59 Works

Data from: Boreal tree growth exhibits decadal-scale ecological memory to drought and insect defoliation, but no negative response to their interaction

Malcolm S. Itter, L D'Orangeville, Andria Dawson, Daniel Kneeshaw, Louis Duchesne & Andrew O. Finley
1. Interactions between drought and insect defoliation may dramatically alter forest function under novel climate and disturbance regimes, but remain poorly understood. We empirically tested two important hypotheses regarding tree responses to drought and insect defoliation: 1) trees exhibit delayed, persistent, and cumulative growth responses to these stressors; 2) physiological feedbacks in tree responses to these stressors exacerbate their impacts on tree growth. These hypotheses remain largely untested at a landscape scale, yet are critical...

Data from: Age‐dependent leaf physiology and consequences for crown‐scale carbon uptake during the dry season in an Amazon evergreen forest

Loren P. Albert, Jin Wu, Neill Prohaska, Plinio Barbosa De Camargo, Travis E. Huxman, Edgard S. Tribuzy, Valeriy Y. Ivanov, Rafael S. Oliveira, Sabrina Garcia, Marielle N. Smith, Raimundo Cosme Oliveira Junior, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Rodrigo Da Silva, Scott C. Stark, Giordane A. Martins, Deliane V. Penha & Scott R. Saleska
* Satellite and tower-based metrics of forest-scale photosynthesis generally increase with dry season progression across central Amazônia, but the underlying mechanisms lack consensus. * We conducted demographic surveys of leaf age composition, and measured age-dependence of leaf physiology in broadleaf canopy trees of abundant species at a central eastern Amazon site. Using a novel leaf-to-branch scaling approach, we used this data to independently test the much-debated hypothesis—arising from satellite and tower-based observations—that leaf phenology could...

Data from: Plant community responses to long-term fertilization: changes in functional group abundance drive changes in species richness

Timothy L. Dickson & Katherine L. Gross
Declines in species richness due to fertilization are typically rapid and associated with increases in aboveground production. However, in a long-term experiment examining the impacts of fertilization in an early successional community, we found it took 14 years for plant species richness to significantly decline in fertilized plots, despite fertilization causing a rapid increase in aboveground production. To determine what accounted for this lag in the species richness response, we examined several potential mechanisms. We...

Data from: Weed evolution: genetic differentiation among wild, weedy, and crop radish

Amanda Charbonneau, David Tack, Allison Lale, Josh Goldston, Mackenzie Caple, Emma Conner, Oz Barazani, Jotham Ziffer-Berger, Ian Dworkin & Jeffrey K. Conner
Approximately 200 weed species are responsible for more than 90% of crop losses and these comprise less than one percent of all named plant species, suggesting that there are only a few evolutionary routes that lead to weediness. Agricultural weeds can evolve along three main paths: they can be escaped crops, wild species, or crop-wild hybrids. We tested these three hypotheses in weedy radish, a weed of small grains and an emerging model for investigating...

Data from: Legacy effects of land use on soil nitrous oxide emissions in annual crop and perennial grassland ecosystems

Michael Abraha, Ilya Gelfand, Stephen K. Hamilton, Jiquan Chen & G. Philip Robertson
Land use conversions into and out of agriculture may influence soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas fluxes for many years. We tested the legacy effects of land use on cumulative soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes for five years following conversion of 22 year-old Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands and conventionally tilled agricultural fields (AGR) to continuous no-till corn, switchgrass, and restored prairie. An unconverted CRP field served as a reference. We assessed the labile soil C pool of...

Data from: Ecosystem carbon exchange on conversion of Conservation Reserve Program grasslands to annual and perennial cropping systems

Michael Abraha, Stephen K. Hamilton, Jiquan Chen & G. Philip Robertson
Land use changes into and out of agricultural production may substantially influence ecosystem carbon (C) balance for many years. We examined ecosystem C balances for eight years after the conversion of 22 year-old Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands and formerly tilled agricultural fields (AGR) to annual (continuous no-till corn) and perennial (switchgrass and restored prairie) cropland. An unconverted CRP field (CRP-Ref) was maintained as a historical reference. Ecosystem C balance was assessed using adjusted net...

