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The More You Put Into It, the More You Get out of It: The Educational Gains of Fraternity/Sorority Officers

Larry Long & Alex Snowden

Data from: Phylogenomics reveals extensive reticulate evolution in Xiphophorus fishes

Rongfeng Cui, Molly Schumer, Karla Kruesi, Ronald Brice Walter, Peter Andolfatto, Gil G. Rosenthal & Ronald Walter
Hybridization is increasingly being recognized as a widespread process, even between ecologically and behaviorally divergent animal species. Determining phylogenetic relationships in the presence of hybridization remains a major challenge for evolutionary biologists, but advances in sequencing technology and phylogenetic techniques are beginning to address these challenges. Here we reconstruct evolutionary relationships among swordtails and platyfishes (Xiphophorus: Poeciliidae), a group of species characterized by remarkable morphological diversity and behavioral barriers to interspecific mating. Past attempts to...

Data from: Natural selection on gall size: variable contributions of individual host plants to population-wide patterns

Scott P. Egan, Glen R. Hood & James R. Ott
Studies that provide estimates of the form and magnitude of selection on herbivore traits at the level of individual plants in natural populations represent a vital step in understanding the interaction of selection and gene flow among host-affiliated insect populations when individual plants equate to differing selective regimes. We analyzed phenotypic selection on the trait gall size for a host-specific gall former at both the individual host plant and population level (across host plants) in...

Data from: The predictability of genomic changes underlying a recent host shift in Melissa blue butterflies

Samridhi Chaturvedi, Lauren K. Lucas, Chris C. Nice, James A. Fordyce, Matt L. Forister, Zachariah Gompert & Matthew L. Forister
Despite accumulating evidence that evolution can be predictable, studies quantifying the predictability of evolution remain rare. Here, we measured the predictability of genome-wide evolutionary changes associated with a recent host shift in the Melissa blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa). We asked whether and to what extent genome-wide patterns of evolutionary change in nature could be predicted (1) by comparisons among instances of repeated evolution, and (2) from SNP $\times$ performance associations in a lab experiment. We...

Data from: Vertical differentiation in tropical forest butterflies: a novel mechanism generating insect diversity?

Chris C. Nice, James A. Fordyce, Katherine L. Bell, Matthew L. Forister, Zachariah Gompert & Phil J. DeVries
Many tropical fruit-feeding nymphalid butterflies are associated with either the forest canopy or the understory, however, the exceptions offer insights into the origins of tropical diversity. As it occurs in both habitats of tropical forests in Ecuador and Peru, Archaeoprepona demophon is one such exception. We compared patterns of occurrence of A. demophon in the canopy and understory and population genomic variation for evidence of ecological and genetic differentiation between habitats. We found that butterfly...

Data from: Sympatric, temporally isolated populations of the pine white butterfly Neophasia menapia, are morphologically and genetically differentiated

Katherine L. Bell, Christopher A. Hamm, Arthur M. Shapiro & Chris C. Nice
Temporal isolation remains an understudied, and potentially under-appreciated, mechanism of reproductive isolation. Phenological differences have been discovered in populations of the pine white butterfly (Neophasia menapia), a typically univoltine species found throughout western North America. At two locations in the Coast Range of California there are two periods of adult emergence per year, one in early summer (July) and one in late summer/autumn (September/October). Differences in flight time are accompanied by differences in wing shape...

Data from: Physiological responses to elevated temperature across the geographic range of a terrestrial salamander

Alexander J. Novarro, Caitlin R. Gabor, Cory B. Goff, Tori D. Mezebish, Lily M. Thompson & Kristine L. Grayson
Widespread species often possess physiological mechanisms for coping with thermal heterogeneity, and uncovering these mechanisms provides insight into species responses to climate change. The emergence of non-invasive corticosterone (CORT) assays allows us to rapidly assess physiological responses to environmental change on a large scale. We lack, however, a basic understanding of how temperature affects CORT, and whether temperature and CORT interactively affect performance. Here, we examine the effects of elevated temperature on CORT and whole-organism...

