22 Works

Data from: Sex-specific weight loss mediates sexual size dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster

Nicholas D. Testa, Shampa M. Ghosh & Alexander W. Shingleton
The selective pressures leading to the evolution of Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD) have been well studied in many organisms, yet, the underlying developmental mechanisms are poorly understood. By generating a complete growth profile by sex in Drosophila melanogaster, we describe the sex-specific pattern of growth responsible for SSD. Growth rate and critical size for pupariation significantly contributed to adult SSD, whereas duration of growth did not. Surprisingly, SSD at peak larval mass was twice that...

Data from: Test of synergistic interactions among deleterious mutations in bacteria

Santiago F. Elena & Richard E. Lenski
Identifying the forces responsible for the origin and maintenance of sexuality remains one of the greatest unsolved problems in biology. The mutational deterministic hypothesis postulates that sex is an adaptation that allows deleterious mutations to be purged from the genome; it requires synergistic interactions, which means that two mutations would be more harmful together than expected from their separate effects. We generated 225 genotypes of Escherichia coli carrying one, two or three successive mutations and...

Data from: Experiments on the role of deleterious mutations as stepping stones in adaptive evolution

, Richard E. Lenski, Claus O. Wilke & Charles Ofria
Many evolutionary studies assume that deleterious mutations necessarily impede adaptive evolution. However, a later mutation that is conditionally beneficial may interact with a deleterious predecessor before it is eliminated, thereby providing access to adaptations that might otherwise be inaccessible. It is unknown whether such sign-epistatic recoveries are inconsequential events or an important factor in evolution, owing to the difficulty of monitoring the effects and fates of all mutations during experiments with biological organisms. Here, we...

Data from: Predicting gene function from uncontrolled expression variation among individual wild-type Arabidopsis plants

Rahul Bhosale, Jeremy B. Jewell, Jens Hollunder, Abraham J. K. Koo, Marnik Vuylsteke, Tom Michoel, Pierre Hilson, Alain Goossens, Gregg A. Howe, John Browse & Steven Maere
Gene expression profiling studies are usually performed on pooled samples grown under tightly controlled experimental conditions to suppress variability among individuals and increase experimental reproducibility. In addition, to mask unwanted residual effects, the samples are often subjected to relatively harsh treatments that are unrealistic in a natural context. Here, we show that expression variations among individual wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under the same macroscopic growth conditions contain as much information on the underlying gene...

Data from: Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations

Michael J. Wiser, Noah Ribeck & Richard E. Lenski
Experimental studies of evolution have increased greatly in recent years, stimulated by the growing power of genomic tools. However, organismal fitness remains the ultimate metric for interpreting these experiments, and the dynamics of fitness remain poorly understood over long timescales. Here, we examine fitness trajectories for 12 Escherichia coli populations during 50,000 generations. Mean fitness appears to increase without bound, consistent with a power law. We also derive this power-law relation theoretically by incorporating clonal...

Data from: Task-switching costs promote the evolution of division of labor and shifts in individuality

Heather J. Goldsby, Anna Dornhaus, Benjamin Kerr & Charles Ofria
From microbes to humans, the success of many organisms is achieved by dividing tasks among specialized group members. The evolution of such division of labor strategies is an important aspect of the major transitions in evolution. As such, identifying specific evolutionary pressures that give rise to group-level division of labor has become a topic of major interest among biologists. To overcome the challenges associated with studying this topic in natural systems, we use actively evolving...

Data from: Developmental constraints on behavioral flexibility

Kay E. Holekamp, Eli M. Swanson & Page E. Van Meter
We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare...

Data from: Daily blood feeding rhythms of laboratory-reared North American Culex pipiens

Megan L. Fritz, Edward D. Walker, Aaron J. Yunker & Ian Dworkin
Background: Blood feeding by free-living insect vectors of disease is rhythmic and can be used to predict when infectious bites will occur. These daily rhythms can also be targeted by control measures, as in insecticide-treated nets. Culex pipiens form pipiens and C.p. f. molestus are two members of the Culex pipiens assemblage and vectors of West Nile Virus throughout North America. Although Culex species vector human pathogens and parasites, the daily blood feeding rhythms of...

Data from: Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks

Megan L. Head, Genevieve M. Kozak & Janette W. Boughman
Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and...