Data from: Harvesting effects on wild bee communities in bioenergy grasslands depend on nesting guild

Brian J. Spiesman, Ashley Bennett, Rufus Isaacs & Claudio Gratton
Conversion of annual crops to native perennial grasslands for bioenergy production may help conserve wild bees by enhancing nest and food resources. However, bee response to the disturbance of biomass harvesting may depend on their nesting location, thus their vulnerability to nest destruction, and the response of the forb community on which they forage. Moreover, because bees have long foraging ranges, effects of local harvesting may depend on the amount of natural habitat in the...

Data from: Grazing effect on grasslands escalated by abnormal precipitations in Inner Mongolia

Maowei Liang, Jiquan Chen, Elise S. Gornish, Zhiyong Li, Xue Bai & Cunzhu Liang
1. Grazing effects on arid and semi-arid grasslands can be constrained by aridity. Plant functional groups (PFGs) are the most basic component of community structure (CS) and biodiversity & ecosystem function (BEF). They have been suggested as identity-dependent in quantifying the responses to grazing intensity and drought severity. Here we examine how the relationships among PFGs, CS, BEF, and grazing intensity are driven by climatic drought. 2. We conducted a manipulative experiment with three grazing...

Data from: Crop rotational diversity enhances belowground communities and functions in an agroecosystem

L. K. Tiemann, A. S. Grandy, E. E. Atkinson, E. Marin-Spiotta & M. D. McDaniel
Biodiversity loss, an important consequence of agricultural intensification, can lead to reductions in agroecosystem functions and services. Increasing crop diversity through rotation may alleviate these negative consequences by restoring positive aboveground–belowground interactions. Positive impacts of aboveground biodiversity on belowground communities and processes have primarily been observed in natural systems. Here, we test for the effects of increased diversity in an agroecosystem, where plant diversity is increased over time through crop rotation. As crop diversity increased...

Data from: Soil microbial communities alter conspecific and congeneric competition consistent with patterns of field coexistence in three Trifolium congeners

Andrew Siefert, Kenneth W. Zillig, Maren L. Friesen & Sharon Y. Strauss
1. Coexistence and diversity in plant communities depend upon outcomes of plant competition. Competition and coexistence can be mediated by abiotic soil nutrient differences as well as by soil microbial communities. The latter effects occur through various mechanisms including negative plant-soil feedbacks, when plants foster the build-up of specialized pathogenic microbes, which ultimately reduce conspecific, but not heterospecific, densities. Microbial mutualists can have generalized associations with host plants, and by associating with multiple species might...

Data from: Limited genetic evidence for host plant-related differentiation in the Western cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Gilbert Saint Jean, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Hannes Schuler, Meredith M. Doellman, Mary M. Glover, James J. Smith, Wee L. Yee, Robert B. Goughnour, Howard M.A. Thistlewood, Sheri A. Maxwell, Nusha Keyghobadi, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
The shift of the fruit fly Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in the mid-1800s from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis (Torrey & Asa Gray) Scheele, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), in the eastern USA is a model for ecological divergence with gene flow. A similar system may exist in the northwestern USA and British Columbia, Canada, where Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacks the native bitter cherry Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton (Rosaceae). Populations of...

Data from: Parental care and sibling competition independently increase phenotypic variation among burying beetle siblings

Matthew Schrader, Benjamin J.M. Jarrett, Rebecca M. Kilner & Benjamin J. M. Jarrett
Several recent hypotheses suggest that parental care can influence the extent of phenotypic variation within populations; however, there have been few tests of these ideas. We exploited the facultative nature of post-hatching parental care in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, to test whether parental care influences the expression of phenotypic variation in an important fitness trait (body size). We found that parental care and brood size (which influences sibling competition) had positive and independent effects...