Founder effects shape linkage disequilibrium and genomic diversity of a partially clonal invader

Ben Flanagan, Stacy Krueger-Hadfield, Courtney Murren, Chris Nice, Allan Strand & Erik Sotka
Genomic variation of an invasive species may be affected by complex demographic histories and evolutionary changes during invasions. Here, we describe the relative influence of bottlenecks, clonality, and population expansion in determining genomic variability of the widespread red macroalga Agarophyton vermiculophyllum. Its introduction from mainland Japan to the estuaries of North America and Europe coincided with shifts from predominantly sexual to partially clonal reproduction and rapid adaptive evolution. A survey of 62,285 SNPs for 351...

Chimpanzees as ecosystem service providers: Seed dispersal of an economically important plant resource

William Aguado, Haldre Rogers & Jill Pruetz
Vertebrate-mediated seed dispersal is vital to the maintenance of diversity in tropical ecosystems, and seed-dispersing animals are increasingly thought to provide ecosystem services by dispersing the seeds of plant species utilized by people. However, few studies have demonstrated a link between vertebrate frugivores and plants used by people, thus limiting the generalizability of the seed-disperser-as-ecosystem-service-provider concept. We examined the effectiveness of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) as seed dispersers (i.e., their influence on seedling recruitment)...

Data from: Genetic constraints on wing pattern variation in Lycaeides butterflies: a case study on mapping complex, multifaceted traits in structured populations

Lauren K. Lucas, Chris C. Nice, Zach Gompert & Zachariah Gompert
Patterns of phenotypic variation within and among species can be shaped and constrained by trait genetic architecture. This is particularly true for complex traits, such as butterfly wing patterns, that consist of multiple elements. Understanding the genetics of complex trait variation across species boundaries is difficult, as it necessitates mapping in structured populations and can involve many loci with small or variable phenotypic effects. Here, we investigate the genetic architecture of complex wing pattern variation...

Data from: Cascading reproductive isolation: plant phenology drives temporal isolation among populations of a host-specific herbivore

Glen R. Hood, Linyi Zhang, Elaine G. Hu, James R. Ott & Scott P. Egan
All organisms exist within a complex network of interacting species, thus evolutionary change may have reciprocal effects on multiple taxa. Here, we demonstrate “cascading reproductive isolation,” whereby ecological differences that reduce gene flow between populations at one trophic level affect reproductive isolation (RI) among interacting species at the next trophic level. Using a combination of field, laboratory and common-garden studies and long-term herbaria records, we estimate and evaluate the relative contribution of temporal RI to...

Data from: Globally invasive genotypes of the amphibian chytrid outcompete an enzootic lineage in coinfections

Thomas S. Jenkinson, David Rodriguez, Rebecca A. Clemons, Lucas A. Michelotti, Kelly R. Zamudio, Luís Felipe Toledo, Joyce E. Longcore & Timothy Y. James
Competition between genotypes is likely to be a key driver of pathogen evolution, particularly following a geographic invasion by distant strains. Theory predicts that competition between disease strains will result in the most virulent strain persisting. Despite its evolutionary implications, the role of strain competition in shaping populations remains untested for most pathogens. We experimentally investigated the in vivo competitive differences between two divergent lineages of the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd). These Bd...

Data from: Spread of amphibian chytrid fungus across lowland populations of Túngara frogs in Panamá

Sofia Rodríguez-Brenes, David Rodriguez, Roberto Ibáñez & Michael J. Ryan
Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emergent infectious disease partially responsible for worldwide amphibian population declines. The spread of Bd along highland habitats ( > 500 m a.s.l.) of Costa Rica and Panamá is well documented and has been linked to amphibian population collapses. In contrast, data are scarce on the prevalence and dispersal of Bd in lowland habitats where amphibians may be infected but asymptomatic. Here we describe the...

Data from: Genome divergence and the genetic architecture of barriers to gene flow between Lycaeides idas and L. melissa

Zachariah Gompert, Lauren K. Lucas, Chris Clark Nice & C. Alex Buerkle
Genome divergence during speciation is a dynamic process that is affected by various factors, including the genetic architecture of barriers to gene flow. Herein we quantitatively describe aspects of the genetic architecture of two sets of traits, male genitalic morphology and oviposition preference, that putatively function as barriers to gene flow between the butterfly species Lycaeides idas and L. melissa. Our analyses are based on unmapped DNA sequence data and a recently developed Bayesian regression...

