96 Works

Data from: A longitudinal genetic survey identifies temporal shifts in the population structure of Dutch house sparrows

Laurence Cousseau, Martin Husemann, Ruud Foppen, Carl Vangestel & Luc Lens
Dutch house sparrow (Passer domesticus) densities dropped by nearly 50% since the early 1980s, and similar collapses in population sizes have been reported across Europe. Whether, and to what extent, such relatively recent demographic changes are accompanied by concomitant shifts in the genetic population structure of this species needs further investigation. Therefore, we here explore temporal shifts in genetic diversity, genetic structure and effective sizes of seven Dutch house sparrow populations. To allow the most...

Data from: Fungal disease incidence along tree diversity gradients depends on latitude in European forests

Diem Nguyen, Bastien Castagneyrol, Helge Bruelheide, Filippo Bussotti, Virginie Guyot, Hervé Jactel, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Fernando Valladares, Jan Stenlid & Johanna Boberg
European forests host a diversity of tree species that are increasingly threatened by fungal pathogens, which may have cascading consequences for forest ecosystems and their functioning. Previous experimental studies suggest that foliar and root pathogen abundance and disease severity decrease with increasing tree species diversity, but evidences from natural forests are rare. Here, we tested whether foliar fungal disease incidence was negatively affected by tree species diversity in different forest types across Europe. We measured...

Data from: Estimating parent-specific QTL effects through cumulating linked identity-by-state SNP effects in multiparental populations

Andreas Maurer, Wiebke Sannemann, Jens Léon & Klaus Pillen
The emergence of multiparental mapping populations enabled plant geneticists to gain deeper insights into the genetic architecture of major agronomic traits and to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the expression of these traits. Although the investigated mapping populations are similar, one open question is whether genotype data should be modelled as identical by state (IBS) or identical by descent (IBD). Whereas IBS simply makes use of raw genotype scores to distinguish alleles, IBD data...

Data from: Multi-trophic guilds respond differently to changing elevation in a subtropical forest

Julia Binkenstein, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Thorsten Assmann, Francois Buscot, Alexandra Erfmeier, Keping Ma, Katherina A. Pietsch, Karsten Schmidt, Thomas Scholten, Tesfaye Wubet, Helge Bruelheide, Andreas Schuldt & Michael Staab
Negative relationships between species richness and elevation are common and attributed to changes in single environmental properties associated to elevation, such as temperature and habitat area. However, research has lacked taxonomic breadth and comprehensive elevation studies that consider multiple groups from different trophic levels are rare. We thus analysed 24 groups of plants, arthropods, and microorganisms grouped into six trophic guilds (predators, detritivores, herbivores, plants, bacteria and fungi) along a relatively short elevational gradient (~600...

Data from: Tree species richness increases ecosystem carbon storage in subtropical forests

Xiaojuan Liu, Stefan Trogisch, Jin-Sheng He, Pascal A. Niklaus, Helge Bruelheide, Zhiyao Tang, Alexandra Erfmeier, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Katherina A. Pietsch, Bo Yang, Peter Kühn, Thomas Scholten, Yuanyuan Huang, Chao Wang, Michael Staab, Katrin N. Leppert, Christian Wirth, Bernhard Schmid & Keping Ma
Forest ecosystems are an integral component of the global carbon cycle as they take up and release large amounts of C in short time (C flux) or accumulate it over longer time (C stock). However, there remains uncertainty about whether and in which direction C fluxes and in particular C stocks may differ between forests of high vs. low species richness. Based on a comprehensive dataset derived from field-based measurements, we tested the effect of...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains plant community responses to herbivory and fertilization

Dorothee Hodapp, Elizabeth T. Borer, W. Stanley Harpole, Eric M. Lind, Eric W. Seabloom, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, Carlos A. Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Marc Cadotte, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott Collins, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Oscar Iribarne, Johannes M.H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Kimberly J. La Pierre … & Johannes M. H. Knops
Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta-diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major...

Data from: Pollinator dependence but no pollen limitation for eight plants occurring north of the Arctic Circle

Viviane Koch, Leana Zoller, Joanne M. Bennett & Tiffany M. Knight
Intact interactions between plants and pollinators are essential for the reproduction of pollinator-dependent plant species. Global change factors, such as climate change, have the potential to disrupt these interactions and subsequently impair pollination service. This disruption can result in insufficient pollen receipt for plants and lower their reproduction success. High latitude sites experience particularly rapid climate change and plants at these locations are expected to be vulnerable to lower reproductive success due to pollen limitation....

