27 Works

Data from: Experimental sexual selection and sex comb evolution in Drosophila

Rhonda R. Snook, Nelly A. Gidaszewski, Tracey Chapman & Leigh W. Simmons
Sexual selection can drive rapid evolutionary change in reproductive behaviour, morphology and physiology. This often leads to the evolution of sexual dimorphism, and continued exaggerated expression of dimorphic sexual characteristics, although a variety of other alternative selection scenarios exist. Here, we examined the evolutionary significance of a rapidly evolving, sexually dimorphic trait, sex comb tooth number, in two Drosophila species. The presence of the sex comb in both D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura is known...

Data from: The impact of reproductive investment and early-life environmental conditions on senescence: support for the disposable soma hypothesis

Martijn Hammers, David S. Richardson, Terry Burke, Jan Komdeur, T. Burke, M. Hammers, J. Komdeur & D. S. Richardson
Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of senescence. One of the leading hypotheses, the disposable soma hypothesis, predicts a trade-off, whereby early-life investment in reproduction leads to late-life declines in survival (survival senescence). Testing this hypothesis in natural populations is challenging, but important for understanding the evolution of senescence. We used the long-term data set from a contained, predator-free population of individually marked Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) to investigate how age-related...

Data from: Hydrocarbon divergence and reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Tanja Schwander, Devin Arbuthnott, Regine Gries, Gerhard Gries, Patrik Nosil & Bernard J. Crespi
Background: Individuals commonly prefer certain trait values over others when choosing their mates. If such preferences diverge between populations, they can generate behavioral reproductive isolation and thereby contribute to speciation. Reproductive isolation in insects often involves chemical communication, and cuticular hydrocarbons, in particular, serve as mate recognition signals in many species. We combined data on female cuticular hydrocarbons, interspecific mating propensity, and phylogenetics to evaluate the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in diversification of Timema walking-sticks....

Data from: Estimating genome-wide heterozygosity: effects of demographic history and marker type

Joshua M. Miller, René M. Malenfant, Patrice David, Corey S. Davis, Jocelyn Poissant, John T. Hogg, Marco Festa-Bianchet & David W. Coltman
Heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) are often used to link individual genetic variation to differences in fitness. However, most studies examining HFCs find weak or no correlations. Here, we derive broad theoretical predictions about how many loci are needed to adequately measure genomic heterozygosity assuming different levels of identity disequilibrium (ID), a proxy for inbreeding. We then evaluate the expected ability to detect HFCs using an empirical data set of 200 microsatellites and 412 single nucleotide polymorphisms...

Data from: Candidate gene polymorphisms for behavioural adaptations during urbanization in blackbirds

Jakob C. Mueller, Jesko Partecke, Ben J. Hatchwell, Kevin J. Gaston, Karl L. Evans, B. J. Hatchwell, K. L. Evans, J. C. Mueller, J. Partecke & K. J. Gaston
Successful urban colonisation by formerly rural species represents an ideal situation in which to study adaptation to novel environments. We address this issue using candidate genes for behavioural traits that are expected to play a role in such colonisation events. We identified and genotyped 16 polymorphisms in candidate genes for circadian rhythms, harm avoidance, and migratory and exploratory behaviour in 12 paired urban and rural populations of the blackbird Turdus merula across the Western Palearctic....

Data from: A comparative analysis of the mechanisms underlying speciation on Lord Howe Island

Alexander S. T. Papadopulos, Zuzana Price, Celine Devaux, Helen Hipperson, Carole M. Smadja, Ian Hutton, William J. Baker, Roger K. Butlin, Vincent Savolainen, Z. Price, H. Hipperson, R. K. Butlin & W. J. Baker
On Lord Howe Island, speciation is thought to have taken place in situ in a diverse array of distantly related plant taxa (Metrosideros, Howea and Coprosma; Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 2011, 13188). We now investigate whether the speciation processes were driven by divergent natural selection in each genus by examining the extent of ecological and genetic divergence. We present new and extensive, ecological and genetic data for all three genera. Consistent with ecologically...

