23 Works

Clinging ability is related to particular aspects of foot morphology in salamanders

Erica Baken & Mary Kate O'Donnell
The interaction between morphology, performance, and ecology has long been studied in order to explain variation in the natural world. Within arboreal salamanders, diversification in foot morphology and microhabitat use are thought to be linked by the impact of foot size and shape on clinging and climbing performance, resulting in an ability to access new habitats. We examine whether various foot shape metrics correlate with stationary cling performance and microhabitat to explicitly quantify this performance...

Social and abiotic factors differentially affect plumage ornamentation of young and old males in an Australian songbird

Joseph F. Welklin, Samantha M. Lantz, Sarah Khalil, Nicole M. Moody, Jordan Karubian & Michael S. Webster
Both abiotic environmental conditions and variation in social environment are known to impact the acquisition of sexual signals. However, the influences of abiotic environmental and social factors are rarely compared to each other. Here we test the relative importance of these factors in determining whether and when male red-backed fairywrens (Malurus melanocephalus) moult into a known sexual signal, ornamented breeding plumage. One-year-old male red-backed fairywrens vary in whether or not they acquire ornamentation, whereas males...

Canopy height distributions and estimated above-ground biomass across a tropical rain forest landscape in Costa Rica, 1992-2018

David Clark, Deborah Clark & James Kellner
This publication presents four related data sets that describe canopy height distributions and estimated above-ground biomass across an old-growth tropical rain forest landscape at the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, from 1992 – 2018. One data set contains measured forest heights that were taken annually from 1999-2018 at 231 points per plot in 18 0.50 ha forest inventory plots (9 plots in 1999, 18 thereafter). The second data set contains data from an annual...

Ecological and behavioral mechanisms of density-dependent habitat expansion in a recovering African ungulate population

Justine A. Becker, Matthew Hutchinson, Arjun Potter, Shinkyu Park, Jennifer Guyton, Kyler Abernathy, Victor Americo, Ana Gledis Da Conceiçāo, Tyler Kartzinel, Luca Kuziel, Naomi Leonard, Eli Lorenzi, Nuno Martins, Johan Pansu, William Scott, Maria Stahl, Kai Torrens, Marc Stalmans, Ryan Long & Robert Pringle
Major disturbances can temporarily remove factors that otherwise constrain population abundance and distribution. During such windows of relaxed top-down and/or bottom-up control, ungulate populations can grow rapidly, eventually leading to resource depletion and density-dependent expansion into less-preferred habitats. Although many studies have explored the demographic outcomes and ecological impacts of these processes, fewer have examined the individual-level mechanisms by which they occur. We investigated these mechanisms in Gorongosa National Park, where the Mozambican Civil War...

Data from: Activation of autophagy during normothermic machine perfusion of discarded livers is associated with improved hepatocellular function

Anders Ohman, Siavash Raigani, John Santiago, Megan Heaney, Joan Boylan, Nicola Parry, Cailah Carroll, Sofia Baptista, Korkut Uygun, Phillip Gruppuso, Jennifer Sanders & Heidi Yeh
Liver transplantation is hampered by a severe shortage of donor organs. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) of donor livers allows dynamic preservation in addition to viability assessment prior to transplantation. Little is known about the injury and repair mechanisms induced during NMP. To investigate these mechanisms, we examined gene and protein expression changes in a cohort of discarded human livers, stratified by hepatocellular function, during NMP. Six human livers acquired through donation after circulatory death (DCD)...

A common endocrine signature marks convergent evolution of an elaborate dance display in frogs

Nigel K. Anderson
Unrelated species often evolve similar phenotypic solutions to the same environmental problem, a phenomenon known as convergent evolution. But, how do these ‘common traits’ arise? We address this question from a physiological perspective by assessing how convergence of an elaborate gestural display in frogs (“foot flagging”) is linked to changes in the androgenic hormone systems that underlie it. We show that the emergence of this rare display in unrelated anuran taxa is marked by a...

Data for: Analogous computations in working memory input, output and motor gating: Electrophysiological and computational modeling evidence

Rachel Ratz-Lubashevsky & Michael Frank
Adaptive cognitive-control involves a hierarchical cortico-striatal gating system that supports selective updating, maintenance, and retrieval of useful cognitive and motor information. Here, we developed a task that independently manipulates selective gating operations into working-memory (input gating), from working-memory (output gating), and of responses (motor gating) and tested the neural dynamics and computational principles that support them. Increases in gating demands, captured by gate switches, were expressed by distinct EEG correlates at each gating level that...

