216 Works

The Gift of Presence, A New Vision for Islamic Pasts and Futures

Shahzad Bashir

The Premodern Epic, A New Vision for Islamic Pasts and Futures

Shahzad Bashir

A Resurrection, A New Vision for Islamic Pasts and Futures

Shahzad Bashir

Refugee Horizons, A New Vision for Islamic Pasts and Futures

Shahzad Bashir

Epilogue, A New Vision for Islamic Pasts and Futures

Shahzad Bashir

Multiple dimensions of dietary diversity in large mammalian herbivores

Tyler Kartzinel & Robert Pringle
Theory predicts that trophic specialization (i.e., low dietary diversity) should make consumer populations sensitive to environmental disturbances, yet diagnosing specialists is complicated both by the difficulty of precisely quantifying diet composition and by definitional ambiguity—what makes a diet ‘diverse’? We sought to characterize the relationship between taxonomic dietary diversity (TDD) and phylogenetic dietary diversity (PDD) in a species-rich community of large mammalian herbivores in semi-arid East African savanna. We hypothesized that TDD and PDD would...

Depth dependent azimuthal anisotropy beneath the Juan de Fuca plate system

Zachary Eilon & Donald Forsyth
We use surface wave measurements to reveal anisotropy as a function of depth within the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plate system. Using a two-plane wave method, we measure phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, solving for anisotropic shear velocity. These surface wave measurements are jointly inverted with constraints from shear wave splitting studies using a Markov chain approach.

The extensibility of the plantar fascia influences the windlass mechanism during human running

Lauren Welte, Luke Kelly, Sarah Kessler, Daniel Lieberman, Susan D'Andrea, Glen Lichtwark & Michael Rainbow
The arch of the human foot is unique among hominins as it is compliant at ground-contact but sufficiently stiff to enable push-off. These behaviours are partly facilitated by the ligamentous plantar fascia whose role is central to two mechanisms. The ideal windlass mechanism assumes that the plantar fascia has a nearly constant length to directly couple toe dorsiflexion with a change in arch shape. However, the plantar fascia also stretches and then shortens throughout gait...

Data from: Dietary shifts in a group of early Eocene euarchontans (Microsyopidae) in association with climatic change

Keegan Selig, Amy Chew & Mary Silcox
The Microsyopidae, a family of plesiadapiforms known from over 1,500 stratigraphically controlled specimens from the southern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, span the first three million years of the early Eocene. The early Eocene is characterized by rapid fluctuations in climate during the period represented by this collection of microsyopids, making this an ideal sample to examine how climate influenced early stem primate biology, particularly dietary ecology. An evolving lineage of microsyopine microsyopids is known from...

Data from: Mitochondrial–nuclear epistasis affects fitness within species but does not contribute to fixed incompatibilities between species of Drosophila

Kristi L. Montooth, Colin D. Meiklejohn, Dawn N. Abt & David M. Rand
Efficient mitochondrial function requires physical interactions between the proteins encoded by the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Coevolution between these genomes may result in the accumulation of incompatibilities between divergent lineages. We test whether mitochondrial–nuclear incompatibilities have accumulated within the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup by combining divergent mitochondrial and nuclear lineages and quantifying the effects on relative fitness. Precise placement of nine mtDNAs from D. melanogaster, D. simulans, and D. mauritiana into two D. melanogaster nuclear...

Data from: Modeling of kidney hemodynamics: probability-based topology of an arterial network

Dmitry D. Postnov, Donald J. Marsh, Thomas H. Braunstein, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou, Erik A. Martens & Olga Sosnovtseva
Through regulation of the extracellular fluid volume, the kidneys provide important long-term regulation of blood pressure. At the level of the individual functional unit (the nephron), pressure and flow control involves two different mechanisms that both produce oscillations. The nephrons are arranged in a complex branching structure that delivers blood to each nephron and, at the same time, provides a basis for an interaction between adjacent nephrons. The functional consequences of this interaction are not...

Data from: El Niño drives a widespread ulcerative skin disease outbreak in Galapagos marine fishes

Robert W. Lamb, Franz Smith, Anaide W. Aued, Pelayo Salinas-De-León, Jenifer Suarez, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Roxanna Smolowitz, Cem Giray & Jon D. Witman
Climate change increases local climatic variation and unpredictability, which can alter ecological interactions and trigger wildlife disease outbreaks. Here we describe an unprecedented multi-species outbreak of wild fish disease driven by a climate perturbation. The 2015–16 El Niño generated a +2.5 °C sea surface temperature anomaly in the Galapagos Islands lasting six months. This coincided with a novel ulcerative skin disease affecting 18 teleost species from 13 different families. Disease signs included scale loss and...

Data from: Repeated origin of three-dimensional leaf venation releases constraints on the evolution of succulence in plants

R. Matthew Ogburn & Erika J. Edwards
Succulent water storage is a prominent feature among plants adapted to arid zones, but we know little about how succulence evolves and how it is integrated into organs already tasked with multiple functions. Increased volume in succulent leaves, for example, may result in longer transport distances between veins and the cells that they supply, which in turn could negatively impact photosynthesis [1, 2, 3 and 4]. We quantified water storage [5] in a group of...

