17 Works

Data from: Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution

Bernhard Misof, Shanlin Liu, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Paul B. Frandsen, Jessica Ware, Tomas Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Malte Petersen, Fernando Izquierdo-Carrasco, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Andre J. Aberer, Ulrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Simon Berger, Alexander Böhm, Thomas Buckley, Brett Calcott, Junqing Chen … & Xin Zhou
Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight...

Phylogeny of the supertribe Nebriitae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) based on analyses of DNA sequence data

David H. Kavanaugh, David Maddison, W. Brian Simison, Sean D. Schoville, Joachim Schmidt, Arnaud Faille, Wendy Moore, James M. Pflug, Sophie L. Archambeault, Tinya Hoang & Jei-Ying Chen
The phylogeny of the carabid beetle supertribe Nebriitae is inferred from analyses of DNA sequence data from eight gene fragments including one nuclear ribosomal gene (28S), four nuclear-protein coding genes (CAD, topoisomerase 1, PEPCK and wingless) and three mitochondrial gene fragments (16S + tRNA-Leu + ND1, COI (“barcode” region) and COI (“Pat/Jer” region)). Our taxon sample included 264 exemplars representing 241 species and subspecies (25% of the known nebriite fauna), 39 of 41 currently accepted...

Bemisia tabaci cryptic species: supplementary materials

Norman MacLeod, Roy Canty & Andrew Polaszek
This archive contains supplementary materials relating to the investigation of morphological differences in Bemisia tabcai puparia as rescribed in MacLeod, N., Canty, R.J., and Polazek, A., 2022, Morphology-based identification of Bemisia tabaci cryptic species puparia via embedded group-contrast convolution neural network analysis: Systematic Biology. The materials archived include (1) and inventory of all puparial images, (2) full sets of results files for the image-based t-SNE and embedded, group-contrasts CNN analyses, (3) Wolfram Mathematical™ scripting code...

Extending the footprint record of Pareiasauromorpha to the Cisuralian: earlier appearance and wider palaeobiogeography of the group

Lorenzo Marchetti, Sebastian Voigt, Eudald Mujal, Spencer Lucas, Heitor Francischini, Josep Fortuny & Vincent Santucci
Pareiasauromorpha is one of the most important tetrapod groups of the Permian. Skeletal evidence suggests a late Kungurian origin in North America, whereas the majority of occurrences come from the Guadalupian and Lopingian of South Africa and Russia. Pareiasauromorpha footprints include the ichnogenus Pachypes, that is, however, unknown from strata older than late Guadalupian. A revision of several Pachypes-like footprints from the Cisuralian–Guadalupian of Europe and North America confirm the occurrence of this ichnogenus and...

Data from: Importance of latrine communication in European rabbits shifts along a rural–to–urban gradient

Madlen Ziege, David Bierbach, Svenja Bischoff, Anna-Lena Brandt, Mareike Brix, Bastian Greshake, Stefan Merker, Sandra Wenninger, Torsten Wronski & Martin Plath
BACKGROUND: Information transfer in mammalian communication networks is often based on the deposition of excreta in latrines. Depending on the intended receiver(s), latrines are either formed at territorial boundaries (between-group communication) or in core areas of home ranges (within-group communication). The relative importance of both types of marking behavior should depend, amongst other factors, on population densities and social group sizes, which tend to differ between urban and rural wildlife populations. Our study is the...

Data from: Integration of molecules and new fossils supports a Triassic origin for Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, and tuatara)

Marc E. H. Jones, Cajsa Lisa Anderson, Christy A. Hipsley, Johannes Müller, Susan E. Evans & Rainer R. Schoch
Background: Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, tuatara) is a globally distributed and ecologically important group of over 9,000 reptile species. The earliest fossil records are currently restricted to the Late Triassic and often dated to 227 million years ago (Mya). As these early records include taxa that are relatively derived in their morphology (e.g. Brachyrhinodon), an earlier unknown history of Lepidosauria is implied. However, molecular age estimates for Lepidosauria have been problematic; dates for the most recent...

