372 Works

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity data from a grassland microcosm experiment [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

D. Johnson, P.J. Vandenkoornhuyse, J.R. Leake, L. Gilbert, , J.P Grime, J.P.W. Young & D.J. Read
These arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi diversity data were collected in 2000 as part of an investigation in an unfertilized limestone grassland soil supporting different synthesized vascular plant assemblages that had developed for three years. The experimental treatments comprised: bare soil; monocultures of the non mycotrophic sedge Carex flacca; monocultures of the mycotrophic grass Festuca ovina; and a species-rich mixture of four forbs, four grasses and four sedges. The experiment was undertaken in microcosms, set up...

Soil temperature profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of soil temperature profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil temperature profiles were monitored during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, thawing features of peatland plateaus, unburnt and burnt black spruce forests, and additional sites.

Soil thaw depth from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This datasets contains measures of soil thaw depth from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil thaw depth was measured in 2013 and 2014 in sites from Yukon and Northwest Territories.

Modelled potential carbon storage based on land cover and published carbon storage values in urban landscapes of the South Midlands

D.R. Grafius, R. Corstanje & J. A. Harris
This dataset shows potential carbon storage as modelled for the urban areas of Milton Keynes/Newport Pagnell, Bedford, and Luton/Dunstable, UK. The modelling approach used the ‘InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs) 3.1.0’ ecosystem service model suite, raster land cover maps at two spatial resolutions (5 m and 25 m) and published literature values for carbon storage by land cover. The resulting data are presented in the form of two ‘GeoTIFF’ raster map files...

Bird abundance and diversity data from Sheffield green spaces in summer 2018

R.W.F. Cameron, P. Brindley, J. Riley & J. Goodrick
The data records bird species and number in different green spaces within Sheffield City Region during June and July 2018. Activity of individual birds is also noted. Ten green spaces (parks) were surveyed on three occasions, with a researcher walking along six pre-designated line transects in each location. Birds were recorded by their common names and British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) code. Date and time were recorded for each observation. The data was collected as...

Long-term cloud forest response to climate warming revealed by insect speciation history

Antonia Salces-Castellano, Sean Stankowski, Paula Arribas, Jairo Patiño, Dirk N. Karger, Roger Butlin & Brent C. Emerson
Montane cloud forests are areas of high endemism, and are one of the more vulnerable terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Thus, understanding how they both contribute to the generation of biodiversity, and will respond to ongoing climate change, are important and related challenges. The widely accepted model for montane cloud forest dynamics involves upslope forcing of their range limits with global climate warming. However, limited climate data provides some support for an alternative model, where...

Training on dsRNA bio manufacturing and management of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus on stored cowpea in Kano, Nigeria

Abou TOGOLA, Alison Nwokeoji & Boukar Ousmane
The proposed is a multidisciplinary project for development of a novel RNA-based crop protection strategy for managing cowpea pests. The RNA biopesticides have the potential for use in the management of a wide range of insect pests and pathogens but we will focus on the design and biomanufacturing of novel RNA based pesticides to target the cowpea pod borer (Maruca vitrata). Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) the most damaging pest of cowpea at podding stage....

Data from: Social and spatial effects on genetic variation between foraging flocks in a wild bird population

Reinder Radersma, Colin J. Garroway, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Damien R. Farine, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Social interactions are rarely random. In some instances animals exhibit homophily or heterophily, the tendency to interact with similar or dissimilar conspecifics respectively. Genetic homophily and heterophily influence the evolutionary dynamics of populations, because they potentially affect sexual and social selection. Here we investigate the link between social interactions and allele frequencies in foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) over three consecutive years. We constructed co-occurrence networks which explicitly described the splitting and merging...

Data from: Recent natural selection causes adaptive evolution of an avian polygenic trait

Mirte Bosse, Lewis G. Spurgin, Veronika N. Laine, Ella F. Cole, Josh A. Firth, Phillip Gienapp, Andrew G. Gosler, Keith McMahon, Jocelyn Poissant, Irene Verhagen, Martien A. M. Groenen, Kees Van Oers, Ben C. Sheldon, Marcel E. Visser & Jon Slate
We used extensive data from a long-term study of great tits (Parus major) in the United Kingdom and Netherlands to better understand how genetic signatures of selection translate into variation in fitness and phenotypes. We found that genomic regions under differential selection contained candidate genes for bill morphology and used genetic architecture analyses to confirm that these genes, especially the collagen gene COL4A5, explained variation in bill length. COL4A5 variation was associated with reproductive success,...