Ecological consequences of large herbivore exclusion in an African savanna: 12 years of data from the UHURU experiment

Jesse Alston, Courtney Reed, Leo Khasoha, Bianca Brown, Gilbert Busienei, Nathaniel Carlson, Tyler Coverdale, Megan Dudenhoeffer, Marissa Dyck, John Ekeno, Abdikadir Hassan, Rhianna Hohbein, Rhiannon Jakopak, Buas Kimiti, Samson Kurukura, Peter Lokeny, Allison Louthan, Simon Musila, Paul Musili, Tosca Tindall, Sarah Weiner, Tyler Kartzinel, Todd Palmer, Robert Pringle & Jacob Goheen
Diverse communities of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), once widespread, are now rare. LMH exert strong direct and indirect effects on community structure and ecosystem functions, and measuring these effects is important for testing ecological theory and for understanding past, current, and future environmental change. This in turn requires long-term experimental manipulations, owing to the slow and often nonlinear responses of populations and assemblages to LMH removal. Moreover, the effects of particular species or body-size classes...

For a Ghoul Time, Call: Telephonic Terror at the Boundary of Narrative and Information in BBC Ghostwatch

Rose Rowson
This article revisits controversial BBC television film Ghostwatch (1992), a seasonal feature-length television special about a family plagued by a poltergeist and the television crew has entered their home hoping to capture ghostly phenomena on camera. Fictional, scripted, and filmed in its entirety prior to airing, Ghostwatch follows the formal conventions of live, factual television: well-known British media personalities host from the studio and on location, interviewing experts on the paranormal, and periodically inviting the...

Mitochondria as environments for the nuclear genome in Drosophila: Mitonuclear GxGxE

David Rand, Jim Mossman, Adam Spierer & John Santiago
Mitochondria evolved from a union of microbial cells belonging to distinct lineages that were likely anaerobic. The evolution of eukaryotes required a massive reorganization of the two genomes and eventual adaptation to aerobic environments. The nutrients and oxygen that sustain eukaryotic metabolism today are processed in mitochondria through coordinated expression of 37 mitochondrial genes and over 1000 nuclear genes. This puts mitochondria at the nexus of gene-by-gene (GxG) and gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions that sustain life....

An invasive species erodes the performance of coastal wetland protected areas

Junlin Ren, Jianshe Chen, Changlin Xu, Johan Van De Koppel, Mads Thomsen, Shi-Yun Qiu, Fangyan Cheng, Wanjuan Song, Quan-Xing Liu, Chi Xu, Junhong Bai, Yihui Zhang, Baoshan Cui, Mark Bertness, Brian Silliman, Bo Li & Qiang He
The world has increasingly relied upon protected areas (PAs) to rescue highly valued ecosystems from human activities, but whether PAs will fare well with bioinvasions remains unknown. By analyzing three decades of seven largest coastal PAs in China, including multiple World Natural Heritage and/or Wetlands of International Importance sites, we show that although PAs are achieving success in rescuing iconic wetlands and critical shorebird habitats from once widespread reclamation, this success is counteracted by escalating...

Diarrhea etiology prediction validation dataset - Bangladesh and Mali

Daniel Leung, Ben Brintz & Stephanie Garbern
Background: Diarrheal illness is a leading cause of antibiotic use for children in low- and middle-income countries. Determination of diarrhea etiology at the point-of-care without reliance on laboratory testing has the potential to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use. Methods: This prospective observational study aimed to develop and externally validate the accuracy of a mobile software application (“App”) for the prediction of viral-only etiology of acute diarrhea in children 0-59 months in Bangladesh and Mali. The App...

Large herbivores suppress liana infestation in an African savanna

Tyler C. Coverdale, Ryan D. O'Connell, Matthew C. Hutchinson, Amanda Savagian, Tyler R. Kartzinel, Todd M. Palmer, Jacob R. Goheen, David J. Augustine, Mahesh Sankaran, Corina E. Tarnita & Robert M. Pringle
African savannas are the last stronghold of diverse large-mammal communities, and a major focus of savanna ecology is to understand how these animals affect the relative abundance of trees and grasses. However, savannas support diverse plant life-forms, and human-induced changes in large-herbivore assemblages—declining wildlife populations and their displacement by livestock—may cause unexpected shifts in plant community composition. We investigated how herbivory affects the prevalence of lianas (woody vines) and their impact on trees in an...

Evaluating alternative study designs for optimal sampling of species’ climatic niches

Daniel Perret & Dov Sax
Ecologists have traditionally studied intraspecific variation by sampling species across their geographic ranges. However, whether this classic approach produces samples that accurately represent species’ climatic niches is largely unknown. Alternative, niche-based study designs using species’ climatic niches to inform sampling locations should more efficiently and completely capture the breadth of the niche, but the magnitude of this difference and how it may vary is unclear. Here we use conifers as a model system to explore...