Migratory divides coincide with reproductive barriers across replicated avian hybrid zones above the Tibetan Plateau

Elizabeth Scordato, Chris C. R. Smith, Georgy A. Semenov, Yu Liu, Matthew R. Wilkins, Wei Liang, Alexander Rubtsov, Gomboobaatar Sundev, Kazuo Koyama, Sheela P. Turbek, Michael B. Wunder, Craig A. Stricker & Rebecca Safran
Migratory divides are proposed to be catalysts for speciation across a diversity of taxa. However, it is difficult to test the relative contributions of migratory behavior vs. other divergent traits to reproductive isolation. Comparing hybrid zones with and without migratory divides offers a rare opportunity to directly examine the contribution of divergent migratory behavior to reproductive barriers. We show that across replicate sampling transects of two pairs of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) subspecies, strong reproductive...

Data from: Feeding habits of the Middle Triassic pseudosuchian Batrachotomus kupferzellensis from Germany and palaeoecological implications for archosaurs

Eudald Mujal, Eudald Mujal, Christian Foth, Erin Maxwell, Dieter Seegis & Rainer Schoch
Bite traces on fossil bones are key to deciphering feeding ecology and trophic interactions of vertebrate past ecosystems. However, similarities between traces produced by different carnivorous taxa with similar dentitions and misidentifications due to equifinality hinder confident identifications of the bite makers. Here, we correlate bite traces with macroscopic wear and microanatomy of the teeth of the pseudosuchian archosaur Batrachotomus kupferzellensis from the Triassic Lower Keuper fossil lagerstätten (southern Germany), untangling its feeding habits and...

Data from: A new dissorophoid temnospondyl from the Allegheny Group (Late Westphalian, Carboniferous) of Five Points, Mahoning County, Ohio (USA)

Rainer Schoch, Amy Henrici & Robert Hook
A small temnospondyl skull from the Upper Carboniferous Allegheny Group of Five Points, Ohio, is referred to a new dissorophoid, Palodromeus bairdi n. gen n. sp. The complete skull with mandibles is preserved in counterparts. It is characterized by (1) elongated slit-like choana, (2) postfrontal, postorbital, and supratemporal bearing a distinct ridge, and (3) reduced parietal only two-thirds the length of the frontal. Phylogenetic analysis confirms a dichotomy between amphibamiforms and olsoniforms and places Palodromeus...

Data from: Spatial and ecological population genetic structures within two island-endemic Aeonium species of different niche width

David E. V. Harter, Mike Thiv, Alfons Weig, Anke Jentsch & Carl Beierkuhnlein
The Crassulacean genus Aeonium is a well-known example for plant species radiation on oceanic archipelagos. However, while allopatric speciation among islands is documented for this genus, the role of intra-island speciation due to population divergence by topographical isolation or ecological heterogeneity has not yet been addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate intraspecific genetic structures and to identify spatial and ecological drivers of genetic population differentiation on the island scale. We analyzed inter...

Data from: Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi's iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events

Laurent A. F. Frantz, Anna Rudzinski, Abang Mansyursyah Surya Nugraha, Allowen Evin, James Burton, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Anna Linderholm, Ross Barnett, Rodrigo Vega, Evan K. Irving-Pease, James Haile, Richard Allen, Kristin Leus, Jill Shephard, Mia Hillyer, Sarah Gillemot, Jeroen Van Den Hurk, Sharron Ogle, Cristina Atofanei, Mark G. Thomas, Friederike Johansson, Abdul Haris Mustari, John Williams, Kusdiantoro Mohamad, Chandramaya Siska Damayanti … & Greger Larson
The high degree of endemism on Sulawesi has previously been suggested to have vicariant origins, dating back 40 Myr ago. Recent studies, however, suggest that much of Sulawesi’s fauna assembled over the last 15 Myr. Here, we test the hypothesis that more recent uplift of previously submerged portions of land on Sulawesi promoted diversification, and that much of its faunal assemblage is much younger than the island itself. To do so, we combined palaeogeographical reconstructions...