The mark of captivity: plastic responses in the ankle bone of a wild ungulate (Sus scrofa)

Thomas CUCCHI, Hugo Harbers, Dimitri Neaux, Katia Ortiz, Flavie Laurens, Isabelle Baly, Cécile Callou, Renate Schafberg, Ashleigh Haruda, François Lecompte, Jacqueline Studer, Sabrina Renaud, Yann Locatelli, Jean-Denis Vigne & Anthony Herrel
Deciphering the plastic (non-heritable) changes induced by human control over wild animals in the archaeological record is challenging. We hypothesized that changes in locomotor behaviour in a wild ungulate due to mobility control could be quantified in the bone anatomy. To test this, we experimented the effect of mobility reduction on the skeleton of wild boar (Sus scrofa), using the calcaneus shape as a possible phenotypic marker. We first assessed differences in shape variation and...

Data from: A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland

Lorna Cole, David Kleijn, Lynn Dicks, Jane Stout, Simon Potts, Matthias Albrecht, Mario Balzan, Ignasi Bartomeus, Penelope Bebeli, Danilo Bevk, Jacobus Biesmeijer, Róbert Chlebo, Anželika Dautartė, Nikolaos Emmanouil, Chris Hartfield, John Holland, Andrea Holzschuh, Nieke Knoben, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Yael Mandelik, Heleni Panou, Robert Paxton, Theodora Petanidou, Miguel Pinheiro De Carvalho, … & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural intensification and associated loss of high-quality habitats are key drivers of insect pollinator declines. With the aim of decreasing the environmental impact of agriculture, the 2014 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined a set of habitat and landscape features (Ecological Focus Areas: EFAs) farmers could select from as a requirement to receive basic farm payments. To inform the post-2020 CAP, we performed a European-scale evaluation to determine how different EFA options vary in...

Gender in die Hochschullehre : Das Projekt gender*bildet der MLU Halle-Wittenberg

Lena Eckert & Dayana Lau
Seit einigen Jahren werden verstärkt Projekte und Programme zur Verankerung von Gender Studies in der Hochschullehre eingerichtet. Eines von ihnen ist das Projekt gender*bildet, das es seit Juni 2018 an der MLU Halle-Wittenberg gibt. Das Projekt bietet Weiterbildungen für Lehrende zu gender- und diversitätsreflektierender Hochschuldidaktik sowie ein Zertifikat in Gender Studies an und fördert die Verankerung von Gender und Queer Studies in den Fachdisziplinen.

Data from: Effect of epistasis and environment on flowering time of barley reveals novel flowering-delaying QTL allele

Nazanin Pesaran Afsharyan, Wiebke Sannemann, Jens Léon & Agim Ballvora
Flowering time is a complex trait and has key role in crop yield and adaptation to environmental stressors such as heat and drought. The aim of this study was to better understand interconnected dynamic of epistasis and environment and look for novel regulators. For this purpose we investigated 534 spring barley MAGIC DH lines for flowering time at various environments. Analysis of QTL, epistatic interaction, QTL × environment (Q×E) and epistasis × environment (E×E) interactions...

Table S5: Occupancy change observations in bog species in the Black Forest (Germany) across all sites from 1972-2019

Helge Bruelheide & Thomas Sperle
Aim: Bogs and transition mires in Central Europe have undergone tremendous changes in the last decades, declining in spatial extent and favorable conservation status. However, species extinctions have been documented only rarely because of a lack of reliable floristic data. Here, we assessed species losses of bog complexes and analyzed their potential drivers. Location: Black Forest, Germany. Methods: We made use of the unique situation that the majority of bogs in the Black Forest (124...

Transcriptomic signatures of ageing vary in solitary and social forms of an orchid bee

Alice Séguret, Eckart Stolle, Fernando Fleites-Ayil, Javier Quezada-Euán, Klaus Hartfelder, Karen Meusemann, Mark Harrison, Antonella Soro & Robert Paxton
Eusocial insect queens are remarkable in their ability to maximise both fecundity and longevity, thus escaping the typical trade-off between these two traits. Several mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the remoulding of the trade-off, such as reshaping of the juvenile hormone pathway, or caste-specific susceptibility to oxidative stress. However, it remains a challenge to disentangle the molecular mechanisms underlying the remoulding of the trade-off in eusocial insects from caste-specific physiological attributes that have subsequently...

