52 Works

Microbiomes of guppy populations translocated in Trinidadian streams

Sarah Evans
An organisms’ gut microbiome can alter its fitness, yet we do not know how gut microbiomes change as their hosts evolve in the wild. We took advantage of a five-decade ‘chronosequence’ of translocated fish populations to examine associated changes in the gut microbiome. Populations of Trinidadian guppies have displayed parallel phenotypic convergence six times when moved from high predation (HP) to low predation (LP) environments. Across four drainages, we found microbiomes of fish translocated 5-6...

Forecasting suppression of invasive Sea Lamprey in Lake Superior: data and code for Bayesian forecast model

Sean Lewandoski
Resource managers frequently are tasked with mitigating or reversing adverse effects of invasive species through management policies and actions. In Lake Superior, of the Laurentian Great Lakes, invasive sea lamprey populations are suppressed to protect valuable fish stocks. However, the relationship between choice of long-term control strategy and the future chance of achieving the suppression target is unclear. Using a 60+ year time-series of suppression effort and monitoring data from 50 assessment sites located on...

New xyleborine (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) genus with an Afrotropical-Neotropical distribution

Rachel Osborn, Sarah Smith & Anthony Cognato
Plant-associated arthropods have been shown to cross large oceanic distances on floating plant material and to establish themselves on distant landmasses. Xyleborini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) ambrosia beetles occur in forests worldwide and are likely capable of long range dispersal. In less than 20 million years, this group dispersed from Asia to tropical regions of Africa and South America. The phylogeny, taxonomy, and biogeography of one Xyleborus species group which occurs on both continents are reviewed...

Data from: Land-based climate solutions for the United States

G. Philip Robertson, Stephen Hamilton, Keith Paustian & Pete Smith
Meeting end-of-century global warming targets requires aggressive action on multiple fronts. Recent reports note the futility of addressing mitigation goals without fully engaging the agricultural sector, yet no available assessments combine both nature-based solutions (reforestation, grassland and wetland protection, and agricultural practice change) and cellulosic bioenergy for a single geographic region. Collectively, these solutions might offer a suite of climate, biodiversity, and other benefits greater than either alone. Nature-based solutions are largely constrained by the...

Natural variation at a single gene generates sexual antagonism across fitness components in Drosophila

Bosco Rusuwa, Henry Chung, Scott Allen, Francesca Frentui & Steve Chenoweth
Mutations with conflicting fitness effects in males and females accumulate in sexual populations, reducing their adaptive capacity. Although quantitative genetic studies indicate that sexually antagonistic polymorphisms are common, their molecular basis and population genetic properties remain poorly understood. Here, we show in fruit flies how natural variation at a single gene generates sexual antagonism through phenotypic effects on cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) traits that function as both mate signals and protectors against abiotic stress across a...

Short-range C-signaling restricts cheating behavior during Myxococcus xanthus development

Y Hoang, Joshua Franklin, Yann Dufour & Lee Kroos
Starving Myxococcus xanthus bacteria use short-range C-signaling to coordinate building of multicellular mounds with differentiation from rods into spores during fruiting body development. A csgA mutant deficient in C-signaling can cheat on wild type (WT) in mixtures and form spores disproportionately, but our understanding of cheating behavior is incomplete. We report that cheating requires excess WT cells in the initial mixture and occurs during the mound-building phase of development. We subjected mixtures of WT and...

Predicting potential distributions of large carnivores in Kenya: An occupancy study to guide conservation

Femke Broekhuis, Shadrack Ngene, Arjun Gopalaswamy, Anastacia Mwaura, Stephanie Dloniak, Dedan Ngatia, Peter Tyrrell, Yumi Yamane & Nicholas Elliot
Aim: Species distribution maps are frequently the foundation upon which species-specific conservation strategies are developed, however, mapping species distribution is challenging, especially across large spatial extents. Our aim was to use a novel empirical approach to predict the national distribution for all six large carnivore species found in Kenya to guide conservation and management decisions by identifying knowledge and conservation gaps. Location: Kenya Methods: Data on carnivore presence and absence were collected through questionnaires and...

Twitter vaccine misinformation data

Pang-Ning Tan, Young Argyris, Nan Zhang & Bidhan Bashyal
Anti-vaccine content is rapidly propagated via social media, fostering vaccine hesitancy, while pro-vaccine content has not replicated the opponent's successes. Despite this disparity in the dissemination of anti- and pro-vaccine posts, linguistic features that facilitate or inhibit the propagation of vaccine-related content remain less known. Moreover, most prior machine-learning algorithms classified social-media posts into binary categories (e.g., misinformation or not) and have rarely tackled a higher-order classification task based on divergent perspectives about vaccines (e.g.,...

