425 Works

Electronic tag tracking data from starry smooth-hound Mustelus asterias in the northeast Atlantic 2004-2018

The data is derived from the deployment of mark-recapture and electronic tags on starry smooth-hound (Mustelus asterias) in the North Sea and English Channel. Tags were deployed throughout the time period 2004 to 2018. The dataset includes 36 individual M. asterias, 18 of which were tagged with mark-recapture tags only, and 18 were tagging with both mark-recapture and electronic tags. Six electronically tagged M. asterias were geolocated and their estimated daily geographical locations (latitude and...

Silicon enrichment alters functional traits in legumes depending on plant genotype and symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Rocky Putra, Rebecca K. Vandegeer, Shawan Karan, Jeff R. Powell, Susan E. Hartley & Scott N. Johnson
1. Silicon (Si) uptake and deposition (silicification) in tissues is known to alleviate stresses and generally improve plant health. This is mostly studied in Si-high accumulators, such as grasses, with comparatively less known about its effects on other plant functional groups, such as legumes. There is speculation that Si may positively impact the symbiosis between legumes and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) they associate with, but this is poorly understood. This study examined the effects of...

Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration fluxes from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration fluxes from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration fluxes (CO2) were monitored during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, unburnt and burnt black spruce forests, and additional sites.

Simulated ice thickness, supraglacial debris thickness and subglacial topography for Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, using the iSOSIA ice-flow model - VERSION 2.0

Ann Rowan & David Egholm
Simulated ice thickness (ice, metres, 100 m grid spacing) and supraglacial debris thickness (debris, metres, 100 m grid spacing) for Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, produced using the iSOSIA ice-flow model presented in Rowan et al. (2021; Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface). The model domains used for the entire glacier and active glacier simulations (metres above sea level, 100 m grid spacing), and the present-day ice thickness estimate (metres, 30 m grid spacing) used to create the...

Data from: Egg shape mimicry in parasitic cuckoos

Marie R.G. Attard, Iliana Medina, Naomi E. Langmore, Emma Sherratt & M. R. G. Attard
Parasitic cuckoos lay their eggs in nests of host species. Rejection of cuckoo eggs by hosts has led to the evolution of egg mimicry by cuckoos, whereby their eggs mimic the colour and pattern of their host eggs to avoid egg recognition and rejection. There is also evidence of mimicry in egg size in some cuckoo-host systems, but currently it is unknown whether cuckoos can also mimic the egg shape of their hosts. In this...

Data from: Fecundity selection on ornamental plumage colour differs between ages and sexes and varies over small spatial scales

Timothy H. Parker, Teddy A. Wilkin, Iain R. Barr, Ben C. Sheldon, Louise Rowe & Simon C. Griffith
Avian plumage colours are some of the most conspicuous sexual ornaments, and yet standardized selection gradients for plumage colour have rarely been quantified. We examined patterns of fecundity selection on plumage colour in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus L.). When not accounting for environmental heterogeneity, we detected relatively few cases of selection. We found significant disruptive selection on adult male crown colour and yearling female chest colour and marginally nonsignificant positive linear selection on adult female...

Data from: Hydrocarbon divergence and reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Tanja Schwander, Devin Arbuthnott, Regine Gries, Gerhard Gries, Patrik Nosil & Bernard J. Crespi
Background: Individuals commonly prefer certain trait values over others when choosing their mates. If such preferences diverge between populations, they can generate behavioral reproductive isolation and thereby contribute to speciation. Reproductive isolation in insects often involves chemical communication, and cuticular hydrocarbons, in particular, serve as mate recognition signals in many species. We combined data on female cuticular hydrocarbons, interspecific mating propensity, and phylogenetics to evaluate the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in diversification of Timema walking-sticks....

Data from: Reframing the evidence base for policy-relevance to increase impact: a case study on forest fragmentation in the oil palm sector

Jennifer M. Lucey, Georgina Palmer, K. Loong Yeong, David P. Edwards, Michael J. M. Senior, Sarah A. Scriven, Glen Reynolds & Jane K. Hill
It is necessary to improve knowledge exchange between scientists and decision-makers so that scientific evidence can be readily accessed to inform policy. To maximise impact of scientific evidence in policy development, the scientific community should engage more fully with decision-makers, building long-term working relationships in order to identify and respond to ‘policy windows’ with science that is reframed for policy-relevance. We illustrate the process and challenges using a case study in which we synthesised evidence...

Data from: Managing Neotropical oil palm expansion to retain phylogenetic diversity

Graham W. Prescott, James J. Gilroy, Torbjørn Haugaasen, Claudia A. Medina Uribe, William A. Foster & David P. Edwards
The expansion of tropical agriculture is a major driver of the extinction crisis. A key question is whether biodiversity losses can be minimized by restricting future expansion to low-productivity farmland and retaining forest fragments, especially in rapidly changing Neotropical landscapes. We investigated these methods in the context of avian phylogenetic diversity, which summarizes the evolutionary history preserved within communities. Evidence suggests that phylogenetic diversity plays an important role in maintaining key ecosystem functions. We collected...

