21 Works

Data from: Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the placenta of the live-bearing fish Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae)

Tamara M Panhuis, Gina Broitman-Maduro, Jarrod Uhrig, Morris Maduro & David N Reznick
Matrotrophic fish in the genus Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae) have a placenta-like structure used in post-fertilization maternal provisioning of the developing embryo. To understand better the structure and function of the Poeciliopsis placenta we derived cDNA libraries from the maternal follicular placenta of two matrotrophic Poeciliopsis sister species, P. turneri and P. presidionis. These species inherited their placenta from a common ancestor and represent one of three independent origins of placentas in Poeciliopsis. Expressed sequence tags were...

Rasch Measurement v. Item Response Theory: Knowing When to Cross the Line

Steven E. Stemler & Adam Naples
When students receive the same score on a test, does that mean they know the same amount about the topic? The answer to this question is more complex than it may first appear. This paper compares classical and modern test theories in terms of how they estimate student ability. Crucial distinctions between the aims of Rasch Measurement and IRT are highlighted. By modeling a second parameter (item discrimination) and allowing item characteristic curves to cross,...

Decoupled dust deposition and ocean productivity in the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean over the past 1.5 million years

Michael E. Weber , Ian Bailey , Sidney R. Hemming , Yasmina M. Martos , Brendan T. Reilly , Thomas A. Ronge , Stefanie Brachfeld , Trevor Williams , Maureen Raymo , Simon T. Belt , Hendrik Vogel , Victoria Peck , Linda Armbrecht , Alix Cage , Fabricio G. Cardillo , Zhiheng Du , Gerson Fauth , Christopher J. Fogwill , Marga Garcia , Marlo Garnsworthy , Anna Glüder , Michelle Guitard , Marcus Gutjahr , Iván Hernández-Almeida , Frida S. Hoem … & Xufeng Zheng
Southern Ocean paleoceanography provides key insights into how iron fertilization and oceanic productivity developed through Pleistocene ice-ages and their role in influencing the carbon cycle. We report the first high-resolution record of dust deposition and ocean productivity for the Antarctic Zone, close to the main dust source, Patagonia. Our deep-ocean records cover the last 1.5 Ma, thus doubling that from Antarctic ice-cores. We find a ≥10-fold increase in dust deposition during glacials and a ≤5-fold...

Data from: Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments

Amy E. Zanne, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell, Jonathan M. Eastman, Stephen A. Smith, Richard G. FitzJohn, Daniel J. McGlinn, Brian C. O'Meara, Angela T. Moles, Peter B. Reich, Dana L. Royer, Douglas E. Soltis, Peter F. Stevens, Mark Westoby, Ian J. Wright, Lonnie Aarssen, Robert I. Bertin, Andre Calaminus, Rafaël Govaerts, Frank Hemmings, Michelle R. Leishman, Jacek Oleksyn, Pamela S. Soltis, Nathan G. Swenson, Laura Warman … & Alejandro Ordonez
Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats1, 2, 3. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms4. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf...

A role for synaptonemal complex in meiotic mismatch repair

Ashwini Oke & Amy MacQueen
During meiosis a large subset of interhomolog recombination repair intermediates form within the physical context of the synaptonemal complex (SC), a protein-rich structure assembled at the interface of aligned homologous chromosomes. However, the functional relationship between SC structure and homologous recombination remains poorly defined. In prior work we determined that tripartite SC is dispensable for recombination in S. cerevisiae; SC central element proteins Ecm11 and Gmc2 instead limit the number of recombination events. Here we...

Native- vs. introduced-range Polygonum cespitosum traits

Ellen Woods
In a common-garden experiment, Polygonum cespitosum plants (N=660) from native- and introduced-range populations were grown under uniform, favorable conditions in a glasshouse and their traits compared. Introduced-range populations were sampled from the eastern USA (N=17), and native-range populations were sampled from a climate-matched region in northern Japan (N=18). Parental growing conditions were standardized prior to the experiment.

Data for: Wolves make roadways safer, generating large economic returns to predator conservation

Jennifer Raynor, Corbett Grainger & Dominic Parker
This dataset includes information on deer-vehicle collisions, vehicle miles traveled, weather, and deer, wolf, and human populations, for counties in Wisconsin from 1981-2016.