Data from: Parallel evolution of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow

Roger K. Butlin, Maria Saura, Grégory Charrier, Benjamin Jackson, Carl André, Armando Caballero, Jerry A. Coyne, Juan Galindo, John W. Grahame, Johann Hollander, Petri Kemppainen, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Marina Panova, Humberto Quesada, Kerstin Johannesson, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez & Johan Hollander
Parallel evolution of similar phenotypes provides strong evidence for the operation of natural selection. Where these phenotypes contribute to reproductive isolation, they further support a role for divergent, habitat-associated selection in speciation. However, the observation of pairs of divergent ecotypes currently occupying contrasting habitats in distinct geographical regions is not sufficient to infer parallel origins. Here we show striking parallel phenotypic divergence between populations of the rocky-shore gastropod, Littorina saxatilis, occupying contrasting habitats exposed to...

Data from: Replicated high-density genetic maps of two great tit populations reveal fine-scale genomic departures from sex-equal recombination rates

Kees Van Oers, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Nikkie E. M. Van Bers, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Ben C. Sheldon, Marcel E. Visser, Jon Slate & Martien A. M. Groenen
Linking variation in quantitative traits to variation in the genome is an important, but challenging task in the study of life-history evolution. Linkage maps provide a valuable tool for the unravelling of such trait-gene associations. Moreover, they give insight into recombination landscapes and between- species karyotype evolution. Here we used genotype data, generated from a 10k SNP-chip, of over 2000 individuals to produce high-density linkage maps of the great tit (Parus major), a passerine bird,...

Data from: Advancing population ecology with integral projection models: a practical guide

Cory Merow, Johan P. Dalgren, C. J. E. Metcalf, Dylan Z. Childs, M. E. K. Evans, E. Jongejans, Sydne Record, Mark Rees, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Sean McMahon, Margaret E.K. Evans, Johan P. Dahlgren, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Sean M. McMahon & Eelke Jongejans
Integral Projection Models (IPMs) use information on how an individual's state influences its vital rates - survival, growth and reproduction - to make population projections. IPMs are constructed from regression models predicting vital rates from state variables (e.g., size or age) and covariates (e.g., environment). By combining regressions of vital rates, an IPM provides mechanistic insight into emergent ecological patterns such as population dynamics, species geographic distributions, or life history strategies. Here, we review important...

Data from: Multiple aspects of plasticity in clutch size vary among populations of a globally distributed songbird

David F. Westneat, Veronika Bókony, Terry Burke, Olivier Chastel, Henrik Jensen, Thomas Kvalnes, Ádám Z. Lendvai, András Liker, Douglas Mock, Julia Schroeder, P. L. Schwagmeyer, Gabriele Sorci & Ian R. K. Stewart
1. Plasticity in life-history characteristics can influence many ecological and evolutionary phenomena, including how invading organisms cope with novel conditions in new locations or how environmental change affects organisms in native locations. Variation in reaction norm attributes is a critical element to understanding plasticity in life history, yet we know relatively little about the ways in which reaction norms vary within and among populations. 2. We amassed data on clutch size from marked females in...

Data from: Bioturbation determines the response of benthic ammonia oxidising microorganisms to ocean acidification

Bonnie Laverock, Vassilis Kitidis, Karen Tait, Jack A. Gilbert, A. Mark Osborn, Steve Widdicombe, B. Laverock, A. M. Osborn, J. A. Gilbert, V. Kitidis, K. Tait & S. Widdicombe
Ocean acidification (OA), caused by the dissolution of increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in seawater, is projected to cause significant changes to marine ecology and biogeochemistry. Potential impacts on the microbially driven cycling of nitrogen are of particular concern. Specifically, under seawater pH levels approximating future OA scenarios, rates of ammonia oxidation (the rate-limiting first step of the nitrification pathway) have been shown to dramatically decrease in seawater, but not in underlying sediments....