Data from: Diet reveals links between morphology and foraging in a cryptic temperate reef fish

Natalia S. Winkler, Maite Paz-Goicoechea, Robert W. Lamb & Alejandro Pérez-Matus
Predators select prey so as to maximize energy and minimize manipulation time. In order to reduce prey detection and handling time, individuals must actively select their foraging space (microhabitat) and populations exhibit morphologies that are best suited for capturing locally available prey. We explored how variation in diet correlates with habitat type, and how these factors influence key morphological structures (mouth gape, eye diameter, fin length, fin area, and pectoral fin ratio) in a common...

Data from: Sneeze to leave: African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) use variable quorum thresholds facilitated by sneezes in collective decisions.

Reena H. Walker, Andrew J. King, John Weldon McNutt & Neil R. Jordan
In despotically driven animal societies, one or a few individuals tend to have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making and actions. However, global communication allows each group member to assess the relative strength of preferences for different options amongst their group-mates. Here, we investigate collective decisions by free-ranging African wild dog packs in Botswana. African wild dogs exhibit dominant-directed group living and take part in stereotyped social rallies: high energy greeting ceremonies that occur before...

Data from: Morphological and functional maturity of the oral jaws covary with offspring size in Trinidadian guppies

Terry R. Dial, Luz Patricia Hernandez & Elizabeth L. Brainerd
Large size of individual offspring is routinely selected for in highly competitive environments, such as in low-predation populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Large guppy offspring outcompete their smaller conspecifics, but the functional mechanisms underlying this advantage are unknown. We measured jaw kinematics during benthic feeding and cranial musculoskeletal morphologies in neonates and juveniles from five populations of Trinidadian guppy and found that both kinematics and morphologies vary substantially with neonatal size. Rotation at...

Data from: A chloroplast tree for Viburnum (Adoxaceae) and its implications for phylogenetic classification and character evolution

Wendy C. Clement, Mónica Arakaki, Patrick W. Sweeney, Erika J. Edwards & Michael J. Donoghue
Premise of the study: Despite recent progress, significant uncertainties remain concerning relationships among early-branching lineages within Viburnum (Adoxaceae). This has prohibited a new classification, and has hindered studies of character evolution and the increasing use of Viburnum in addressing a wide range of ecological and evolutionary questions. We hoped to resolve these issues by sequencing whole plastid genomes for representative species and combining these with molecular data previously obtained from an expanded taxon sample. Methods:...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: Adaptive evolution of C4 photosynthesis through recurrent lateral gene transfer

Pascal-Antoine Christin, Erika J. Edwards, Guillaume Besnard, Susanna F. Boxall, Richard Gregory, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Colin P. Osborne & James Hartwell
C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait that confers higher productivity under warm and arid conditions. It has evolved more than 60 times via the co-option of genes present in C3 ancestors followed by alteration of the patterns and levels of expression, and adaptive changes in the coding sequences, but the evolutionary path to C4 photosynthesis is still poorly understood. The grass lineage Alloteropsis offers unparalleled opportunities for studying C4 evolution, because it includes a C3...

Data from: Falling with style: bats perform complex aerial rotations by adjusting wing inertia

Attila J. Bergou, Sharon M. Swartz, Hamid Vejdani, Daniel K. Riskin, Lauren Reimnitz, Gabriel Taubin & Kenneth S. Breuer
The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Bats have evolved an impressive capacity to control their flight, in large part due to their ability to modulate wing shape, area, and angle of attack through many independently controlled joints. Bat wings, however, also contain many bones and relatively large muscles, and thus the ratio of bats’ wing mass to their body mass is larger than it is for...

Data from: Do latex and resin canals spur plant diversification? re-examining a classic example of escape and radiate coevolution

Michael R. Foisy, Loren P. Albert, Daniel W.W. Hughes & Marjorie G. Weber
(1) The association between increased lineage diversification rates and the evolution of latex and resin canals is widely cited as a paradigmatic example of Ehrlich and Raven’s “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis of coevolution. However, it has been over a quarter-century since the original study, and updates to phylogenetic comparative methods, plant molecular systematics, and phenotypic data warrant a reassessment of this classic finding. (2) We gathered data on latex and resin canals across over 300 families and...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses of Echinodermata support the sister groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa

Adrian Reich, Casey Dunn, Koji Akasaka & Gary Wessel
Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses support traditional relationships within Cnidaria

Felipe Zapata, Freya E. Goetz, Stephen A. Smith, Mark Howison, Stefan Siebert, Samuel H. Church, Steven M. Sanders, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Catherine S. McFadden, Scott C. France, Marymegan Daly, Allen G. Collins, Steven H. D. Haddock, Casey W. Dunn & Paulyn Cartwright
Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is the most diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses...

Wikidata and Gender Equity in Publishing

Jere Odell, Mairelys Lemus-Rojas & Lucille Brys

Registration Year

  • 2022
  • 2021
  • 2020
  • 2019
  • 2018
  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2015
  • 2014
  • 2013

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text
  • Book Chapter
  • Book
  • Journal Article
  • Data Paper
  • Peer Review


  • Brown University
  • Yale University
  • Princeton University
  • Cornell University
  • Columbia University
  • Duke University
  • Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis
  • Stanford University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of Zurich