Data from: Genetic basis of octanoic acid resistance in Drosophila sechellia: functional analysis of a fine-mapped region

Jose M. Andrade López, Stephen M. Lanno, Jeremy M. Auerbach, Eva C. Moskowitz, Laura A. Sligar, Patricia J. Wittkopp & Joseph D. Coolon
Drosophila sechellia is a species of fruit fly endemic to the Seychelles islands. Unlike its generalist sister species, D. sechellia has evolved to be a specialist on the host plant Morinda citrifolia. This specialization is interesting because the plant's fruit contains secondary defense compounds, primarily octanoic acid (OA), that are lethal to most other Drosophilids. Although ecological and behavioral adaptations to this toxic fruit are known, the genetic basis for evolutionary changes in OA resistance...

Data from: Analysis of cytochrome P450 contribution to evolved plant toxin resistance in Drosophila sechellia

Rubye D. Peyser, Stephen M. Lanno, Serena J. Shimshak & Joseph D. Coolon
Drosophila sechellia is a dietary specialist species of fruit fly that has evolved resistance to the toxic secondary defence compounds produced by the fruit of its preferred host plant Morinda citrifolia. The genetic basis of adult toxin resistance is the result of evolution at five loci across the genome. Genetic mapping between D. sechellia and Drosophila simulans and subsequent functional studies in Drosophila melanogaster have identified candidate genes potentially underlying one locus involved in toxin...

Data from: DNA methylation mediates genetic variation for adaptive transgenerational plasticity

Jacob J. Herman & Sonia E. Sultan
Environmental stresses experienced by individual parents can influence offspring phenotypes in ways that enhance survival under similar conditions. Although such adaptive transgenerational plasticity is well documented, its transmission mechanisms are generally unknown. One possible mechanism is environmentally induced DNA methylation changes. We tested this hypothesis in the annual plant Polygonum persicaria, a species known to express adaptive transgenerational plasticity in response to parental drought stress. Replicate plants of 12 genetic lines (sampled from natural populations)...

Data from: The global distribution of diet breadth in insect herbivores

Matthew L. Forister, Vojtech Novotny, Anna K. Panorska, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Philip T. Butterill, Lukas Cizek, Phyllis D. Coley, Francesca Dem, Ivone R. Diniz, Pavel Drozd, Mark Fox, Andrea E. Glassmire, Rebecca Hazen, Jan Hrcek, Joshua P. Jahner, Ondrej Kaman, Tomasz J. Kozubowski, Thomas Kursar, Owen T. Lewis, John Lill, Robert J. Marquis, Scott E. Miller, Helena C. Morais, Masashi Murakami … & Lee A. Dyer
Understanding variation in resource specialization is important for progress on issues that include coevolution, community assembly, ecosystem processes, and the latitudinal gradient of species richness. Herbivorous insects are useful models for studying resource specialization, and the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects is one of the most common and consequential ecological associations on the planet. However, uncertainty persists regarding fundamental features of herbivore diet breadth, including its relationship to latitude and plant species richness. Here...

Data from: The genetics of extreme microgeographic adaptation: an integrated approach identifies a major locus underlying leaf trichome divergence in Yellowstone Mimulus guttatus

Margaret F. Hendrick, Findley R. Finseth, Minna E. Mathiasson, Kristen A. Palmer, Emma M. Broder, Peter Breigenzer & Lila Fishman
Microgeographic adaptation provides a particularly interesting context for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic divergence, and may also present unique empirical challenges. In particular, plant adaptation to extreme soil mosaics may generate barriers to gene flow or shifts in mating system that confound simple genomic scans for adaptive loci. Here, we combine three approaches - QTL mapping of candidate intervals in controlled crosses, population resequencing (PoolSeq), and analyses of wild recombinant individuals - to investigate...

Data from: Keystone mutualism strengthens top-down effects by recruiting large-bodied ants

Robert E. Clark & Michael S. Singer
Determining the impacts of mutualistic interactions and predator diversity on food webs are two important goals in community ecology. In this study, we examined how predator community variation mediates the strength of top–down effects in the presence and absence of mutualistic interactions. We examined the impacts of predatory ant species that simultaneously prey on leaf-chewing herbivores (Lepidoptera) and engage in food-for-protection mutualisms with sap-feeding herbivores (Hemiptera) in the lower canopy of Connecticut forests. In this...

Bioclimatic data for native- and introduced-range localities of Polygonum cespitosum

Ellen Woods
To characterize P. cespitosum's climatic distribution, principal component analyses of temperature- and precipitation-related variables were conducted using bioclimatic data extracted (from WorldClim) for species occurrence data.