Data from: Whole-genome patterns of linkage disequilibrium across flycatcher populations clarify the causes and consequences of fine-scale recombination rate variation in birds

Takeshi Kawakami, Carina F. Mugal, Alexander Suh, Alexander Nater, Reto Burri, Linnea Smeds & Hans Ellegren
Recombination rate is heterogeneous across the genome of various species, and so are genetic diversity and differentiation as a consequence of linked selection. However, we still lack a clear picture of the underlying mechanisms for regulating recombination. Here we estimated fine-scale population recombination rate based on the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genomes of multiple populations of two closely related flycatcher species (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca). This revealed an overall conservation of...

Data from: Accurately quantifying the shape of birds' eggs

John D. Biggins, Jamie E. Thompson & Tim R. Birkhead
Describing the range of avian egg shapes quantitatively has long been recognised as difficult. A variety of approaches has been adopted, some of which aim to capture the shape accurately and some to provide intelligible indices of shape. The objectives here are to show that a (four-parameter) method proposed by Preston (1953) is the best option for quantifying egg shape, to provide and document an R program for applying this method to suitable photographs of...

Data from: Detecting genes for variation in parasite burden and immunological traits in a wild population: testing the candidate gene approach

Emily A. Brown, Jill G. Pilkington, Dan H. Nussey, Kathryn A. Watt, Adam D. Hayward, Rachel Tucker, Andrea L. Graham, Steve Paterson, Dario Beraldi, Josephine M. Pemberton & Jon Slate
Identifying the genes underlying phenotypic variation in natural populations can provide novel insight into the evolutionary process. Here we test the candidate gene approach to identifying loci involved in variation in gastrointestinal parasite burden, in a wild population of Soay sheep. A comprehensive literature review, Gene Ontology databases, and comparative genomics resources were used to generate a list of candidate genes. In a pilot study these candidates, along with 50 random genes, were then sequenced...

Data from: Are assortative mating and genital divergence driven by reinforcement?

Johan Hollander, Mauricio Montaño-Rendón, Giuseppe Bianco, Xi Yang, Anja M. Westram, Ludovic Duvaux, David G. Reid & Roger K. Butlin
The evolution of assortative mating is a key part of the speciation process. Stronger assortment, or greater divergence in mating traits, between species pairs with overlapping ranges is commonly observed, but possible causes of this pattern of reproductive character displacement are difficult to distinguish. We use a multidisciplinary approach to provide a rare example where it is possible to distinguish among hypotheses concerning the evolution of reproductive character displacement. We build on an earlier comparative...

Data from: Phylogeny and generic delimitation in Molluginaceae, new pigment data in Caryophyllales, and the new family Corbichoniaceae

Mats Thulin, Abigail J. Moore, Hesham El-Seedi, Anders Larsson, Pascal-Antoine Christin & Erika J. Edwards
The circumscription of Molluginaceae has changed radically in recent years, with Corbichonia being moved to Lophiocarpaceae, Limeum to Limeaceae, Macarthuria to Macarthuriaceae and all species of Hypertelis, except the type, to Kewa in Kewaceae. In a broad analysis of core Caryophyllales using plastid trnK-matK and rbcL sequences, the position of Molluginaceae in a strict sense as sister to the Portulacineae clade is corroborated, as are the positions of Corbichonia, Limeum and Kewa outside the family....

Data from: The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler

David J. Wright, Lewis G. Spurgin, Nigel J. Collar, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke & David S. Richardson
Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short and long term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity and how this affects genetic structure among the conserved populations overall has received little investigation. We compared the impact of translocating different numbers of founders on both microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)...

Data from: Replicated high-density genetic maps of two great tit populations reveal fine-scale genomic departures from sex-equal recombination rates

Kees Van Oers, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Nikkie E. M. Van Bers, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Ben C. Sheldon, Marcel E. Visser, Jon Slate & Martien A. M. Groenen
Linking variation in quantitative traits to variation in the genome is an important, but challenging task in the study of life-history evolution. Linkage maps provide a valuable tool for the unravelling of such trait-gene associations. Moreover, they give insight into recombination landscapes and between- species karyotype evolution. Here we used genotype data, generated from a 10k SNP-chip, of over 2000 individuals to produce high-density linkage maps of the great tit (Parus major), a passerine bird,...

Data from: Less favorable climates constrain demographic strategies in plants

Anna M. Csergo, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Olivier Broennimann, Shaun R. Coutts, Antoine Guisan, Amy L. Angert, Erik Welk, Iain Stott, Brian J. Enquist, Brian McGill, Jens-Christian Svenning, Cyrille Violle & Yvonne M. Buckley
Correlative species distribution models are based on the observed relationship between species’ occurrence and macroclimate or other environmental variables. In climates predicted less favourable populations are expected to decline, and in favourable climates they are expected to persist. However, little comparative empirical support exists for a relationship between predicted climate suitability and population performance. We found that the performance of 93 populations of 34 plant species worldwide – as measured by in situ population growth...