Data from: NOS: a software suite to compute node overlap and segregation in ecological networks

Giovanni Strona, Thomas Joseph Matthews, Susanne Kortsch & Joseph A. Veech
Investigating the structure of ecological networks can help unravel the mechanisms promoting and maintaining biodiversity. Recently, Strona and Veech (10.1111/2041-210X.12395) introduced a new metric (Ɲ ̅, pronounced ‘nos’), that allows assessment of structural patterns in networks ranging from complete node segregation to perfect nestedness, and that also provides a visual and quantitative assessment of the degree of network modularity. The Ɲ ̅ metric permits testing of a wide range of hypotheses regarding the tendency for...

Data from: Diversity and distribution of Wolbachia in relation to geography, host plant affiliation and life cycle of a heterogonic gall wasp

Hannes Schuler, Scott P. Egan, Glen R. Hood, Robert W. Busbee, Amanda L. Driscoe & James R. Ott
Background: The maternally inherited endosymbiont Wolbachia is widespread in arthropods and nematodes and can play an important role in the ecology and evolution of its host through reproductive manipulation. Here, we survey Wolbachia in Belonocnema treatae, a widely distributed North American cynipid gall forming wasp that exhibits regional host specialization on three species of oaks and alternation of sexually and aseuxlly reproducing generations. We investigated whether patterns of Wolbachia infection and diversity in B. treatae...

Data from: The many dimensions of diet breadth: phytochemical, genetic, behavioral, and physiological perspectives on the interaction between a native herbivore and an exotic host

Joshua G. Harrison, Zachariah Gompert, James A. Fordyce, C. Alex Buerkle, Rachel Grinstead, Joshua P. Jahner, Scott Mikel, Christopher C. Nice, Aldrin Santamaria & Matthew L. Forister
From the perspective of an herbivorous insect, conspecific host plants are not identical, and intraspecific variation in host nutritional quality or defensive capacity might mediate spatially variable outcomes in plant-insect interactions. Here we explore this possibility in the context of an ongoing host breadth expansion of a native butterfly (the Melissa blue, Lycaeides melissa) onto an exotic host plant (alfalfa, Medicago sativa). We examine variation among seven alfalfa populations that differed in terms of colonization...

Data from: Long-term experimental hybridisation results in a heterologous transition and the evolution of a new sex chromosome in swordtail fish

Paolo Franchini, Julia C. Jones, Peiwen Xiong, Susanne Kneitz, Zachariah Gompert, Wesley C. Warren, Ronald B. Walter, Axel Meyer & Manfred Schartl
The remarkable diversity of sex determination mechanisms known in fish may be fuelled by exceptionally high rates of sex chromosome turnovers or transitions. However, the evolutionary causes and genomic mechanisms underlying this variation and instability are yet to be understood. Here we report on an over 30-year evolutionary experiment in which we tested the genomic consequences of hybridisation and selection between two Xiphophorus fish species with different sex chromosome systems. We find that introgression and...

Season of prescribed fire determines grassland restoration outcomes after fire exclusion and overgrazing

Erin N. Novak, Michelle Bertelsen, Dick Davis, Devin M. Grobert, Kelly G. Lyons, Jason P. Martina, W. Matt McCaw, Matthew O'Toole & Joseph W. Veldman
Fire exclusion and mismanaged grazing are globally important drivers of environmental change in mesic C4 grasslands and savannas. Although interest is growing in prescribed fire for grassland restoration, we have little long-term experimental evidence of the influence of burn season on the recovery of herbaceous plant communities, encroachment by trees and shrubs, and invasion by exotic grasses. We conducted a prescribed fire experiment (seven burns between 2001 and 2019) in historically fire-excluded and overgrazed grasslands...