Data from: Artificial bat roosts did not accelerate forest regeneration in abandoned pastures in southern Costa Rica

J. Leighton Reid, Ellen K. Holste & Rakan A. Zahawi
Artificial roosts have been proposed as a tool for augmenting bat populations and catalyzing tropical forest regeneration. In the best case scenario, roosts would attract seed-carrying bats (Family Phyllostomidae) into degraded pastures and form nucleating patches of native vegetation. We tested this scenario by monitoring 48 artificial roosts in pastures and adjacent forest fragments in southern Costa Rica over 2 years. Half of the pasture roosts were exposed to direct sunlight and half were affixed...

Data from: The conditional nature of genetic interactions: the consequences of wild-type backgrounds on mutational interactions in a genome-wide modifier screen

Sudarshan Chari & Ian Dworkin
The phenotypic outcome of a mutation cannot be simply mapped onto the underlying DNA variant. Instead, the phenotype is a function of the allele, the genetic background in which it occurs and the environment where the mutational effects are expressed. While the influence of genetic background on the expressivity of individual mutations is recognized, its consequences on the interactions between genes, or the genetic network they form, is largely unknown. The description of genetic networks...

Data from: Comparative genomics reveals insight into virulence strategies of plant pathogenic oomycetes

Bishwo N. Adhikari, John P. Hamilton, Marcelo M. Zerillo, Ned Tisserat, C. André Lévesque & C. Robin Buell
The kingdom Stramenopile includes diatoms, brown algae, and oomycetes. Plant pathogenic oomycetes, including Phytophthora, Pythium and downy mildew species, cause devastating diseases on a wide range of host species and have a significant impact on agriculture. Here, we report comparative analyses on the genomes of thirteen straminipilous species, including eleven plant pathogenic oomycetes, to explore common features linked to their pathogenic lifestyle. We report the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of six Pythium genomes and comparison...

Data from: Biodiversity ensures plant-pollinator phenological synchrony against climate change

Ignasi Bartomeus, Mia G. Park, Jason Gibbs, Bryan N. Danforth, Alan N. Lakso & Rachael Winfree
Climate change has the potential to alter the phenological synchrony between interacting mutualists, such as plants and their pollinators. However, high levels of biodiversity might buffer the negative effects of species-specific phenological shifts and maintain synchrony at the community level, as predicted by the biodiversity insurance hypothesis. Here, we explore how biodiversity might enhance and stabilise phenological synchrony between a valuable crop, apple and its native pollinators. We combine 46 years of data on apple...

Data from: Gene transfer from bacteria and archaea facilitated evolution of an extremophilic eukaryote

Gerald Schönknecht, Wei-Hua Chen, Chad M. Ternes, Guillaume G. Barbier, Roshan P. Shrestha, Mario Stanke, Andrea Bräutigam, Brett J. Baker, Jillian F. Banfield, R. Michael Garavito, Kevin Carr, Curtis Wilkerson, Stefan A. Rensing, David Gagneul, Nicholas E. Dickenson, Christine Oesterhelt, Martin J. Lercher & Andreas P. M. Weber
Some microbial eukaryotes, such as the extremophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria, can live in hot, toxic metal-rich, acidic environments. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptation, we sequenced the 13.7 Mb genome of G. sulphuraria. This alga shows an enormous metabolic flexibility, growing either photoautotrophically or heterotrophically on more than 50 carbon sources. Environmental adaptation seems to have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer from various bacteria and archaea, often followed by gene family...

Data from: Divergent sexual selection via male competition: ecology is key

Alycia C. R. Lackey & Janette W. Boughman
Sexual selection and ecological differences are important drivers of speciation. Much research has focused on female choice, yet the role of male competition in ecological speciation has been understudied. Here, we test how mating habitats impact sexual selection and speciation through male competition. Using limnetic and benthic species of threespine stickleback fish, we find that different mating habitats select differently on male traits through male competition. In mixed habitat with both vegetated and open areas,...