Pacific Introduced Flora (PacIFLora)

Michael Wohlwend, Dylan Craven, Patrick Weigelt, Hanno Seebens, Marten Winter, Holger Kreft, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Mark Van Kleunen, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, James Space, Philip Thomas & Tiffany Knight
The Pacific region has the highest density of naturalized plant species worldwide, which makes it an important area for research on the ecology, evolution and biogeography of biological invasions. While different data sources on naturalized plant species exist for the Pacific, there is no taxonomically and spatially harmonized database available for different subsets of species and islands. A comprehensive, accessible database containing the distribution of naturalized vascular plant species in the Pacific will enable new...

Inhaled mosliciguat (BAY 1237592): targeting pulmonary vasculature via activating apo-sGC

Eva M. Becker-Pelster, Michael G. Hahn, Martina Delbeck, Lisa Dietz, Jörg Hüser, Johannes Kopf, Thomas Kraemer, Tobias Marquardt, Thomas Mondritzki, Johannes Nagelschmitz, Sylvia M. Nikkho, Philippe V. Pires, Hanna Tinel, Gerrit Weimann, Frank Wunder, Peter Sandner, Joachim Schuhmacher, Johannes-Peter Stasch & Hubert K. F. Truebel
Abstract Background Oxidative stress associated with severe cardiopulmonary diseases leads to impairment in the nitric oxide/soluble guanylate cyclase signaling pathway, shifting native soluble guanylate cyclase toward heme-free apo-soluble guanylate cyclase. Here we describe a new inhaled soluble guanylate cyclase activator to target apo-soluble guanylate cyclase and outline its therapeutic potential. Methods We aimed to generate a novel soluble guanylate cyclase activator, specifically designed for local inhaled application in the lung. We report the discovery and...

Additional file 1 of Inhaled mosliciguat (BAY 1237592): targeting pulmonary vasculature via activating apo-sGC

Eva M. Becker-Pelster, Michael G. Hahn, Martina Delbeck, Lisa Dietz, Jörg Hüser, Johannes Kopf, Thomas Kraemer, Tobias Marquardt, Thomas Mondritzki, Johannes Nagelschmitz, Sylvia M. Nikkho, Philippe V. Pires, Hanna Tinel, Gerrit Weimann, Frank Wunder, Peter Sandner, Joachim Schuhmacher, Johannes-Peter Stasch & Hubert K. F. Truebel
Additional file 1: Fig. S1. Treatment scheme of inhaled and systemic administered mosliciguat and of vehicle treatment in the minipig model. Each animal underwent eight unilateral ventilation cycles and animals were divided into two groups.

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

Data from: Post-fragmentation population structure in a cooperative breeding Afrotropical cloud forest bird: emergence of a source-sink population network

Martin Husemann, Laurence Cousseau, Tom Callens, Erik Matthysen, Carl Vangestel, Caspar Hallmann & Luc Lens
The impact of demographic parameters on the genetic population structure and viability of organisms is a long-standing issue in the study of fragmented populations. Demographic and genetic tools are now readily available to estimate census and effective population sizes and migration and gene flow rates with increasing precision. Here we analysed the demography and genetic population structure over a recent 15-year time span in five remnant populations of Cabanis's greenbul (Phyllastrephus cabanisi), a cooperative breeding...

Data from: Herbivores safeguard plant diversity by reducing variability in dominance

Brent Mortensen, Brent Danielson, Stan W. Harpole, Juan Alberti, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Marc W. Cadotte, John M. Dwyer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Pablo Luis Peri, Eric W. Seabloom & W. Stanley Harpole
1. Reductions in community evenness can lead to local extinctions as dominant species exclude subordinate species; however, herbivores can prevent competitive exclusion by consuming otherwise dominant plant species, thus increasing evenness. While these predictions logically result from chronic, gradual reductions in evenness, rapid, temporary pulses of dominance may also reduce species richness. Short pulses of dominance can occur as biotic or abiotic conditions temporarily favor one or a few species, manifested as increased temporal variability...

