25 Works

Stable water isotopes in Western Siberian inland waters

P. Ala-Aho, C. Soulsby, O.S. Pokrovsky, S.N. Kirpotin, J. Karlsson, S. Serikova, R. Manasypov, A. Lim, I. Krickov, S.N. Vorobyev, L.G. Kolesnichenko, S. Loiko & D. Tetzlaff
The data consist of stable water isotope composition in the rivers , lakes, soils and flooded areas in the Western Siberia Lowlands (WSL). Sampling area encompassed a 1700 km south-north transect spanning from approx. 56°N to 68°N in latitude and 74°E to 84°E in longitude. Samples were collected during multiple field campaigns between February 2014 and November 2016. The dataset in produced as a part of the JPI/NERC funded SIWA project "Climate impact on the...

Data from: Urine is an important nitrogen source for plants irrespective of vegetation composition in an Arctic tundra: insights from a 15N-enriched urea tracer experiment

Hélène Barthelemy, Sari Stark, Anders Michelsen & Johan Olofsson
1. Mammalian herbivores can strongly influence nitrogen (N) cycling and herbivore urine could be a central component of the N cycle in grazed ecosystems. Despite its potential role for ecosystem productivity and functioning, the fate of N derived from urine has rarely been investigated in grazed ecosystems. 2. This study explored the fate of 15N-enriched urea in tundra sites that have been either lightly or intensively grazed by reindeer for more than 50 years. We...

Data from: Informative plot sizes in presence-absence sampling of forest floor vegetation

Göran Ståhl, Magnus Ekström, Jonas Dahlgren, Per-Anders Esseen, Anton Grafström & Bengt-Gunnar Jonsson
1. Plant communities are attracting increased interest in connection with forest and landscape inventories due to society’s interest in ecosystem services. However, the acquisition of accurate information about plant communities poses several methodological challenges. Here we investigate the use of presence-absence sampling with the aim to monitor state and change of plant density. We study what plot sizes are informative, i.e. the estimators should have as high precision as possible. 2. Plant occurrences were modeled...

Data from: Increased dopamine release after working-memory updating training: neurochemical correlates of transfer

Lars Bäckman, Otto Waris, Jarkko Johansson, Micael Andersson, Juha O. Rinne, Kati Alakurtti, Anna Soveri, Matti Laine & Lars Nyberg
Previous work demonstrates that working-memory (WM) updating training results in improved performance on a letter-memory criterion task, transfers to an untrained n-back task, and increases striatal dopamine (DA) activity during the criterion task. Here, we sought to replicate and extend these findings by also examining neurochemical correlates of transfer. Four positron emission tomography (PET) scans using the radioligand raclopride were performed. Two of these assessed DAD2 binding (letter memory; n-back) before 5 weeks of updating...

Data from: How bird clades diversify in response to climatic and geographic factors

Genoveva Rodriguez-Castaneda, Anouschka R. Hof & Roland Jansson
While the environmental correlates of global patterns in standing species richness are well understood, it is poorly known which environmental factors promote diversification (speciation minus extinction) in clades. We tested several hypotheses for how geographic and climatic variables should affect diversification using a large dataset of bird sister genera endemic to the New World. We found support for the area, evolutionary speed, environmental predictability and climatic stability hypotheses, but productivity and topographic complexity were rejected...

Data from: Spatial and quantitative datasets of the pancreatic β-cell mass distribution in lean and obese mice

Saba Parween, Maria Eriksson, Christoffer Nord, Elena Kostromina & Ulf Ahlgren
A detailed understanding of pancreatic β-cell mass distribution is a key element to fully appreciate the pathophysiology of models of diabetes and metabolic stress. Commonly, such assessments have been performed by stereological approaches that rely on the extrapolation of two-dimensional data and provide very limited topological information. We present ex vivo optical tomographic data sets of the full β-cell mass distribution in cohorts of obese ob/ob mice and their lean controls, together with information about...

Data from: The role of bryophytes for tree seedling responses to winter climate change: implications for the stress gradient hypothesis

Signe Lett, David A. Wardle, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson, Laurenz M. Teuber & Ellen Dorrepaal
1.When tree seedlings establish beyond the current tree line due to climate warming, they encounter existing vegetation, such as bryophytes that often dominate in arctic and alpine tundra. The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts that plant interactions in tundra become increasingly negative as climate warms and conditions become less harsh. However, for seedlings climate warming might not result in lower winter stress, if insulating snow cover is reduced. 2.We aimed to understand to if bryophytes...

Data from: Coordinated responses of soil communities to elevation in three subarctic vegetation types

G. F. Ciska Veen, Jonathan R. De Long, Paul Kardol, Maja K. Sundqvist, L. Basten Snoek & David A. Wardle
Global warming has begun to have a major impact on the species composition and functioning of plant and soil communities. However, long-term community and ecosystem responses to increased temperature are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a well-established elevational gradient in northern Sweden to elucidate how plant, microbial and nematode communities shift with elevation and associated changes in temperature in three highly contrasting vegetation types (i.e. heath, meadow and Salix vegetation). We found...