Data from: Localization of QTL for diapause and other photoperiodically regulated life-history traits important in adaptation to seasonally varying environments

Venera I. Tyukmaeva, Paris Veltsos, Jon Slate, Emma Gregson, Hannele Kauranen, Maaria Kankare, Michael G. Ritchie, Roger K. Butlin & Anneli Hoikkala
Seasonally changing environments at high latitudes present great challenges for the reproduction and survival of insects, and photoperiodic cues play an important role in helping them to synchronize their life cycle with prevalent and forthcoming conditions. We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the photoperiodic regulation of four life history traits, female reproductive diapause, cold tolerance, egg-to-eclosion development time and juvenile body weight in Drosophila montana strains from different latitudes in Canada and...

Data from: Museum DNA reveals the demographic history of the endangered Seychelles warbler

Lewis G. Spurgin, David J. Wright, Nigel J. Collar, Marco Van Der Velde, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke & David S. Richardson
The importance of evolutionary conservation – how understanding evolutionary forces can help guide conservation decisions – is widely recognized. However, the historical demography of many endangered species is unknown, despite the fact that this can have important implications for contemporary ecological processes and for extinction risk. Here, we reconstruct the population history of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) – an ecological model species. By the 1960s, this species was on the brink of extinction, but...

Data from: Quantitative genetics of immunity and life history under different photoperiods

Katrin Hammerschmidt, Peter Deines, Alastair J. Wilson & Jens Rolff
Insects with complex life-cycles should optimize age and size at maturity during larval development. When inhabiting seasonal environments, organisms have limited reproductive periods and face fundamental decisions: individuals that reach maturity late in season have to either reproduce at a small size or increase their growth rates. Increasing growth rates is costly in insects due to higher juvenile mortality, decreased adult survival, or increased susceptibility to parasitism by bacteria and viruses via compromised immune function....

Data from: Speciation over the edge: gene flow among non-human primate species across a formidable biogeographic barrier

Ben J. Evans, Anthony J. Tosi, Kai Zeng, Jonathan Dushoff, André Corvelo & Don J. Melnick
Many genera of terrestrial vertebrates diversified exclusively on one or the other side of Wallace’s Line, which lies between Borneo and Sulawesi islands in Southeast Asia, and demarcates one of the sharpest biogeographic transition zones in the world. Macaque monkeys are unusual among vertebrate genera in that they are distributed on both sides of Wallace‘s Line, raising the question of whether dispersal across this barrier was an evolutionary one-off or a more protracted exchange—and if...

Data from: A genomic footprint of hybrid zone movement in crested newts

Ben Wielstra, Terry Burke, Roger K. Butlin, Aziz Avcı, Nazan Üzüm, Emin Bozkurt, Kurtuluş Olgun & Jan W. Arntzen
Speciation typically involves a stage in which species can still exchange genetic material. Interspecific gene flow is facilitated by the hybrid zones that such species establish upon secondary contact. If one member of a hybridizing species pair displaces the other, their hybrid zone would move across the landscape. Although theory predicts that moving hybrid zones quickly stagnate, hybrid zones tracked over one or a few decades do not always follow such a limitation. This suggests...

Data from: Cuckoo hosts shift from accepting to rejecting parasitic eggs across their lifetime

Mercedes Molina-Morales, David Martín-Gálvez, Deborah A. Dawson, Terry A. Burke, Jesús Miguel Avilés & Juan Gabriel Martínez
One of the best known outcomes of coevolution between species is the rejection of mimetic parasite eggs by avian hosts, which has evolved to reduce costly cuckoo parasitism. How this behavioral adaptation varies along the life of individual hosts remains poorly understood. Here we identify for the first time, lifetime patterns of egg rejection in a parasitized long-lived bird, the magpie Pica pica and show that, during the years they were studied, some females accept,...

Data from: Genome divergence and diversification within a geographic mosaic of coevolution

Thomas L. Parchman, C. Alex Buerkle, Victor Soria-Carrasco & Craig W. Benkman
Despite substantial interest in coevolution's role in diversification, examples of coevolution contributing to speciation have been elusive. Here, we build upon past studies that have shown both coevolution between South Hills crossbills and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and high levels of reproductive isolation between South Hills crossbills and other ecotypes in the North American red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) complex. We used genotyping by sequencing to generate population genomic data and applied phylogenetic and population genetic...

Data from: Experimental sexual selection and sex comb evolution in Drosophila

Rhonda R. Snook, Nelly A. Gidaszewski, Tracey Chapman & Leigh W. Simmons
Sexual selection can drive rapid evolutionary change in reproductive behaviour, morphology and physiology. This often leads to the evolution of sexual dimorphism, and continued exaggerated expression of dimorphic sexual characteristics, although a variety of other alternative selection scenarios exist. Here, we examined the evolutionary significance of a rapidly evolving, sexually dimorphic trait, sex comb tooth number, in two Drosophila species. The presence of the sex comb in both D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura is known...

