82 Works

Formicine ants swallow their highly acidic poison for gut microbial selection and control

Simon Tragust, Claudia Herrmann, Jane Häfner, Ronja Braasch, Christina Tilgen, Maria Hoock, Margarita Milidakis, Roy Gross & Heike Feldhaar
Animals continuously encounter microorganisms that are essential for health or cause disease. They are thus challenged to control harmful microbes while allowing acquisition of beneficial microbes. This challenge is likely especially important for social insects with respect to microbes in food, as they often store food and exchange food among colony members. Here we show that formicine ants actively swallow their antimicrobial, highly acidic poison gland secretion. The ensuing acidic environment in the stomach, the...

Experimental infection of bumble bees with honey bee associated viruses: no direct fitness costs but potential future threats to novel wild bee hosts

Anja Tehel, Tabea Streicher, Simon Tragust & Robert Paxton
Pathogen spill-over represents an important cause of biodiversity decline. For wild bee species such as bumble bees, many of which are in decline, correlational data point toward viral spill-over from naged honey bees as a potential cause. Yet impacts of honey bee viruses on wild bees are rarely evaluated. Here, in a series of highly controlled laboratory infection assays with well characterised viral inocula, we show that three viral types isolated from honey bees (Deformed...

Fire alters diversity, composition and structure of dry tropical forests in the Eastern Ghats

Neeraja U. V., Rajendrakumar S., Saneesh C. S., Venkat Dyda & Tiffany M. Knight
Fire is known to have dramatic consequences on forest ecosystems around the world, and on the livelihoods of forest-dependent people. While the Eastern Ghats of India have high abundances of fire-prone dry tropical forests, little is known about how fire influences the diversity, composition and structure of these communities. Our study aims to fill this knowledge gap by examining the effects of presence and absence of recent fire on tropical dry forest communities within Kadiri...

Temporal trends in the spatial bias of species occurrence records

Diana Bowler, Corey Callaghan, Netra Bhandari, Klaus Henle, Benjamin Barth, Christian Koppitz, Reinhard Klenke, Marten Winter, Florian Jansen, Helge Bruelheide & Aletta Bonn
Large-scale biodiversity databases have great potential for quantifying long-term trends of species, but they also bring many methodological challenges. Spatial bias of species occurrence records is well recognized. Yet, the dynamic nature of this spatial bias - how spatial bias has changed over time - has been largely overlooked. We examined the spatial sampling bias of species occurrence records within multiple biodiversity databases in Germany and tested whether spatial bias in relation to land cover...

A new remarkable dwarf sedge (Carex phylloscirpoid, Cyperaceae) from Northern Chile, with insights on the evolution of Austral section Racemosae

Pedro Jiménez-Mejías, Patricio Saldivia, Sebastian Gebauer & Santiago Martín-Bravo
We describe a new remarkable dwarf and apparently acaulescent species of Carex (Cyperaceae) from the Andes of northern Chile: Carex phylloscirpoides. Morphological and molecular data (two nuclear and three plastid DNA regions) were used to study the phylogenetic placement and systematic relationships of this species, which resulted in its assignment to section Racemosae. However, despite being related to the other three species of the section present in the Southern Cone based on phylogenetic evidence, it...

Lepidoptera caterpillars barcodes in FASTA format

Ming-Qiang Wang, Chuan Yan, Arong Luo, Yi Li, Douglas Chesters, Hui-Jie Qiao, Jing-Ting Chen, Qing-Song Zhou, Keping Ma, Helge Bruelheide, Andreas Schuldt, Zhibin Zhang & Chao-Dong Zhu
The dataset contains COI barcodes of Lepidoptera caterpillars collected from a subtropical forest in Jiangxi, China.

Data from: A brief history and popularity of methods and tools used to estimate micro-evolutionary forces

Jonathan Kidner, Panagiotis Theodorou, Martin Husemann, Jan Engler & Martin Taubert
Population genetics is a field of research that predates the current generations of sequencing technology. Those approaches, that were established before massively parallel sequencing methods, have been adapted to these new marker systems (in some cases involving the development of new methods) that allow genome-wide estimates of the four major micro-evolutionary forces – mutation, gene flow, genetic drift and selection. Nevertheless, classic population genetic markers are still commonly used and a plethora of analysis methods...