The ecological stage maintains preference differentiation and promotes speciation

Janette Boughman & Maria Servedio
Influential models of speciation by sexual selection posit either a single shared preference for a universal display, expressed only when males are locally adapted and hence in high condition, or that shared loci evolve population-specific alleles for displays and preferences. However, many closely related species instead show substantial differences across categorically different traits. We present a model of secondary contact whereby females maintain preferences for distinct displays that indicate both male condition and their match...

Male hyena endurance data

Maggie Sawdy
In traditional definitions of endurance rivalry, individuals compete to remain reproductively active longer than their rivals, but these time periods are typically brief, such as a single breeding season. Here, we explored endurance rivalry among adult males in a long-lived species that breeds year-round, the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). We found that most dispersing males navigated the adaptive challenges of remaining in their new clans (“enduring”) for over two years before siring their first cub....

Physics-Informed Neural Networks (PINNs) For DVCS Cross Sections

Manal Almaeen, Jake Grigsby, Joshua Hoskins, Brandon Kriesten, Yaohang Li, Huey-Wen Lin, Simonetta Liuti & Sorawich Maichum
We present a physics informed deep learning technique for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) cross sections from an unpolarized proton target using both an unpolarized and polarized electron beam. Training a deep learning model typically requires a large size of data that might not always be available or possible to obtain. Alternatively, a deep learning model can be trained using additional knowledge gained by enforcing some physics constraints such as angular symmetries for better accuracy...

Data from: Chromosome scale genome assemblies and annotations for Poales species Carex cristatella, Carex scoparia, Juncus effusus and Juncus inflexus

Jose Planta, Yu Ya Liang, Haoyang Xin, Matthew Chansler, Alan Prather, Jiming Jiang, Ning Jiang & Kevin Childs
The majority of sequenced genomes in the Monocots are from species belonging to the Poaceae, which includes many commercially important crops. Here, we expand the number of sequenced genomes from the Monocots to include the genomes of four related Cyperids: Carex cristatella and Carex scoparia from Cyperaceae and Juncus effusus and Juncus inflexus from Juncaceae. The high-quality, chromosome-scale genome sequences from these four Cyperids were assembled by combining whole-genome shotgun sequencing of Nanopore long reads,...

Weightlifting injuries in master athletes

Marianne Huebner
Data collection: A total of 976 Masters weightlifters from Australia, Canada, Europe, and the USA, ages 35 to 88 (51.1% female), completed an online survey in June 2021 that included questions on weightlifting injuries, chronic diseases, sport history, and training practices. Definition of injuries: Injuries were defined in relation to participation to weightlifting, namely whether training restriction occurred due to acute injuries sustained during weightlifting. The correspoding srurvey question was “Have you ever had training...

Incorporating Complex Sampling Weights in Multilevel Analyses of Educational Data

Ting Shen & Spyros Konstantopoulos
Large-scale assessment survey (LSAS) data are collected via complex sampling designs with special features (e.g., clustering and unequal probability of selection). Multilevel models have been utilized to account for clustering effects whereas the probability weighting approach (PWA) has been used to deal with design informativeness derived from the unequal probability selection. However, the difficulty of applying PWA in multilevel models (MLM) has been generally underestimated and practical guidance is scarce. This study utilizes an empirical...

Radical Humility Forum

Gretel Van Weiren, Todd Shaw, Beronda Montgomery, Nimot Ogunfemi, Morgan Shipley, Paulina Camacho Valencia, Rebekah Modrak, Jamie Vander Broek, Ruth Nicole Brown & Christian B. Miller

dLOC as Practice: Decolonial Approaches to Listening and Remembering

Ricia Anne Chansky & Christina Boyles

Cryptic species in a colorful genus: integrative taxonomy of the bush robins (Aves, Muscicapidae, Tarsiger) suggests two overlooked species

Yang Liu, Chentao Wei, George Sangster, Urban Olsson, Pamela Rasmussen, Lars Svensson, Cheng-Te Yao, Geoff Carey, Paul Leader, Ruiying Zhang, Guoling Chen, Gang Song, Fumin Lei, David Wilcove & Per Alström
Several cryptic avian species have been validated by recent integrative taxonomic efforts in the Sino-Himalayan mountains, indicating that avian diversity in this global biodiversity hotspot may be underestimated. In the present study,we investigated species limits in the genus Tarsiger, the bush robins, a group of montane forest specialists with high species richness in the Sino-Himalayan region. Based on comprehensive sampling of all 11 subspecies of the six currently recognized species, we applied an integrative taxonomic...