Data from: Optimal management strategy of insecticide resistance under various insect life histories: heterogeneous timing of selection and inter-patch dispersal

Masaaki Sudo, Daisuke Takahashi, David A. Andow, Yoshito Suzuki & Takahiko Yamanaka
Although theoretical studies have shown that the mixture strategy, which uses multiple toxins simultaneously, can effectively delay the evolution of insecticide resistance, whether it is the optimal management under different insect life histories and insecticide types remains unknown. To test the robustness of the management strategy over the life histories, we developed a series of simulation models which cover almost all the diploid insect types and have the same basic structure describing pest population dynamics...

Data from: Potential contributions of root decomposition to the nitrogen cycle in arctic forest and tundra

Sabrina Träger, Ann Milbau & Scott D. Wilson
1. Plant contributions to the nitrogen (N) cycle from decomposition are likely to be altered by vegetation shifts associated with climate change. Roots account for the majority of soil organic matter input from vegetation, but little is known about differences between vegetation types in their root contributions to nutrient cycling. Here, we examine the potential contribution of fine roots to the N cycle in forest and tundra to gain insight into belowground consequences of the...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Grazing decreases N partitioning among coexisting plant species

Hélène Barthelemy, Sari Stark, Minna-Maarit Kytoviita & Johan Olofsson
1. Herbivores play a key role in shaping ecosystem structure and functions by influencing plant and microbial community composition and nutrient cycling. 2. This study investigated the long-term effects of herbivores on plant resource acquisition. We explored differences in the natural δ15N signatures in plant, microbial and soil N pools, and examined mycorrhizal colonization in two tundra sites that have been either lightly or heavily grazed by reindeer for more than 50 years. The study...

Data from: Enhanced ecosystem functioning following stream restoration: the roles of habitat heterogeneity and invertebrate species traits

André Frainer, Lina E. Polvi, Roland Jansson & Brendan G. McKie
1. Habitat restoration is increasingly undertaken in degraded streams and rivers to help improve biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Follow-up assessments focused on outcomes for biodiversity have often found scant evidence for recovery, thus raising concerns about the efficacy of habitat restoration for improving ecological integrity. However, responses of other ecological variables, such as ecosystem process rates and the functional trait composition of biological assemblages, have been little assessed. 2. We assessed how the restoration of...

Data from: Riparian plant guilds become simpler and most likely fewer following flow regulation

María D. Bejarano, Christer Nilsson & Francisca C. Aguiar
1. River regulation affects riparian systems worldwide and conservation and restoration efforts are essential to retain biodiversity, and the functioning and services of riverine ecosystems. Effects of regulation on plant species richness have been widely addressed, but the filtering effect of regulation on guilds has received less attention. 2. We used a functional trait approach to identify adaptive plant strategies through regulation-tolerant traits and predict shifts of riparian vegetation communities in response to regulation. We...

Data from: Long-term test–retest reliability of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding: study with [11C]raclopride and high-resolution PET

Kati Alakurtti, Jarkko J Johansson, Juho Joutsa, Matti Laine, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg & Juha O Rinne
We measured the long-term test–retest reliability of [11C]raclopride binding in striatal subregions, the thalamus and the cortex using the bolus-plus-infusion method and a high-resolution positron emission scanner. Seven healthy male volunteers underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) [11C]raclopride assessments, with a 5-week retest interval. D2/3 receptor availability was quantified as binding potential using the simplified reference tissue model. Absolute variability (VAR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values indicated very good reproducibility for the striatum and...

Data from: Winter warming effects on tundra shrub performance are species-specific and dependent on spring conditions

Eveline J. Krab, Jonas Rönnefarth, Marina Becher, Gesche Blume-Werry, Frida Keuper, Jonatan Klaminder, Juergen Kreyling, Kobayashi Makoto, Ann Milbau, Ellen Dorrepaal & Jonas Roennefarth
1. Climate change driven increases in winter temperatures positively affect conditions for shrub growth in arctic tundra by decreasing plant frost damage and stimulation of nutrient availability. However, the extent to which shrubs may benefit from these conditions may be strongly dependent on the following spring climate. Species-specific differences in phenology and spring frost sensitivity likely affect shrub growth responses to warming. Additionally, effects of changes in winter and spring climate may differ over small...

Data from: Effects of warming on predator–prey interactions – a resource-based approach and a theoretical synthesis

Wojciech Uszko, Sebastian Diehl, Göran Englund & Priyanga Amarasekare
We theoretically explore consequences of warming for predator-prey dynamics, broadening previous approaches in three ways: we include beyond-optimal temperatures, predators may have a type III functional response, and prey carrying capacity depends on explicitly modeled resources. Several robust patterns arise. The relationship between prey carrying capacity and temperature can range from near-independence to monotonically declining/increasing to hump-shaped. Predators persist in a U-shaped region in resource supply (=enrichment)-temperature space. Type II responses yield stable persistence in...