Data from: Fine-scale genetic structure in a wild bird population: the role of limited dispersal and environmentally-based selection as causal factors

Colin Garroway, Reinder J. Radersma, Irem Sepil, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Jon Slate, Ben C. Sheldon, Colin J. Garroway & Reinder Radersma
Individuals are typically not randomly distributed in space; consequently ecological and evolutionary theory depends heavily on understanding the spatial structure of populations. The central challenge of landscape genetics is therefore to link spatial heterogeneity of environments to population genetic structure. Here, we employ multivariate spatial analyses to identify environmentally induced genetic structures in a single breeding population of 1174 great tits Parus major genotyped at 4701 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. Despite the small spatial scale...

Data from: Divergent selection on, but no genetic conflict over, female and male timing and rate of reproduction in a human population

Elisabeth Bolund, Sandra Bouwhuis, Jenni E. Pettay, Virpi Lummaa, E. Bolund, V. Lummaa & J. E. Pettay
The sexes often have different phenotypic optima for important life-history traits, and because of a largely shared genome this can lead to a conflict over trait expression. In mammals, the obligate costs of reproduction are higher for females, making reproductive timing and rate especially liable to conflict between the sexes. While studies from wild vertebrates support such sexual conflict, it remains unexplored in humans. We used a pedigreed human population from preindustrial Finland to estimate...

Data from: Genetic hitchhiking and the dynamic buildup of genomic divergence during speciation with gene flow

Samuel Melvin Flaxman, Jeffrey L. Feder, Patrik Nosil, Samuel Melvin Flaxman, Jeffrey L. Feder, Patrik Nosil & Samuel M. Flaxman
A major issue in evolutionary biology is explaining patterns of differentiation observed in population genomic data, as divergence can be due to both direct selection on a locus and genetic hitchhiking. “Divergence hitchhiking” (DH) theory postulates that divergent selection on a locus reduces gene flow at physically linked sites, facilitating the formation of localized clusters of tightly linked, diverged loci. “Genome hitchhiking” (GH) theory emphasizes genome-wide effects of divergent selection. Past theoretical investigations of DH...

Data from: Introgression and the fate of domesticated genes in a wild mammal population

Philine G. D. Feulner, Jacob Gratten, James W. Kijas, Peter M. Visscher, Josephine M. Pemberton, Jon Slate & Jon. Slate
When domesticated species are not reproductively isolated from their wild relatives, the opportunity arises for artificially selected variants to be re-introduced into the wild. However, the evolutionary consequences of introgression of domesticated genes back into the wild are poorly understood. By combining high-throughput genotyping with 25 years of long-term ecological field data, we describe the occurrence and consequences of admixture between a primitive sheep breed, the free-living Soay sheep of St Kilda, and more modern...

Data from: Genome-wide association study identifies vitamin B5 biosynthesis as a host specificity factor in Campylobacter

Samuel K. Sheppard, Xavier Didelot, Guillaume Meric, Alicia Torralbo, Keith A. Jolley, David J. Kelly, Stephen D. Bentley, Martin C. J. Maiden, Julian Parkhill & Daniel Falush
Genome-wide association studies have the potential to identify causal genetic factors underlying important phenotypes but have rarely been performed in bacteria. We present an association mapping method that takes into account the clonal population structure of bacteria and is applicable to both core and accessory genome variation. Campylobacter is a common cause of human gastroenteritis as a consequence of its proliferation in multiple farm animal species and its transmission via contaminated meat and poultry. We...

Data from: Genomic dissection of variation in clutch size and egg mass in a wild great tit (Parus major) population

Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Jocelyn Poissant, Matthew R. Robinson, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Clutch size and egg mass are life history traits that have been extensively studied in wild bird populations, as life history theory predicts a negative trade-off between them, either at the phenotypic or genetic level. Here, we analyse the genomic architecture of these heritable traits in a wild great tit (Parus major) population, using three marker-based approaches - chromosome partitioning, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The variance explained by...

Data from: Cryptic choice of conspecific sperm controlled by the impact of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behaviour

Sarah Elizabeth Yeates, Sian Elizabeth Diamond, Sigurd Einum, Brent C. Emerson, William V. Holt, Matthew J. G. Gage, Sarah E. Yeates & Sian E. Diamond
Despite evidence that variation in male-female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic micro-environment, we find complete inter-fertility between both species. However, if either species’ ova were presented with equivalent numbers of...

