, we used this data to independently test the much-debated hypothesis—arising from satellite and tower-based observations—that leaf phenology could...

Data from: The role of ontogeny in physiological tolerance: decreasing hydrostatic pressure tolerance with development in the northern stone crab Lithodes maja

Catriona Munro, James P. Morris, Alastair Brown, Chris Hauton & Sven Thatje
Extant deep-sea invertebrate fauna represent both ancient and recent invasions from shallow-water habitats. Hydrostatic pressure may present a significant physiological challenge to organisms seeking to colonize deeper waters or migrate ontogenetically. Pressure may be a key factor contributing to bottlenecks in the radiation of taxa and potentially drive speciation. Here, we assess shifts in the tolerance of hydrostatic pressure through early ontogeny of the northern stone crab Lithodes maja, which occupies a depth range of...

Data from: Heterochrony in the evolution of Trinidadian guppy offspring size: maturation along a uniform ontogenetic trajectory

Terry R. Dial, David N. Reznick & Elizabeth L. Brainerd
The size and maturity of Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) offspring vary among populations adapted to environments of differential predation. Guppy offspring born to low-predation, high-competition environments are larger and more mature than their high-predation ancestors. Here we ask: what specific changes in developmental or birth timing occur to produce the larger, more mature neonates? We collected specimens across the perinatal window of development from five populations and quantified musculoskeletal maturation. We found that all populations...

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