Data from: Temperature-size rule is mediated by thermal plasticity of critical size in Drosophila melanogaster

Shampa M. Ghosh, Nicholas D. Testa & Alexander W. Shingleton
Most ectotherms show an inverse relationship between developmental temperature and body size, a phenomenon known as the temperature size rule (TSR). Several competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain its occurrence. According to one set of views, the TSR results from inevitable biophysical effects of temperature on the rates of growth and differentiation, whereas other views suggest the TSR is an adaptation that can be achieved by a diversity of mechanisms in different taxa. Our...

Data from: Convergent effects of elevation on functional leaf traits within and among species

Quentin D. Read, Leigh C. Moorhead, Nathan G. Swenson, Joseph K. Bailey & Nathan J. Sanders
1.Spatial variation in filters imposed by the abiotic environment causes variation in functional traits within and among plant species. This is abundantly clear for plant species along elevational gradients, where parallel abiotic selection pressures give rise to predictable variation in leaf phenotypes among ecosystems. Understanding the factors responsible for such patterns may provide insight into the current and future drivers of biodiversity, local community structure, and ecosystem function. 2.In order to explore patterns in trait...

Data from: Limited plasticity in the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix for male advertisement calls in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus

William R. Pitchers, Robert Brooks, Michael D. Jennions, Tom Tregenza, Ian Dworkin & John Hunt
Phenotypic integration and plasticity are central to our understanding of how complex phenotypic traits evolve. Evolutionary change in complex quantitative traits can be predicted using the multivariate breeders’ equation, but such predictions are only accurate if the matrices involved are stable over evolutionary time. Recent study, however, suggests that these matrices are temporally plastic, spatially variable and themselves evolvable. The data available on phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) stability are sparse, and largely focused on morphological...

Data from: Flexible mate choice when mates are rare and time is short

Robin M. Tinghitella, Emily G. Weigel, Megan Head & Janette W. Boughman
Female mate choice is much more dynamic than we once thought. Mating decisions depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and these two may interact with one another. In this study, we investigate how responses to the social mating environment (extrinsic) change as individuals age (intrinsic). We first conducted a field survey to examine the extent of natural variation in mate availability in a population of threespine sticklebacks. We then manipulated the sex ratio in...

Data from: Parentage and sibship inference from markers in polyploids

Jinliang Wang, Kim Scribner & Kim T. Scribner
Many plants and some animal species are polyploids. Non-disomically inherited markers (e.g. microsatellites) in such species cannot be analysed directly by standard population genetics methods developed for diploid species. One solution is to transform the polyploid codominant genotypes to pseudo diploid dominant genotypes, which can then be analysed by standard methods for various purposes such as spatial genetic structure, individual relatedness and relationship. Although this data transformation approach has been used repeatedly in the literature,...

Data from: Density triggers maternal hormones that increase adaptive offspring growth in a wild mammal

Ben Dantzer, Amy E. M. Newman, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries & Andrew G. McAdam
Spruce cone and squirrel density dataData used to investigate how previous year spruce cones and food-supplementation affected red squirrel density. All data collected in Kluane, Yukon, Canada.Spruce cone and density data.csvTable S2 Results - neonate mass and growth rateData used for results shown in Table 2. Only neonate mass and offspring growth data. All data collected in Kluane, Yukon, Canada.Table S2 - neonate mass and growth rate.csvTable S2-S3 ResultsData for results shown in Table S2...

Data from: Stress hormones mediate predator-induced phenotypic plasticity in amphibian tadpoles

Jessica Middlemis Maher, Earl E. Werner & Robert J. Denver
Amphibian tadpoles display extensive anti-predator phenotypic plasticity, reducing locomotory activity and, with chronic predator exposure, developing relatively smaller trunks and larger tails. In many vertebrates, predator exposure alters activity of the neuroendocrine stress axis. We investigated predator-induced effects on stress hormone production and the mechanistic link to anti-predator defences in Rana sylvatica tadpoles. Whole-body corticosterone (CORT) content was positively correlated with predator biomass in natural ponds. Exposure to caged predators in mesocosms caused a reduction...

Registration Year

  • 2013
    22

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    22

Affiliations

  • Michigan State University
    22
  • University of Exeter
    3
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    2
  • University of Washington
    1
  • University of California System
    1
  • University of Greifswald
    1
  • Department of Plant Biology
    1
  • University of Alberta
    1
  • Australian National University
    1
  • University of California, Berkeley
    1