Data from: A trait-based approach to predict population genetic structure in bees

Margarita M. Lopez-Uribe, Shalene Jha & Antonella Soro
Understanding population genetic structure is key to developing predictions about species susceptibility to environmental change, such as habitat fragmentation and climate change. It has been theorized that life-history traits may constrain some species in their dispersal and lead to greater signatures of population genetic structure. In this study, we use a quantitative comparative approach to assess if patterns of population genetic structure in bees are driven by three key species-level life-history traits: body size, sociality,...

Data from: Impacts of species richness on productivity in a large-scale subtropical forest experiment

Yuanyuan Huang, Yuxin Chen, Nadia Castro-Izaguirre, Martin Baruffol, Matteo Brezzi, Anne Lang, Ying Li, Werner Härdtle, Werner Von Oheimb, Xuefeu Yang, Xiaojuan Liu, Kequan Pei, Sabine Both, Bo Yang, David Eichenberg, Thorsten Assmann, Jürgen Bauhus, Thorsten Behrens, François Buscot, Xiao-Yong Chen, Douglas Chester, Bing-Yang Ding, Walter Durka, Alexandra Erfmeier, Jingyun Fang … & Bernhard Schmid
Biodiversity experiments have shown that species loss reduces ecosystem functioning in grassland. To test whether this result can be extrapolated to forests, the main contributors to terrestrial primary productivity, requires large-scale experiments. We manipulated tree species richness by planting more than 150,000 trees in plots with 1 to 16 species. Simulating multiple extinction scenarios, we found that richness strongly increased stand-level productivity. After 8 years, 16-species mixtures had accumulated over twice the amount of carbon...

Data from: GloPL, a global data base on pollen limitation of plant reproduction

Joanne. M. Bennett, Janette. A. Steets, Jean. H. Burns, Walter Durka, Jana. C. Vamosi, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Martin Burd, Laura. A. Burkle, Allan. G Ellis, Leandro Freitas, Junmin Li, James. G. Rodger, Marina Wolowski, Jing Xia, Tia-Lynn Ashman & Tiffany. M. Knight
Plant reproduction relies on transfer of pollen from anthers to stigmas, and the majority of flowering plants depend on biotic or abiotic agents for this transfer. A key metric for characterizing if pollen receipt is insufficient for reproduction is pollen limitation, which is assessed by pollen supplementation experiments. In a pollen supplementation experiment, fruit or seed production by flowers exposed to natural pollination is compared to that following hand pollination either by pollen supplementation (i.e....

Local adaptation constrains drought tolerance in a tropical foundation tree

Kasey Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle Edwards, Aaron Shiels & Tiffany Knight
1. Plant species with broad climatic ranges might be more vulnerable to climate change than previously appreciated due to intraspecific variation in climatic stress tolerance. In tropical forests, drought is increasingly frequent and severe, causing widespread declines and altering community dynamics. Yet, little is known about whether foundation tropical trees vary in drought tolerance throughout their distributions, and how intraspecific variation in drought tolerance might contribute to their vulnerability to climate change. 2. We tested...

Testing Finch’s hypothesis: the role of organismal modularity on the escape from actuarial senescence

Connor Bernard, Aldo Compagnoni & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
1. Until recently, senescence was assumed to be a universal phenomenon. Evolutionary theories of senescence predict that no organism may escape the physiological decline that results in an increase in mortality risk and/or decline in fertility with age. However, evidence both in animals and plants has emerged in the last decade defying such predictions. Researchers are currently seeking mechanistic explanations for the observed variation in ageing trajectories. 2. We argue that the historical view on...

Experimental evidence that novel land management interventions inspired by history enhance biodiversity

Robert Hawkes, Jennifer Smart, Andy Brown, Helen Jones, Steve Lane, Colin Lucas, James McGill, Nick Owens, Amanda Ratier Backes, Jonathan Webb, Doreen Wells & Paul Dolman
To address biodiversity declines within semi-natural habitats, land-management must cater for diverse taxonomic groups. Integrating our understanding of the ecological requirements of priority (rare, scarce or threatened) species through ‘biodiversity auditing’, with that of the intensity and complexity of historical land-use, encourages novel forms of management. Experimental confirmation is needed to establish whether this enhances biodiversity conservation relative to routine management. Biodiversity auditing and historical land-use of dry-open terrestrial habitats in Breckland (Eastern England) both...

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