Data from: Estimating species colonization dates using DNA in lake sediment

Fredrik Olajos, Folmer Bokma, Pia Bartels, Erik Myrstener, Johan Rydberg, Gunnar Öhlund, Richard Bindler, Xiao-Ru Wang, Rolf Zale & Göran Englund
1. Detection of DNA in lake sediments holds promise as a tool to study processes like extinction, colonization, adaptation and evolutionary divergence. However, low concentrations make sediment DNA difficult to detect, leading to high false negative rates. Additionally, contamination could potentially lead to high false positive rates. Careful laboratory procedures can reduce false positive and negative rates, but should not be assumed to completely eliminate them. Therefore, methods are needed that identify potential false positive...

Data from: Eco-evolution in size-structured ecosystems: simulation case study of rapid morphological changes in alewife

Jung Koo Kang & Xavier Thibert-Plante
Background: Over the last 300 years, interactions between alewives and zooplankton communities in several lakes in the U.S. have caused the alewives’ morphology to transition rapidly from anadromous to landlocked. Lakes with landlocked alewives contain smaller-bodied zooplankton than those without alewives. Landlocked adult alewives display smaller body sizes, narrower gapes, smaller inter-gill-raker spacings, reach maturity at an earlier age, and are less fecund than anadromous alewives. Additionally, landlocked alewives consume pelagic prey exclusively throughout their...

Data from: Genetic differences between willow warbler migratory phenotypes are few and cluster in large haplotype blocks

Max Lundberg, Miriam Liedvogel, Keith Larson, Hanna Sigeman, Mats Grahn, Anthony Wright, Susanne Åkesson & Staffan Bensch
It is well established that differences in migratory behavior between populations of songbirds have a genetic basis but the actual genes underlying these traits remains largely unknown. In an attempt to identify such candidate genes we de novo assembled the genome of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus, and used whole-genome resequencing and a SNP array to associate genomic variation with migratory phenotypes across two migratory divides around the Baltic Sea that separate SW migrating P....

Data from: Consequences of grazer-induced vegetation transitions on ecosystem carbon storage in the tundra

Henni Ylänne, Johan Olofsson, Lauri Oksanen & Sari Stark
1. Large herbivores can control plant community composition and, under certain conditions, even induce vegetation shifts to alternative ecosystem states. As different plant assemblages maintain contrasting carbon (C) cycling patterns, herbivores have the potential to alter C sequestration at regional scales. Their influence is of particular interest in the Arctic tundra, where a large share of the world’s soil C reservoir is stored. 2. We analysed how grazing mammals influence tundra vegetation and how grazer-induced...

Data from: A simple experimental set-up to disentangle the effects of altered temperature and moisture regimes on soil organisms

Eveline J. Krab, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen & Matty P. Berg
1. Climate manipulation experiments in the field and laboratory incubations are common methods to study the impact of climate change on soils and their biota. However, both types of methods have drawbacks either on their mechanistic interpretation or ecological relevance. 2. We propose an experimental setup that combines the best of both methods, and can be easily obtained by modifying widely available Tullgren soil fauna extractors. This setup creates or alters temperature and moisture gradients...

Data from: Is a larger refuge always better? Dispersal and dose in pesticide resistance evolution

Daisuke Takahashi, Takehiko Yamanaka, Masaaki Sudo & David A. Andow
The evolution of resistance against pesticides is an important problem of modern agriculture. The high-dose/refuge strategy, which divides the landscape into treated and non-treated (refuge) patches, has proven effective at delaying resistance evolution. However, theoretical understanding is still incomplete, especially for combinations of limited dispersal and partially recessive resistance. We reformulate a two-patch model based on the Comins model and derive a simple quadratic approximation to analyze the effects of limited dispersal, refuge size and...

Data from: Non-random dispersal mediates invader impacts on the invertebrate community

Julien Cote, Tomas Brodin, Sean Fogarty & Andrew Sih
(1) Dispersers are often not a random draw from a population, dispersal propensity being conditional on individual phenotypic traits and local conditions. This non-randomness consequently results in phenotypic differences between dispersers and non-dispersers and, in the context of biological invasions, in an invasion front made of individuals with a biased phenotype. This bias of phenotypes at the front may subsequently modulate the strength of ecological effects of an invasive species on invaded communities. (2) We...

Data from: Root phenology unresponsive to earlier snowmelt despite advanced aboveground phenology in two subarctic plant communities

Gesche Blume-Werry, Roland Jansson & Ann Milbau
Earlier snowmelt at high latitudes advances aboveground plant phenology, thereby affecting water, nutrient and carbon cycles. Despite the key role of fine roots in these ecosystem processes, phenological responses to earlier snowmelt have never been assessed belowground. We experimentally advanced snowmelt in two contrasting plant community types, heath and meadow, in northern Sweden and measured above- and belowground phenology: leaf-out, flowering and fine root growth. We expected earlier snowmelt to advance both above- and belowground...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    25

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    25

Affiliations

  • Umeå University
    25
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    6
  • Research Institute for Nature and Forest
    3
  • University of Copenhagen
    3
  • Karolinska Institute
    3
  • University of Lapland
    3
  • Lund University
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences
    2
  • Nanyang Technological University
    2