Dataset for: Interactive effects of tree species composition and water availability on growth and direct and indirect defences in Quercus ilex

Andrea Galmán, Carla Vázquez-González, Gregory Röder & Bastien Castagneyrol
Plant diversity has often been reported to decrease insect herbivory in plants. Of the numerous mechanisms that have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, how plant diversity influences plant defences via effects on growth has received little attention. In addition, plant diversity effects may be contingent on abiotic conditions (e.g., resource and water availability). Here, we used a long-term experiment to explore the interactive effects of tree species composition and water availability on growth, direct...

Data from: Harvesting has variable effects on demographic rates and population growth across three dry forest tree species

Neeraja Venkataraman
Understanding how anthropogenic activities, such as harvesting, influence plant populations is important to quantify sustainable practices that conserve species of socioeconomic importance. There is limited knowledge on how harvesting of branches and non-timber forest products affect populations of trees in the dry tropics. We measure demographic vital rates of three dry tropical tree species in the presence and absence of harvesting and apply integral projection models to quantify population growth rates, which represent the mean...

Automatisierte Identifikation und Lemmatisierung historischer Berufsbezeichnungen in deutschsprachigen Datenbeständen

Jan Michael Goldberg & Katrin Moeller
Berufsangaben kommen in vielen historischen Quellen vor. Für eine Vielzahl von Forschungsgebieten ist nicht nur eine Standardisierung, sondern vor allem Klassifikation eine zentrale Voraussetzung zur Analyse. Dabei wird die Zuordnung von Schreibvarianten zu bereits definierten Gattungsnamen von Berufen in diesem Artikel als Lemmatisierung beziehungsweise Normierung bezeichnet, die Zuordnung der normalisierten Schreibweise zu einem Ordnungssystem als Klassifikation. Um hierbei manuellen Aufwand zu verringern, wird ein Algorithmus zur automatisierten Lemmatisierung historischer, deutschsprachiger Berufsangaben entwickelt. Das beste Ergebnis...

Data from: Phylogeny and biogeography of the core babblers (Aves: Timaliidae)

Robert G. Moyle, Michael J. Andersen, Carl H. Oliveros, Frank Steinheimer & Sushma Reddy
The avian family Timaliidae is a species rich and morphologically diverse component of African and Asian tropical forests. The morphological diversity within the family has attracted interest from ecologists and evolutionary biologists, but systematists have long suspected that this diversity might also mislead taxonomy, and recent molecular phylogenetic work has supported this hypothesis. We produced and analyzed a dataset of six genes and almost 300 individuals to assess the evolutionary history of the family. Although...

Data from: Climate outweighs native vs. non-native range-effects for genetics and common garden performance of a cosmopolitan weed

Christoph Rosche, Isabell Hensen, Adrian Schaar, Uzma Zehra, Marie Jasieniuk, Ragan M. Callaway, Damase P. Khasa, Mohammad M. Al-Gharaibeh, Ylva Lekberg, David U. Nagy, Robert W. Pal, Miki Okada, Karin Schrieber, Kathryn G. Turner, Susanne Lachmuth, Andrey Erst, Tomonori Tsunoda, Min Sheng, Robin Schmidt, Yanling Peng, Wenbo Luo, Yun Jäschke, Zafar A. Reshi & Manzoor A. Shah
Comparing genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and performance between native and non-native populations has advanced our knowledge of contemporary evolution and its ecological consequences. However, such between-range comparisons can be complicated by high among-population variation within native and non-native ranges. For example, native vs. non-native comparisons between small and non-representative subsets of populations for species with very large distributions have the potential to mislead because they may not sufficiently account for within-range adaptation to climatic conditions,...

Data from: Role of multiple invasion mechanisms and their interaction in regulating the population dynamics of an exotic tree

Raelene M. Crandall & Tiffany M. Knight
Understanding the mechanisms that allow exotic species to have rapid population growth is an important step in the process of controlling existing invasions and preventing future invasions. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why some exotic species become invasive, the most prominent of which focus on the roles of habitat disturbance, competitors and consumers. The magnitude and direction of each of these mechanisms on population dynamics observed in previous studies is quite variable. It...