Data from: The chemical signatures underlying host plant discrimination by aphids

David P. Hopkins, Duncan D. Cameron & Roger K. Butlin
The diversity of phytophagous insects is largely attributable to speciation involving shifts between host plants. These shifts are mediated by the close interaction between insects and plant metabolites. However, there has been limited progress in understanding the chemical signatures that underlie host preferences. We use the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) to address this problem. Host-associated races of pea aphid discriminate between plant species in race-specific ways. We combined metabolomic profiling of multiple plant species with...

Data from: Age-specific breeding success in a wild mammalian population: selection, constraint, restraint, and senescence

Hannah L Dugdale, Lisa C Pope, Chris Newman, David W Macdonald & Terry Burke
The Selection, Constraint, Restraint, and Senescence Hypotheses predict how breeding success should vary with age. The Selection Hypothesis predicts between-individual variation arising from quality differences; the other hypotheses predict within-individual variation due to differing skills or physiological condition (Constraint), residual reproductive lifespan (Restraint), or somatic and reproductive investment (Senescence). Studies tend to focus on either the initial increase in breeding success or later decrease; however, both require consideration when unravelling the underlying evolutionary processes. Additionally,...

Data from: The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome

Binu M. Tripathi, David P. Edwards, Lucas William Mendes, Mincheol Kim, Ke Dong, Hyoki Kim & Jonathan M. Adams
Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference...

Data from: Ecological speciation in sympatric palms: 2. pre- and post-zygotic isolation

H. Hipperson, L.T. Dunning, W.J. Baker, R.K. Butlin, I. Hutton, A.S.T. Papadopulos, C.M. Smadja, T.C. Wilson, C. Devaux, Vincent Savolainen, R. K. Butlin, T. C. Wilson, W. J. Baker & A. S. T. Papadopulos
We evaluated reproductive isolation in two species of palms (Howea) that have evolved sympatrically on Lord Howe Island (LHI, Australia). We estimated the strength of some pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms in maintaining current species boundaries. We found that flowering time displacement between species is consistent across in and ex situ common gardens and is thus partly genetically determined. On LHI, pre-zygotic isolation due solely to flowering displacement was 97% for H. belmoreana and 80% for...

Data from: Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, dominance drive, and sex-chromosome introgression at secondary contact zones: a simulation study

Luca Sciuchetti, Christophe Dufresnes, Elisa Cavoto, Alan Brelsford & Nicolas Perrin
Dobzhansky-Muller (DM) incompatibilities involving sex chromosomes have been proposed to account for Haldane’s rule (lowered fitness among hybrid offspring of the heterogametic sex) as well as Darwin’s corollary (asymmetric fitness costs with respect to the direction of the cross). We performed simulation studies of a hybrid zone to investigate the effects of different types of DM incompatibilities on cline widths and positions of sex-linked markers. From our simulations, X-Y incompatibilities generate steep clines for both...

Data from: A generalized residual technique for analyzing complex movement models using earth mover's distance

Jonathan R. Potts, Marie Auger-Méthé, Karl Mokross & Mark A. Lewis
1. Complex systems of moving and interacting objects are ubiquitous in the natural and social sciences. Predicting their behavior often requires models that mimic these systems with sufficient accuracy, while accounting for their inherent stochasticity. Though tools exist to determine which of a set of candidate models is best relative to the others, there is currently no generic goodness-of-fit framework for testing how close the best model is to the real complex stochastic system. 2....

Data from: Adaptive evolution of C4 photosynthesis through recurrent lateral gene transfer

Pascal-Antoine Christin, Erika J. Edwards, Guillaume Besnard, Susanna F. Boxall, Richard Gregory, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Colin P. Osborne & James Hartwell
C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait that confers higher productivity under warm and arid conditions. It has evolved more than 60 times via the co-option of genes present in C3 ancestors followed by alteration of the patterns and levels of expression, and adaptive changes in the coding sequences, but the evolutionary path to C4 photosynthesis is still poorly understood. The grass lineage Alloteropsis offers unparalleled opportunities for studying C4 evolution, because it includes a C3...

Data from: Adaptive radiation and the evolution of nectarivory in a large songbird clade

Petter Zahl Marki, Jonathan D. Kennedy, Chris Cooney, Carsten Rahbek & Jon Fjeldså
The accumulation of exceptional ecological diversity within a lineage is a key feature of adaptive radiation resulting from diversification associated with the subdivision of previously underutilized resources. The invasion of unoccupied niche space is predicted to be a key determinant of adaptive diversification, and this process may be particularly important if the diversity of competing lineages within the area, in which the radiation unfolds, is already high. Here, we test whether the evolution of nectarivory...

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