Larval yellow perch locations during locomotion assays after exposure to MeHg and PCB126

Janice Albers, Rebekah Klingler, Michael Carvan & Cheryl Murphy
Fish swimming behavior is a commonly measured response in aquatic ecotoxicology because behavior is considered a whole organism-level effect that integrates many sensory systems. Recent advancements in animal behavior models, such as hidden Markov chain models (HMM), suggest an improved analytical approach for toxicology. Using both new and traditional approaches, we examined the sublethal effects of PCB126 and methylmercury on yellow perch (YP) larvae (Perca flavescens) using three doses. Both approaches indicate larvae increase activity...

X-ray imaging of 30 year old wine grape wood reveals cumulative impacts of rootstocks on scion secondary growth and harvest index

Michelle Y. Quigley, Joey Mullins & Daniel H. Chitwood
Annual rings from vines in a 30 year old, California rootstock trial were measured to determine the effects of 15 different rootstocks on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon scions. Viticultural traits measuring vegetative growth, yield, berry quality, and nutrient uptake were measured at the beginning and end of the lifetime of the vineyard. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was used to measure ring widths in 103 vines. Ring width was modeled as a function of ring number...

Data for: The visual ecology of selective predation: Are unhealthy hosts less stealthy hosts?

Nina Wale
Predators can strongly influence disease transmission and evolution, particularly when they prey selectively on infected hosts. Although selective predation has been observed in numerous systems, why predators select infected prey remains poorly understood. Here, we use a mathematical model of predator vision to test a longstanding hypothesis about the mechanistic basis of selective predation in a Daphnia-microparasite system, which serves as a model for the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases. Bluegill sunfish feed selectively...

Suction feeding by predators limits direct release of alarm cues in fishes

Brian Wisenden, Alexis Taylor, Jessica Undem & Michael Wagner
Chemical alarm cues alert aquatic prey to the presence of an actively foraging predator. There is a large literature based upon responses to alarm cues derived from skin extract, because it is anticipated that prey skin is damaged when prey are attacked by a predator. However, many predators feed by suction feeding whereby prey are quickly drawn into the buccal cavity and swallowed whole with little, if any, direct contact between the teeth of the...

Does the presence of the biological control agent, Hypena opulenta (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) on Swallow-Worts deter Monarch oviposition?

Marianna Szucs, Brianna Alred, Ruth Hufbauer, Nathan Haan & Douglas A Landis
Abstract Invasive black and pale swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench, and Vincetoxicum rossicum Kelopow), which are related to milkweeds, can act as ecological traps for monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)) as they lay eggs on them that fail to develop. A recently approved biological control agent against swallow-worts, Hypena opulenta Christoph, occupies the same feeding guild on swallow-worts as monarch larvae and could be perceived as a competitor to monarchs. We tested how...

Extreme natural size variation in both sexes of a sexually cannibalistic mantidfly

Laurel Lietzenmayer, Lauren Goldstein, Josephine Pasche & Lisa Taylor
In sexually cannibalistic animals, the relative sizes of potential mates often predict the outcome of aggressive encounters. Mantidflies are spider egg predators as larvae and generalist predators as adults. Unlike most cannibalistic species, individual mantidflies can be substantially larger than other individuals, regardless of sex. Using preserved collections of Dicromantispa sayi, we focused on three body size metrics that we found to be positively correlated and accurately measured across researchers. We found extreme size variation...

Targeting Flavor Deglycosylation Improves Formulation of Whole Celery-Based Apigenin Rich Food

Zach Heeringa, Meenakshi Sudhakaran, Alison M. Gjidoda & Andrea I. Doseff
Flavone apigenin is a plant bioactive compound abundantly found in human diets. Apigenin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities, thereby presenting promising yet unexploited prospects for the prevention and treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Apigenin, like other flavones, naturally occursin plants in its glycoside form. However, apigenin glycosides are less absorbed compared to their aglycone counterparts leading to diminished antiinflammatory and anti-cancer activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Additionally, apigenin aglycones have poor...

Ungulate herbivores as drivers of Aspen recruitment and understory composition throughout arid Montane landscapes

J. Hall Cushman, Elizabeth Reikowski & Tyler Refsland
Herbivory by wild and domestic ungulates can influence tree recruitment and understory forest communities throughout the world. Herbivore-driven declines in tree recruitment have been observed for quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), a foundation species whose health and management is recognized as a critical priority throughout much of its range. Livestock fencing is commonly used to promote aspen regeneration, but its effectiveness is rarely assessed, especially across large spatial scales. Using a livestock-reduction experiment, we evaluated the...

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  • 2022

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  • University of Massachusetts Darmouth