Data from: Sweat bees on hot chillies: provision of pollination services by native bees in traditional slash-and-burn agriculture in the Yucatán Peninsula of tropical Mexico

Patricia Landaverde-González, José Javier G. Quezada-Euán, Panagiotis Theodorou, Tomás E. Murray, Martin Husemann, Ricardo Ayala, Humberto Moo-Valle, Rémy Vandame & Robert J. Paxton
Traditional tropical agriculture often entails a form of slash-and-burn land management that may adversely affect ecosystem services such as pollination, which are required for successful crop yields. The Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico has a >4000 year history of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture, termed ‘milpa’. Hot ‘Habanero’ chilli is a major pollinator-dependent crop that nowadays is often grown in monoculture within the milpa system. We studied 37 local farmers’ chilli fields (sites) to evaluate the effects of...

Data from: Genome scan identifies flowering-independent effects of barley HsDry2.2 locus on yield traits under water deficit

Lianne Merchuk-Ovnat, Roi Silberman, Efrat Laiba, Andreas Maurer, Klaus Pillen, Adi Faigenboim & Eyal Fridman
Increasing crop productivity under climate change requires the identification, selection and utilization of novel alleles for breeding. We analyzed the genotype and field phenotype of the barley HEB-25 multi-parent mapping population under well-watered and water-limited (WW and WL) environments for two years. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for genotype by-environment interactions was performed for ten traits including flowering time (HEA) and plant grain yield (PGY). Comparison of the GWAS for traits per-se to that for...

Data from: Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends: consequences for conservation and monitoring

Helmut Hillebrand, Bernd Blasius, Elizabeth T. Borer, Jonathan M. Chase, John Downing, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Christopher T. Filstrup, W. Stanley Harpole, Dorothee Hodapp, Stefano Larsen, Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Eric W. Seabloom, Dedmer B. Van De Waal, Alexey B. Ryabov & John A. Downing
1. Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is far from trivial, however, as recently documented by meta-analyses which report little if any net change of local species richness through time. 2. Here, we summarize several limitations of species richness as a metric...

The effect of niche filtering on plant species abundance in temperate grassland communities

Josep Padullés Cubino, Irena Axmanová, Zdeňka Lososová, Martin Večeřa, Ariel Bergamini, Helge Bruelheide, Jürgen Dengler, Ute Jandt, Florian Jansen, Ricarda Pätsch & Milan Chytrý
1. Niche filtering predicts that abundant species in communities have similar traits that are suitable for the environment. However, niche filtering can operate on distinct axes of trait variation in response to different ecological conditions. Here, we use a trait-based approach to infer niche filtering processes and (1) test if abundant and rare species in grassland communities are differently positioned along distinct axes of trait variation, (2) determine if these trait variation axes, as well...

Experimental cross species transmission of a major viral pathogen in bees is predominantly from honeybees to bumblebees

Anja Tehel, Tabea Streicher, Simon Tragust & Rober J. Paxton
Cross-species transmission of a pathogen from a reservoir to a recipient host species, spillover, can have major impacts on biodiversity, domestic species and human health. Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a panzootic RNA virus in honeybees that is causal in their elevated colony losses, and several correlative field studies have suggested spillover of DWV from managed honeybees to wild bee species such as bumblebees. Yet unequivocal demonstration of DWV spillover is lacking whilst spillback, the...

Reproductive ecology of Drosophila obscura: A cold adapted species

Berta Canal, Aileen Seipelt & Claudia Fricke
The study of insect reproductive ecology is essential to determine species distributions and fate under changing environments. Species adapted to harsh environments are good examples to investigate the reproductive mechanisms that allow them to cope with the challenging conditions. We here focus on studying for the first time the reproductive ecology of a cold-adapted D. obscura strain collected in Finland (subarctic climate region). We tested several reproductive traits such as fertility and fecundity to observe...

Demographic rates and stature of tree species in 13 sub-tropical forests: annual growth, annual survival, annual recruitment >( 1 cm dbh), stature (max dbh)

Stephan Kambach, Richard Condit, Salomón Aguilar, Helge Bruelheide, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang, Yu-Yun Chen, George Chuyong, Stuart J. Davies, Sisira Ediriweera, Corneille E. N. Ewango, Edwino S. Fernando, Nimal Gunatilleke, Savitri Gunatilleke, Stephen P Hubbell, Akira Itoh, David Kenfack, Somboon Kiratiprayoon, Yi-Ching Lin, Jean-Remy Makana, Mohizah Bt. Mohamad, Nantachai Pongpattananurak, Rolando Pérez, Lillian Jennifer V. Rodriguez, I-Fang Sun … & Nadja Rüger
Organisms of all species must balance their allocation to growth, survival and recruitment. Among tree species, evolution has resulted in different life-history strategies for partitioning resources to these key demographic processes. Life-history strategies in tropical forests have often been shown to align along a trade-off between fast growth and high survival, i.e. the well-known fast-slow continuum. In addition, an orthogonal trade-off has been proposed between tall stature – resulting from fast growth and high survival...