Testosterone amplifies the negative valence of an agonistic gestural display by exploiting receiver perceptual bias

Nigel K. Anderson, Martina Grabner, Lisa A. Mangiamele, Doris Preininger & Matthew J. Fuxjager
Many animals communicate by performing elaborate displays that are incredibly extravagant and wildly bizarre. So, how do these displays evolve? One idea is that innate sensory biases arbitrarily favor the emergence of certain display traits over others, leading to the design of an unusual display. Here, we study how physiological factors associated with signal production influence this process, a topic that has received almost no attention. We focus on a tropical frog, whose males compete...

Preface: SCiL 2021 Editors' Note

Allyson Ettinger, Ellie Pavlich & Brandon Prickett

Relaxed feeding constraints facilitate the evolution of mouthbrooding in Neotropical cichlids

Hannah Weller, Hernán López-Fernández, Caleb McMahan & Elizabeth Brainerd
Multifunctionality is often framed as a core constraint of phenotypic evolution. Mouthbrooding, a form of parental care where offspring develop inside a parent’s mouth, increases multifunctionality by adding a major function (reproduction) to a structure already serving other vital functions (feeding and respiration). Despite increasing multifunctionality, mouthbrooding has evolved repeatedly from other forms of parental care in at least 7 fish families. We hypothesized that mouthbrooding is more likely to evolve in lineages with feeding...

The precautionary principle and dietary DNA metabarcoding: commonly used abundance thresholds change ecological interpretation

Bethan Littleford-Colquhoun, Patrick Freeman, Violet Sackett, Camille Tulloss, Lauren McGarvey, Chris Geremia & Tyler Kartzinel
Dietary DNA metabarcoding enables researchers to identify and characterize trophic interactions with a high degree of taxonomic precision. It is also sensitive to sources of bias and contamination in the field and lab. One of the earliest and most common strategies for dealing with such sensitivities has been to filter resulting sequence data to remove low-abundance sequences before conducting ecological analyses based on the presence or absence of food taxa. Although this step is now...

Data For: The developing bird pelvis passes through ancestral Archosaurian and Dinosaurian conditions

Christopher Griffin, João Botelho, Michael Hanson, Matteo Fabbri, Daniel Smith-Paredes, Ryan Carney, Mark Norell, Shiro Egawa, Stephen Gatesy, Timothy Rowe, Ruth Elsey, Sterling Nesbitt & Bhart-Anjan Bhullar
Living birds (Aves) have bodies dramatically modified from the ancestral reptilian condition. The avian pelvis in particular experienced dramatic changes during the transition from early archosaurs to living birds. This stepwise transformation is well documented by an excellent fossil record; however, the ontogenetic alterations that underly it are less well-understood. We used embryological imaging techniques to examine the morphogenesis of avian pelvic tissues in three dimensions, allowing direct comparison with the fossil record. Many ancestral...

Life history and environment predict variation in testosterone across vertebrates

Jerry Husak, Matthew Fuxjager, Michele A. Johnson, Maren Vitousek, Jeremy Donald, Clinton David Francis, Wolfgang Goymann, Michaela Hau, Bonnie Kircher, Rosemary Knapp, Lynn B. Martin, Eliot Miller, Laura Schoenle & Tony Williams
Endocrine systems act as key intermediaries between organisms and their environments. This interaction leads to high variability in hormone levels, but we know little about the ecological factors that influence this variation within and across major vertebrate groups. We study this topic by assessing how various social and environmental dynamics influence testosterone levels across the entire vertebrate tree of life. Our analyses show that breeding season length and mating system are the strongest predictors of...

Data from: Passive skeletal muscle can function as an osmotic engine

Ethan Wold, David Sleboda & Thomas Roberts
Muscles are composite structures. The protein filaments responsible for force production are bundled within fluid-filled cells, and these cells are wrapped in ordered sleeves of fibrous collagen. Recent models suggest that the mechanical interaction between intracellular fluid and extracellular collagen is essential to force production in passive skeletal muscle, ultimately allowing the material stiffness of extracellular collagen to contribute to passive muscle force at physiologically relevant muscle lengths. Such models lead to the prediction, tested...

Supplement to: Sex and race differences in the risk of ischemic stroke associated with fasting blood glucose in REGARDS

Tracy Madsen, D. Leann Long, April P. Carson, George Howard, Dawn O. Kleindorfer, Karen L. Furie, JoAnn E. Manson, Simin Liu & Virginia J. Howard
Background: To investigate sex and race differences in the association between fasting blood glucose (FBG) and risk of ischemic stroke (IS). Methods: This prospective longitudinal cohort study included adults age ≥45 years at baseline in the Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke Study, followed for a median of 11.4 years. The exposure was baseline FBG (mg/dL); suspected IS events were ascertained by phone every 6 months and were physician-adjudicated. Cox proportional hazards were...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text
  • Journal Article


  • Brown University
  • Cornell University
  • Princeton University
  • University of Wyoming
  • University of Florida
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Duke University
  • University of South Florida
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • California Polytechnic State University