Data from: Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle

Karl P. Phillips, Tove H. Jorgensen, Kevin G. Jolliffe, San-Marie Joliffe, Jock Henwood & David S. Richardson
Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses...

Data from: Experimental evidence for ecological selection on genome variation in the wild

Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Jeffery L. Feder, Thomas L. Parchman, Alex C. Buerkle, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & C. Alex Buerkle
Understanding natural selection's effect on genetic variation is a major goal in biology, but the genome-scale consequences of contemporary selection are not well known. In a release and recapture field experiment we transplanted stick insects to native and novel host plants and directly measured allele frequency changes within a generation at 186 576 genetic loci. We observed substantial, genome-wide allele frequency changes during the experiment, most of which could be attributed to random mortality (genetic...

Data from: Integrated and independent evolution of heteromorphic sperm types

Allen J. Moore, Leonardo D. Bacigalupe, Rhonda R. Snook, R. R. Snook, A. J. Moore & L. D. Bacigalupe
Sperm are a simple cell type with few components, yet they exhibit tremendous between-species morphological variation in those components thought to reflect selection in different fertilization environments. However, within a species, sperm components are expected to be selected to be functionally integrated for optimal fertilization of eggs. Here, we take advantage of within-species variation in sperm form and function to test whether sperm components are functionally and genetically integrated both within and between sperm morphologies...

Data from: Evolution of male coloration during a post-pleistocene radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi)

Ryan A. Martin, Rüdiger Riesch, Justa Lee Heinen-Kay, R. Brian Langerhans & Justa L. Heinen-Kay
Sexual signal evolution can be complex because multiple factors influence the production, transmission, and reception of sexual signals, as well as receivers’ responses to them. To grasp the relative importance of these factors in generating signal diversity, we must simultaneously investigate multiple selective agents and signaling traits within a natural system. We use the model system of the radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes to test the effects of resource availability, male...

Data from: Evolution of camouflage drives rapid ecological change in an insect community

Timothy E. Farkas, Tommi Mononen, Aaron A. Comeault, Ilkka Hanski & Patrik Nosil
Evolutionary change in individual species has been hypothesized to have far-reaching consequences for entire ecological communities, and such coupling of ecological and evolutionary dynamics (“eco-evolutionary dynamics”) has been demonstrated for a variety systems. However, the relative importance of evolutionary dynamics for ecological dynamics remains unclear. Here, we investigate how spatial patterns of local adaptation in the stick insect Timema cristinae, driven by natural selection, gene flow and founder effects, structure metapopulations, communities, and multitrophic interactions....

Data from: Impacts of bioturbation on temporal variation in bacterial and archaeal nitrogen-cycling gene abundance in coastal sediments

Bonnie Laverock, Karen Tait, Jack A. Gilbert, A. Mark Osborn, Steve Widdicombe, B. Laverock, A. M. Osborn, J. A. Gilbert, K. Tait & S. Widdicombe
In marine environments, macrofauna living in or on the sediment surface may alter the structure, diversity and function of benthic microbial communities. In particular, microbial nitrogen (N)-cycling processes may be enhanced by the activity of large bioturbating organisms. Here, we study the effect of the burrowing mud shrimp Upogebia deltaura upon temporal variation in the abundance of genes representing key N-cycling functional guilds. The abundance of bacterial genes representing different N-cycling guilds displayed different temporal...

Data from: Partitioning of genetic variation across the genome using multimarker methods in a wild bird population

Matthew R. Robinson, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle DeCauwer, Ben C. Sheldon & Jon Slate
The underlying basis of genetic variation in quantitative traits, in terms of the number of causal variants and the size of their effects, is largely unknown in natural populations. The expectation is that complex quantitative trait variation is attributable to many, possibly interacting, causal variants, whose effects may depend upon the sex, age and the environment in which they are expressed. A recently developed methodology in animal breeding derives a value of relatedness among individuals...

Registration Year

  • 2013

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Oxford
  • University of East Anglia
  • University of Chicago
  • Notre Dame University
  • University of Notre Dame
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Colorado Boulder
  • Imperial College London