212 Works

Data from: Notch and Nodal control expression of a forkhead factor in the specification network of a multipotent progenitor population in sea urchin

Stefan C. Materna, S. Zachary Swartz & Joel Smith
Indirect development, where embryogenesis gives rise to a larval form, requires that some cells retain developmental potency until they contribute to the different tissues in the adult, including the germ line, in a later, post-embryonic phase. In sea urchins, the coelomic pouches are the major contributor to the adult but how coelomic pouch cells (CPCs) are specified during embryogenesis is unknown. We here identify the key signaling inputs into the CPC specification network and show...

Data from: Leaf lifespan and the leaf economic spectrum in the context of whole plant architecture

Erika J. Edwards, David S. Chatelet, Lawren Sack & Michael J. Donoghue
1. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) has been an organizing framework of plant functional ecology for the past decade. The LES describes a set of trade-offs among traits related to plant carbon balance. Species with a long leaf lifespan (LLS) invest additional material for leaf protection and structural support, and consequently tend to have a lower leaf photosynthetic rate per unit mass than species with a shorter LLS. 2. While the LES is most apparent...

Data from: Large-scale patterns of benthic marine communities in the Brazilian Province

Anaide Wrublevski Aued, Franz Smith, Juan Pablo Quimbayo, Davi V. Cândido, Guilherme O. Longo, Carlos E. L. Ferreira, Jon D. Witman, Sergio R. Floeter & Bárbara Segal
As marine ecosystems are influenced by global and regional processes, standardized information on community structure has become crucial for assessing broad-scale responses to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Extensive biogeographic provinces, such as the Brazilian Province in the southwest Atlantic, present numerous theoretical and methodological challenges for understanding community patterns on a macroecological scale. In particular, the Brazilian Province is composed of a complex system of heterogeneous reefs and a few offshore islands, with contrasting histories...

Data from: Trait integration and macroevolutionary patterns in the pollination biology of conifers

Andrew B. Leslie, Jeremy Michael Beaulieu, Peter R. Crane, Patrick Knopf & Michael J. Donoghue
Integration influences patterns of trait evolution, but the relationship between these patterns and the degree of trait integration is not well understood. In order to explore this further, we study a specialized pollination mechanism in conifers whose traits are linked through function but not development. This mechanism depends on interactions among three characters: pollen that is buoyant, ovules that face downward at pollination, and the production of a liquid droplet that buoyant grains float through...

Data from: Temperate radiations and dying embers of a tropical past: the diversification of Viburnum

Elizabeth L. Spriggs, Wendy L. Clement, Patrick W. Sweeney, Santiago Madriñán, Erika J. Edwards & Michael J. Donoghue
We used a near-complete phylogeny for the angiosperm clade Viburnum to assess lineage diversification rates, and to examine possible morphological and ecological factors driving radiations. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian approaches identified shifts in diversification rate and possible links to character evolution. We inferred the ancestral environment for Viburnum and changes in diversification dynamics associated with subsequent biome shifts. Viburnum probably diversified in tropical forests of Southeast Asia in the Eocene, with three subsequent radiations in temperate...

Data from: Decoupled diversification dynamics of feeding morphology following a major functional innovation in marine butterflyfishes

Nicolai Konow, Samantha Price, Rickard Abom, David Bellwood, Peter Wainwright & Richard Abom
The diversity of fishes on coral reefs is influenced by the evolution of feeding innovations. For instance, the evolution of an intramandibular jaw joint has aided shifts to corallivory in Chaetodon butterflyfishes following their Miocene colonization of coral reefs. Today, over half of all Chaetodon species consume coral, easily the largest concentration of corallivores in any reef fish family. In contrast with Chaetodon, other chaetodontids, including the long-jawed bannerfishes, remain less intimately associated with coral...

Data from: Catecholaminergic regulation of learning rate in a dynamic environment

Marieke Jepma, Peter R. Murphy, Matthew R. Nassar, Mauricio Rangel-Gomez, Martijn Meeter & Sander Nieuwenhuis
Adaptive behavior in a changing world requires flexibly adapting one’s rate of learning to the rate of environmental change. Recent studies have examined the computational mechanisms by which various environmental factors determine the impact of new outcomes on existing beliefs (i.e., the ‘learning rate’). However, the brain mechanisms, and in particular the neuromodulators, involved in this process are still largely unknown. The brain-wide neurophysiological effects of the catecholamines norepinephrine and dopamine on stimulus-evoked cortical responses...

Data from: Intraspecific variation in seed dispersal of a Neotropical tree and its relationship to fruit and tree traits

Carol K. Augspurger, Susan E. Franson, Katherine C. Cushman & Helene C. Muller-Landau
The distribution of wind-dispersed seeds around a parent tree depends on diaspore and tree traits, as well as wind conditions and surrounding vegetation. This study of a neotropical canopy tree, Platypodium elegans, explored the extent to which parental variation in diaspore and tree traits explained (1) rate of diaspore descent in still air, (2) distributions of diaspores dispersed from a 40-m tower in the forest, and (3) natural diaspore distributions around the parent tree. The...

Wikidata and Gender Equity in Publishing

Jere Odell, Mairelys Lemus-Rojas & Lucille Brys

Data from: A map of local adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Alexandre Fournier-Level, Arthur Korte, Martha D. Cooper, Magnus Nordborg, Johanna Schmitt & Amity M. Wilczek
Local adaptation is critical for species persistence in the face of rapid environmental change, but its genetic basis is not well understood. We identified candidate loci for local adaptation in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana from a genome-wide association study of lifetime fitness in geographically diverse accessions grown in field experiments in four sites across the species’ native range. Fitness-associated loci exhibited both geographic and climatic signatures of local adaptation. High-fitness alleles were generally distributed closer...

Data from: Understanding angiosperm diversification using small and large phylogenetic trees

Stephen A. Smith, Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Alexandros Stamatakis, Michael J. Donoghue, J. M. Beaulieu, M. J. Donoghue, S. A. Smith & A. Stamatakis
How will the emerging possibility of inferring ultra-large phylogenies influence our ability to identify shifts in diversification rate? For several large angiosperm clades (Angiospermae, Monocotyledonae, Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Eudicotyledonae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae), we explore this issue by contrasting two approaches: (1) using small backbone trees with an inferred number of extant species assigned to each terminal clade and (2) using a mega-phylogeny of 55473 seed plant species represented in GenBank. The mega-phylogeny approach assumes that the...

Data from: Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools

Stephen A. Smith, Casey W. Dunn, Nerida G. Wilson, Freya E. Goetz, Caitlin Feehery, Sónia C. S. Andrade, Greg W. Rouse & Gonzalo Giribet
Molluscs (snails, octopuses, clams, and relatives) have great body plan disparity, and among animals only arthropods surpass them in species number. This diversity has made Mollusca one of the best-studied groups of animals, yet their evolutionary relationships remain poorly resolved. Open questions have important implications for the origin of Mollusca and morphological evolution within the group. These include whether the shell-less vermiform aplacophoran molluscs diverged prior to the origin of the shelled molluscs (Conchifera), or...

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