Data from: Trans-species predictors of tree leaf mass

Garret T. Dettmann, Dave W. MacFarlane & David W. MacFarlane
Tree leaf mass is a small, highly variable, but critical, component of forest ecosystems. Estimating leaf mass on standing trees with models is challenging because leaf mass varies both within and between tree species and at different locations and points in time. Typically, models for estimating tree leaf mass are species-specific, empirical models that predict intra-specific variation from stem diameter at breast height (DBH). Such models are highly limited in their application because there are...

Data from: Genetic basis of photosynthetic responses to cold in two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana

Christopher G. Oakley, Linda Savage, Samuel Lotz, G. Rudd Larson, Michael F. Thomashow, David M. Kramer & Douglas W. Schemske
Local adaptation is common, but the traits and genes involved are often unknown. Physiological responses to cold probably contribute to local adaptation in wide-ranging species, but the genetic basis underlying natural variation in these traits has rarely been studied. Using a recombinant inbred (495 lines) mapping population from locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy, we grew plants at low temperature and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for traits related to photosynthesis:...

Data from: Acid secretion by the boring organ of the burrowing giant clam, Tridacna crocea

Richard W. Hill, Eric J. Armstrong, Kazuo Inaba, Masaya Morita, Martin Tresguerres, Jonathon H. Stillman, Jinae N. Roa & Garfield T. Kwan
The giant clam Tridacna crocea, native to Indo-Pacific coral reefs, is noted for its unique ability to bore fully into coral rock and is a major agent of reef bioerosion. However, T. crocea’s mechanism of boring has remained a mystery despite decades of research. By exploiting a new, two-dimensional pH-sensing technology and manipulating clams to press their presumptive boring tissue (the pedal mantle) against pH-sensing foils, we show that this tissue lowers the pH of...

Data from: Connectivity increases trophic subsidies in fragmented landscapes

Christine L. Hawn, John D. Herrmann, Sean R. Griffin & Nick M. Haddad
Landscape corridors mitigate the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by increasing dispersal. Corridors also increase biodiversity in connected habitat fragments, suggestive of metacommunity dynamics. What is unknown in this case is the mechanisms through which metacommunity dynamics act. Working in a large-scale fragmentation experiment, we tested the effect of corridors on the movement of prey species and subsequent effects on predator nutrition (which we call trophic subsidies). We enriched plants of central patches with 15N,...

Data from: Analysis of bacterial genomes from an evolution experiment with horizontal gene transfer shows that recombination can sometimes overwhelm selection

Rohan Maddamsetti & Richard E. Lenski
Few experimental studies have examined the role that sexual recombination plays in bacterial evolution, including the effects of horizontal gene transfer on genome structure. To address this limitation, we analyzed genomes from an experiment in which Escherichia coli K-12 Hfr (high frequency recombination) donors were periodically introduced into 12 evolving populations of E. coli B and allowed to conjugate repeatedly over the course of 1000 generations. Previous analyses of the evolved strains from this experiment...

Data from: A whole methylome study of ethanol exposure in brain and blood: an exploration of the utility of peripheral blood as proxy tissue for brain in alcohol methylation studies

Shaunna L. Clark, Blair N. Costin, Robin F. Chan, Alexander W. Johnson, Linying Xie, Jessica L. Jurmain, Gaurav Kumar, Andrey A. Shabalin, Ashutosh K. Pandey, Karolina A. Aberg, Michael F. Miles & Edwin Van Den Oord
Background: Recent reviews have highlighted the potential use of blood‐based methylation biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools of current and future alcohol use and addiction. Due to the substantial overlap that often exists between methylation patterns across different tissues, including blood and brain, blood‐based methylation may track methylation changes in brain; however, little work has explored the overlap in alcohol‐related methylation in these tissues. Methods: To study the effects of alcohol on the brain methylome...

Data from: Tropical bird species have less variable body sizes

Quentin D. Read, Benjamin Baiser, John M. Grady, Phoebe L. Zarnetske, Sydne Record & Jonathan Belmaker
Ecologists have often predicted that species’ niche breadths should decline toward the equator. Dan Janzen arrived at this prediction based on climatic constraints, while Robert MacArthur argued that a latitudinal gradient in resource specialization drives the pattern. This idea has some support when it comes to thermal niches, but has rarely been explored for other niche dimensions. Body size is linked to niche dimensions related to diet, competition, and environmental tolerance in vertebrates. We identified...