Data from: Testing an hypothesis of hybrid zone movement for toads in France

Isolde Van Riemsdijk, Roger K. Butlin, Ben Wielstra, Jan W. Arntzen & Isolde Riemsdijk
Hybrid zone movement may result in substantial unidirectional introgression of selectively neutral material from the local to the advancing species, leaving a genetic footprint. This genetic footprint is represented by a trail of asymmetric tails and displaced cline centres in the wake of the moving hybrid zone. A peak of admixture linkage disequilibrium is predicted to exist ahead of the centre of the moving hybrid zone. We test these predictions of the movement hypothesis in...

Data from: Outbreeding effects in an inbreeding insect, Cimex lectularius

Toby Fountain, Roger K. Butlin, Klaus Reinhardt & Oliver Otti
In some species, populations with few founding individuals can be resilient to extreme inbreeding. Inbreeding seems to be the norm in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a flightless insect that, nevertheless, can reach large deme sizes and persist successfully. However, bed bugs can also be dispersed passively by humans, exposing inbred populations to gene flow from genetically distant populations. The introduction of genetic variation through this outbreeding could lead to increased fitness (heterosis) or...

Data from: Forest snail faunas from Crimea (Ukraine), an isolated and incomplete Pleistocene refugium

Robert A. D. Cameron, Beata M. Pokryszko & Michal Horsák
The land snail faunas of 26 forest sites and two open rocky sites in the Crimean Mountains were sampled in 2011. Of the 40 species found within the forests (about half the known fauna of Crimea as a whole), 28 were species with wide western Palaearctic distributions, and only eight were endemic to Crimea. While there were significant differences in the faunas of different sampling areas, these seemed to be a consequence of ecological differences...

Data from: Are extra-pair males different from cuckolded males? An empirical and meta-analytic examination

Yu-Hsun Hsu, Julia Schroeder, Isabel Winney, Terry Burke & Shinichi Nakagawa
Traditional models for female extra-pair matings assume that females benefit indirectly from extra-pair mating behaviour. Under these so-called adaptive models, extra-pair males are hypothesized to have more compatible genotypes, larger body size, exaggerated ornaments or to be older than cuckolded males. Alternatively, (‘nonadaptive’) models that consider female extra-pair matings to be a by-product posit that female extra-pair mating can be maintained even if there is no benefit to females. This could happen if, for example,...

Data from: Repeatable and heritable behavioural variation in a wild cooperative breeder

Hannah A. Edwards, Terry Burke & Hannah L. Dugdale
Quantifying consistent differences in behaviour among individuals is vital to understanding the ecological and evolutionary significance of animal personality. To quantify personality, the phenotypic variation of a behavioural trait is partitioned to assess how it varies among individuals, which is also known as repeatability. If pedigree data are available, the phenotypic variation can then be further partitioned to estimate the additive genetic variance and heritability. Assessing the repeatability and heritability of personality traits therefore allows...

Data from: Low-smoke chulha in Indian slums: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Megha Thakur, Esther A. Boudewijns, Giridhara R. Babu, Bjorn Winkens, Luc P. De Witte, Jeroen Gruiskens, Preeti Sushama, Cristian T. Ghergu & Onno C. P. Van Schayck
Background: Biomass fuel is used as a primary cooking source by more than half of the world’s population, contributing to a high burden of disease. Although cleaner fuels are available, some households continue using solid fuels because of financial constraints and absence of infrastructure, especially in non-notified slums. The present study documents a randomised controlled study investigating the efficacy of improved cookstove on the personal exposure to air pollution and the respiratory health of women...

Data from: Fine-scale population structure, inbreeding risk and avoidance in a wild insect population

Amanda Bretman, Rolando Rodríguez-Muñoz, Craig Walling, Jon Slate & Tom Tregenza
The ecological and evolutionary importance of fine scale genetic structure within populations is increasingly appreciated. However, available data are largely restricted to wild vertebrates and eusocial insects. In addition there is the expectation that most insects tend to have such large and high density populations and are so mobile that they are unlikely to face inbreeding risks through fine scale population structuring. This has made the growing body of evidence for inbreeding avoidance in insects...

Data from: Global honey bee viral landscape altered by a parasitic mite

Stephen J. Martin, Andrea C. Highfield, Laura Brettell, Ethel M. Villalobos, Giles E. Budge, Michelle Powell, Scott Nikaido & Declan C. Schroeder
Emerging diseases are among the greatest threats to honey bees. Unfortunately, where and when an emerging disease will appear are almost impossible to predict. The arrival of the parasitic Varroa mite into the Hawaiian honey bee population allowed us to investigate changes in the prevalence, load, and strain diversity of honey bee viruses. The mite increased the prevalence of a single viral species, deformed wing virus (DWV), from ~10 to 100% within honey bee populations,...

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