Low toxicity crop fungicide (Fenbuconazole) impacts reproductive male quality signals leading to a reduction of mating success in a wild solitary bee

Samuel Boff, Taina Conrad, Josué Raizer, Marten Wehrhahn, Melis Bayer, Anna Friedel, Panagiotis Theodorou, Thomas Schmitt & Daniela Lupi
Recent reports on bee health suggest that sub-lethal doses of pesticides have negative effects on wild bee reproduction and ultimately on their population growth. Females of the solitary horned mason bee, Osmia cornuta, evaluate thoracic vibrations and odours of males to assess male quality. When certain criteria are met, the female accepts the male and copulates. However, these signals were found to be modified by sub-lethal doses of pesticides in other hymenopterans. Here, we tested...

Screening and microsatellite data for Varroa infesting resistant honey bee pupae

Benjamin Conlon, Chedly Kastally, Marina Kardell, John Kefuss, Robin Moritz & Jarkko Routtu
We investigated how the evolution of host resistance could affect the infesting population of Varroa mites. We screened a Varroa-resistant honey bee population near Toulouse, France, for a Varroa resistance trait: the inhibition of Varroa's reproduction in drone pupae. We then genotyped Varroa which had co-infested a cell using microsatellites. Across all resistant honey bee colonies, Varroa's reproductive success was significantly higher in co-infested cells but the distribution of Varroa between singly and multiply infested...

A target enrichment probe set for resolving the flagellate land plant tree of life

Jesse W. Breinholt, Sarah B. Carey, George P. Tiley, E. Christine Davis, Lorena Endara, Stuart F. McDaniel, Leandro Neves, Emily B. Sessa, Matt Von Konrat, Susan Fawcett, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Paulo H. Labiak, Juan Larraín, Marcus Lehnert, Lily R. Lewis, Nathalie S. Nagalingum, Nikisha Patel, Stefan A. Rensing, Weston Testo, Alejandra Vasco, Juan Carlos Villarreal, Evelyn Webb Williams, J. Gordon Burleigh, Sahut Chantanaorrapint, Leandro G. Neves … & Stefanie M. Ickert‐Bond
Premise of the Study: New sequencing technologies enable the possibility of generating large-scale molecular datasets for constructing the plant tree of life. We describe a new probe set for target enrichment sequencing to generate nuclear sequence data to build phylogenetic trees with any flagellate land plants, including hornworts, liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, ferns, and all gymnosperms. Methods and Results: We leveraged existing transcriptome and genome sequence data to design a set of 56,989 probes for target...

Data from: Species-area relationships in the Andaman and Nicobar islands emerge because rarer species are disproportionately favored on larger islands

Leana Gooriah, Priya Davidar & Jonathan Chase
The Island Species-Area relationship (ISAR) describes how the number of species increases with increasing size of an island (or island-like habitat), and is of fundamental importance in island biogeography and conservation. Here, we use a framework based on individual-based rarefaction to infer whether ISARs result from passive sampling, or whether some processes are acting beyond sampling (e.g., disproportionate effects and/or habitat heterogeneity). Using data on total and relative abundances of four taxa (birds, butterflies, amphibians...

Data from: Phylogenetic and functional distinctiveness explain alien plant population responses to competition

Sam Levin, Raelene Crandall, Tyler Pokoski, Claudia Stein & Tiffany Knight
Several invasion hypotheses predict a positive association between phylogenetic and functional distinctiveness of aliens and their performance, leading to the idea that distinct aliens compete less with their resident communities. However, synthetic pattern relationships between distinctiveness and alien performance and direct tests of competition as the driving mechanism have not been forthcoming. This is likely because different patterns are observed at different spatial grains, because functional trait and phylogenetic information are often incomplete, and due...

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