Observational evidence of herbivore-specific associational effects between neighboring conspecifics in natural, dimorphic populations of Datura wrightii

Jay Goldberg, Sonya Sternlieb, Genevieve Pintel & Lynda Delph
Associational effects – in which the vulnerability of a plant to herbivores is influenced by its neighbors – have been widely implicated in mediating plant-herbivore interactions. Studies of associational effects typically focus on interspecific interactions or pest-crop dynamics. However, associational effects may also be important for species with intraspecific variation in defensive traits. In this study, we observed hundreds of Datura wrightii – which exhibits dimorphism in its trichome phenotype – from over 30 dimorphic...

Data from: Biomechanical and leaf-climate relationships: a comparison of ferns and seed plants

Daniel J. Peppe, Casee R. Lemons, Dana L. Royer, Scott L. Wing, Ian J. Wright, Christopher H. Lusk & Chazelle H. Rhoden
Premise of the study: Relationships of leaf size and shape (physiognomy) with climate have been well characterized for woody non-monocotyledonous angiosperms (dicots), allowing the development of models for estimating paleoclimate from fossil leaves. More recently, petiole width of seed plants has been shown to scale closely with leaf mass. By measuring petiole width and leaf area in fossils, leaf mass per area (MA) can be estimated and an approximate leaf life span inferred. However, little...

Data from: Tritrophic interactions at a community level: effects of host-plant species quality on bird predation of caterpillars

Michael S. Singer, Timothy E. Farkas, Christian M. Skorik & Kailen A. Mooney
Effects of plant traits on herbivore-carnivore interactions are well documented in component communities, but are not well understood at the level of large, complex communities. We report on a two-year field experiment testing mechanisms by which variation in food quality among eight temperate forest tree species alters avian suppression of an assemblage of dietary generalist caterpillars. Plant quality and bird effects varied dramatically among tree species; high quality plants yielded herbivores of 50% greater mass...

Data from: Predatory birds and ants partition caterpillar prey by body size and diet breadth

Michael S. Singer, Robert E. Clark, Isaac H. Lichter-Marck, Emily R. Johnson, Kailen A. Mooney & Issac H. Lichter-Marck
1.The effects of predator assemblages on herbivores are predicted to depend critically on predator-predator interactions and the extent to which predators partition prey resources. The role of prey heterogeneity in generating such multiple predator effects has received limited attention. 2.Vertebrate and arthropod insectivores constitute two co-dominant predatory taxa in many ecosystems, and the emergent properties of their joint effects on insect herbivores inform theory on multiple predator effects as well as biological control of insect...

Data from: Limits to future adaptation in the invasive plant Polygonum cespitosum: expression of functional and fitness traits at elevated CO2

Tim Horgan-Kobelski, Silvia Matesanz & Sonia Sultan
For organisms to adapt to future environments, they must both evolve appropriate functional responses and phenotypically express those responses under future climatic and CO2 conditions. We examined these 2 components of future adaptation in an invasive annual plant (Polygonum cespitosum) by performing a “resurrection” experiment under field conditions simulating a future environment. Resurrection experiments reveal recent evolution by comparing genotypes from natural populations sampled across a multigeneration interval. We collected genotypes from the same 3...

Data from: Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the placenta of the live-bearing fish Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae)

Tamara M Panhuis, Gina Broitman-Maduro, Jarrod Uhrig, Morris Maduro & David N Reznick
Matrotrophic fish in the genus Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae) have a placenta-like structure used in post-fertilization maternal provisioning of the developing embryo. To understand better the structure and function of the Poeciliopsis placenta we derived cDNA libraries from the maternal follicular placenta of two matrotrophic Poeciliopsis sister species, P. turneri and P. presidionis. These species inherited their placenta from a common ancestor and represent one of three independent origins of placentas in Poeciliopsis. Expressed sequence tags were...

Data from: Tritrophic interactions at a community level: effects of host-plant species quality on bird predation of caterpillars

Michael S. Singer, Timothy E. Farkas, Christian M. Skorik & Kailen A. Mooney
Effects of plant traits on herbivore-carnivore interactions are well documented in component communities, but are not well understood at the level of large, complex communities. We report on a two-year field experiment testing mechanisms by which variation in food quality among eight temperate forest tree species alters avian suppression of an assemblage of dietary generalist caterpillars. Plant quality and bird effects varied dramatically among tree species; high quality plants yielded herbivores of 50% greater mass...

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