Data from: A bridge between oceans: Overland migration of marine birds in a wind energy corridor

Juliet S. Lamb, David J. Newstead, Lianne M. Koczur, Bart M. Ballard, M. Clay Green, Patrick G.R. Jodice & Patrick G. R. Jodice
Located at the shortest overland route between the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean, Mexico's Tehuantepec Isthmus is a globally important migratory corridor for many terrestrial bird species. The Pacific coast of the Isthmus also contains a significant wetland complex that supports large multi-species aggregations of non-breeding waterbirds during the boreal winter. In recent years, extensive wind energy development has occurred in the plains bordering these wetlands, directly along the migratory flyway. Using recent...

Data from: Long-term population dynamics of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. rostriformis): a cross-system analysis

David L. Strayer, Boris V. Adamovich, Rita Adrian, David C. Aldridge, Csilla Balogh, Lyubov E. Burlakova, Hannah B. Fried-Petersen, László G.‐Tóth, Amy L. Hetherington, Thomas S. Jones, Alexander Y. Karatayev, Jacqueline B. Madill, Oleg A. Makarevich, J. Ellen Marsden, Andre L. Martel, Dan Minchin, Thomas F. Nalepa, Ruurd Noordhuis, Timothy J. Robinson, Lars G. Rudstam, Astrid N. Schwalb, David R. Smith, Alan D. Steinman & Jonathan M. Jeschke
Dreissenid mussels (including the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel D. rostriformis) are among the world's most notorious invasive species, with large and widespread ecological and economic effects. However, their long‐term population dynamics are poorly known, even though these dynamics are critical to determining impacts and effective management. We gathered and analyzed 67 long‐term (>10 yr) data sets on dreissenid populations from lakes and rivers across Europe and North America. We addressed five...

Data from: Method to assess the temporal persistence of potential biometric features: application to oculomotor, gait, face and brain structure databases

Lee Friedman, Mark S. Nixon & Oleg V. Komogortsev
We introduce the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to the biometric community as an index of the temporal persistence, or stability, of a single biometric feature. It requires, as input, a feature on an interval or ratio scale, and which is reasonably normally distributed, and it can only be calculated if each subject is tested on 2 or more occasions. For a biometric system, with multiple features available for selection, the ICC can be used to...

Evolutionary gain and loss of a pathological immune response to parasitism

Daniel Bolnick, Jesse Weber, Natalie Steinel, Stephen De Lisle, Lauren Fuess, Foen Peng, Kum Chuan Shim, Brian Lohman & Swapna Subramanian
Parasites impose fitness costs on their hosts. Biologists often assume that natural selection favors infection-resistant hosts. Yet, when the immune response itself is costly, theory suggests selection may instead favor loss of resistance. Intraspecific variation in immune costs are rarely surveyed in a manner that tests evolutionary patterns, and there are few examples of adaptive loss of resistance. Here, we show that when marine threespine stickleback colonized freshwater lakes they gained resistance to the freshwater-associated...

Data from: Integrating Bayesian genomic cline analyses and association mapping of morphological and ecological traits to dissect reproductive isolation and introgression in a Louisiana Iris hybrid zone

Cheng-Jung Sung, Katherine L. Bell, Chris C. Nice & Noland H. Martin
Hybrid zones provide unique opportunities to examine reproductive isolation and introgression in nature. We utilized 45,384 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) loci to perform association mapping of 14 floral, vegetative, and ecological traits that differ between Iris hexagona and Iris fulva, and to investigate, using a Bayesian Genomic Cline (BGC) framework, patterns of genomic introgression in a large and phenotypically diverse hybrid zone in southern Louisiana. Many loci of small effect-size were consistently found to be...

Data from: An evaluation of the hybrid speciation hypothesis for Xiphophorus clemenciae based on whole genome sequences

Molly Schumer, Rongfeng Cui, Bastien Boussau, Ronald Brice Walter, Gil G. Rosenthal & Peter Andolfatto
Once thought rare in animal taxa, hybridization has been increasingly recognized as an important and common force in animal evolution. In the past decade, a number of studies have suggested that hybridization has driven speciation in some animal groups. We investigate the signature of hybridization in the genome of a putative hybrid species, Xiphophorus clemenciae, through whole genome sequencing of this species and its hypothesized progenitors. Based on analysis of this data, we find that...

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