Dissorophoid temnospondyl Parioxys from the Permian of Texas

Rainer Schoch & Hans-Dieter Sues
Parioxys ferricolus is a long-neglected taxon of dissorophid temnospondyls from the early Permian (Cisuralian) of Texas. Reexamination of the original material and preparation of a previously undescribed specimen sheds some light on ontogeny and reveals numerous eucacopine features. P. ferricolus is characterized by (1) a preorbital region 1.5 times as long as the posterior skull table in juveniles and twice as long in adults, (2) parietal only two-thirds the length of the frontal, and (3)...

Data from: Evolution of flexible biting in hyperdiverse parasitoid wasps

Thomas Van De Kamp, István Mikó, Arnold H. Staniczek, Benjamin Eggs, Daria Bajerlein, Tomáš Faragó, Lea Hagelstein, Elias Hamann, Rebecca Spiecker, Tilo Baumbach, Petr Janšta & Lars Krogmann
One key event in insect evolution was the development of mandibles with two joints, which allowed powerful biting, but restricted their movement to a single degree of freedom. These mandibles define the Dicondylia, which constitute over 99 percent of all extant insect species. It was common doctrine that the dicondylic articulation of chewing mandibles remained unaltered for more than 400 million years. We report highly modified mandibles overcoming the restrictions of a single degree of...

A tiny new Middle Triassic stem-lepidosauromorph from Germany: implications for the early evolution of lepidosauromorphs and the Vellberg fauna

Gabriela Sobral, Tiago R. Simões & Rainer R. Schoch
The Middle Triassic was a time of major changes in tetrapod faunas worldwide, but the fossil record for this interval is largely obscure for terrestrial faunas. This poses a severe limitation to our understanding on the earliest stages of the diversification of lineages representing some of the most diverse faunas in the world today, such as lepidosauromorphs (e.g., lizards and tuataras). Here, we report a tiny new lepidosauromorph from the Middle Triassic from Vellberg (Germany),...

New Sclerocephalus species and temnospondyl braincase evolution

Rainer Schoch & Gabriela Sobral
The late Paleozoic temnospondyl Sclerocephalus formed an aquatic top predator in various Central European lakes of the Late Carboniferous and early Permian. Despite hundreds of specimens spanning a wide range of sizes, knowledge of the endocranium (braincase and palatoquadrate) remained very insufficient in Sclerocephalus and other stereospondylomorphs, because even large skulls had unossified endocrania. A new specimen from a stratigraphically ancient deposit is recognized as representing a new taxon, S. concordiae n. sp., and reveals...

Data from: Phylotranscriptomic consolidation of the jawed vertebrate timetree

Iker Irisarri, Denis Baurain, Henner Brinkmann, Frédéric Delsuc, Jean-Yves Sire, Alexander Kupfer, Jörn Petersen, Michael Jarek, Axel Meyer, Miguel Vences & Hervé Philippe
Phylogenomics is extremely powerful but introduces new challenges as no agreement exists on “standards” for data selection, curation and tree inference. We use jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) as model to address these issues. Despite considerable efforts in resolving their evolutionary history and macroevolution, few studies have included a full phylogenetic diversity of gnathostomes and some relationships remain controversial. We tested a novel bioinformatic pipeline to assemble large and accurate phylogenomic datasets from RNA sequencing and find...

Data from: Life-history strategies indicate live-bearing in Nothosaurus (Sauropterygia)

Eva Maria Griebeler & Nicole Klein
In Sauropterygia, a diverse group of Mesozoic marine reptiles, fossil evidence of viviparity (live‐bearing) only exists for Pachypleurosauria and Plesiosauria, and was assumed to also be the case for nothosaurs. Previous studies have successfully applied an extant squamate model to sauropterygian life‐history traits. In extant squamates, oviparity and viviparity are associated with differences in life‐history trait combinations. We establish growth curves for Nothosaurus specimens based on their humeral histology. We then analyse life‐history traits derived...

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