Data from: Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems

Alexandra N. Kravchenko, Sieglinde S. Snapp & G. Philip Robertson
Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based–organic, management practices...

Data from: Evolution of increased Medicaco polymorpha size during invasion does not result in increased competitive ability

Zoe L. Getman-Pickering, Casey P. TerHorst, Susan M. Magnoli & Jennifer A. Lau
Species invading new habitats experience novel selection pressures that can lead to rapid evolution, which may contribute to invasion success and/or increased impact on native community members. Many studies have hypothesized that plants in the introduced range will be larger than those in the native range, leading to increases in competitive ability. There is mixed support for evolution of larger sizes in the introduced range, but few studies have explicitly tested whether evolutionary changes result...

Data from: Space use by 4 strains of laying hens to perch, wing flap, dust bathe, stand and lie down

Elizabeth R. Riddle, Ahmed B. A. Ali, Dana L. M. Campbell & Janice M. Siegford
The laying hen industry is implementing aviary systems intended to improve welfare by providing hens with more space and resources to perform species-specific behaviors. To date, limited research has examined spatial requirements of various strains of laying hens for performing key behaviors and none has been conducted within an alternative housing system. This study investigated the amount of space used by 4 strains of laying hens (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW],...

Data from: Evaluating consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects on prey density using field times series data

, Scott D. Peacor, David B. Bunnell, Henry A. Vanderploeg, Steve A. Pothoven, Ashley K. Elgin, James R. Bence, Jing Jiao, Edward L. Ionides, D.B. Bunnell, J.A. Marino, E.L. Ionides, S.A. Pothoven, A.K. Elgin, H.A. Vanderploeg, S.D. Peacor & J.R. Bence
Determining the degree to which predation affects prey abundance in natural communities constitutes a key goal of ecological research. Predators can affect prey through both consumptive effects (CEs) and nonconsumptive effects (NCEs), although the contributions of each mechanism to the density of prey populations remain largely hypothetical in most systems. Common statistical methods applied to time series data cannot elucidate the mechanisms responsible for hypothesized predator effects on prey density (e.g., differentiate CEs from NCEs),...

Data from: Necrobiome framework for bridging decomposition ecology of autotrophically and heterotrophically derived organic matter

Mark Eric Benbow, Philip S. Barton, Michael D. Ulyshen, James C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, Michael S. Strickland, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Heather R. Jordan & Jennifer L. Pechal
Decomposition contributes to global ecosystem function by contributing to nutrient recycling, energy flow and limiting biomass accumulation. The decomposer organisms influencing this process form diverse, complex, and highly dynamic communities that often specialize on different plant or animal resources. Despite performing the same net role, there is a need to conceptually synthesize information on the structure and function of decomposer communities across the spectrum of dead plant and animal resources. A lack of synthesis has...

Data from: The evolution of floral signals in relation to range overlap in a clade of California Jewelflowers (Streptanthus s.l.)

Marjorie G. Weber, N. Ivalu Cacho, Martin J. Q. Phan, Caprice Disbrow, Santiago R. Ramirez & Sharon Y. Strauss
Because of their function as reproductive signals in plants, floral traits experience distinct selective pressures related to their role in speciation, reinforcement, and prolonged coexistence with close relatives. However, few studies have investigated whether population-level processes translate into detectable signatures at the macroevolutionary scale. Here, we ask whether patterns of floral trait evolution and range overlap across a clade of California Jewelflowers reflect processes hypothesized to shape floral signal differentiation at the population level. We...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    59

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    59

Affiliations

  • Michigan State University
    59
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    10
  • Cornell University
    5
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    3
  • University of Notre Dame
    3
  • University of Vermont
    3
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    3
  • University of Florida
    3
  • Great Lakes Science Center
    3
  • California State University, Northridge
    2