34 Works

Data from: Museum DNA reveals the demographic history of the endangered Seychelles warbler

Lewis G. Spurgin, David J. Wright, Nigel J. Collar, Marco Van Der Velde, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke & David S. Richardson
The importance of evolutionary conservation – how understanding evolutionary forces can help guide conservation decisions – is widely recognized. However, the historical demography of many endangered species is unknown, despite the fact that this can have important implications for contemporary ecological processes and for extinction risk. Here, we reconstruct the population history of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) – an ecological model species. By the 1960s, this species was on the brink of extinction, but...

Data from: Cuckoo hosts shift from accepting to rejecting parasitic eggs across their lifetime

Mercedes Molina-Morales, David Martín-Gálvez, Deborah A. Dawson, Terry A. Burke, Jesús Miguel Avilés & Juan Gabriel Martínez
One of the best known outcomes of coevolution between species is the rejection of mimetic parasite eggs by avian hosts, which has evolved to reduce costly cuckoo parasitism. How this behavioral adaptation varies along the life of individual hosts remains poorly understood. Here we identify for the first time, lifetime patterns of egg rejection in a parasitized long-lived bird, the magpie Pica pica and show that, during the years they were studied, some females accept,...

Data from: A generalized residual technique for analyzing complex movement models using earth mover's distance

Jonathan R. Potts, Marie Auger-Méthé, Karl Mokross & Mark A. Lewis
1. Complex systems of moving and interacting objects are ubiquitous in the natural and social sciences. Predicting their behavior often requires models that mimic these systems with sufficient accuracy, while accounting for their inherent stochasticity. Though tools exist to determine which of a set of candidate models is best relative to the others, there is currently no generic goodness-of-fit framework for testing how close the best model is to the real complex stochastic system. 2....

Data from: The crested newt Triturus cristatus recolonized temperate Eurasia from an extra-Mediterranean glacial refugium

Ben Wielstra, Wiesław Babik & Jan W. Arntzen
We assess the role of the Carpathians as an extra-Mediterranean glacial refugium for the crested newt Triturus cristatus. We combine a multilocus phylogeography (one mitochondrial protein-coding gene, three nuclear introns, and one major histocompatibility complex gene) with species distribution modelling (projected on current and Last Glacial Maximum climate layers). All genetic markers consistently show extensive genetic variation within and genetic depletion outside the Carpathians. The species distribution model suggests that most of the current range...

Data from: Do the same genes underlie parallel phenotypic divergence in different Littorina saxatilis populations?

Anja M. Westram, Juan Galindo, Magnus Alm Rosenblad, John W. Grahame, Marina Panova & Roger K. Butlin
Parallel patterns of adaptive divergence and speciation are cited as powerful evidence for the role of selection driving these processes. However, it is often not clear whether parallel phenotypic divergence is underlain by parallel genetic changes. Here, we asked about the genetic basis of parallel divergence in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis, which has repeatedly evolved coexisting ecotypes adapted to either crab predation or wave action. We sequenced the transcriptome of snails of both ecotypes...

Data from: Theoretical models of the influence of genomic architecture on the dynamics of speciation

Samuel M. Flaxman, Aaron C. Wacholder, Jeffrey L. Feder & Patrik Nosil
A long-standing problem in evolutionary biology has been determining whether and how gradual, incremental changes at the gene level can account for rapid speciation and bursts of adaptive radiation. Using genome-scale computer simulations, we extend previous theory showing how gradual adaptive change can generate nonlinear population transitions, resulting in the rapid formation of new, reproductively isolated species. We show that these transitions occur via a mechanism rooted in a basic property of biological heredity: the...

Data from: High bandwidth synaptic communication and frequency tracking in human neocortex

Guilherme Testa-Silva, Matthijs B. Verhoog, Daniele Linaro, Christiaan P. J. De Kock, Johannes C. Baayen, Rhiannon M. Meredith, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Michele Giugliano & Huibert D. Mansvelder
Neuronal firing, synaptic transmission, and its plasticity form the building blocks for processing and storage of information in the brain. It is unknown whether adult human synapses are more efficient in transferring information between neurons than rodent synapses. To test this, we recorded from connected pairs of pyramidal neurons in acute brain slices of adult human and mouse temporal cortex and probed the dynamical properties of use-dependent plasticity. We found that human synaptic connections were...

Data from: Sexual conflict and interacting phenotypes: a quantitative genetic analysis of fecundity and copula duration in Drosophila melanogaster

Dominic Alexander Edward, Jocelyn Poissant, Alastair J. Wilson & Tracey Chapman
Many reproductive traits that have evolved under sexual conflict may be influenced by both sexes. Investigation of the genetic architecture of such traits can yield important insight into their evolution, but this entails that the heritable component of variation is estimated for males and females – as an interacting phenotype. We address the lack of research in this area through an investigation of egg production and copula duration in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Despite...

Data from: Human-facilitated metapopulation dynamics in an emerging pest species, Cimex lectularius

Toby Fountain, Gavin Horsburgh, Ludovic Duvaux, Klaus Reinhardt & Roger K. Butlin
The number and demographic history of colonists can have dramatic consequences for the way in which genetic diversity is distributed and maintained in a metapopulation. The bed bug (Cimex lectularius) is a re-emerging pest species whose close association with humans has led to frequent local extinction and colonisation, i.e. to metapopulation dynamics. Pest control limits the lifespan of sub-populations, causing frequent local extinctions, and human-facilitated dispersal allows the colonisation of empty patches. Founder events often...

Data from: Scale-dependent effects of landscape variables on gene flow and population structure in bats

Orly Razgour, Hugo Rebelo, Sébastien J. Puechmaille, Javier Juste, Carlos Ibáñez, Andreas Kiefer, Terry Burke, Deborah A. Dawson & Gareth Jones
Aim: A common pattern in biogeography is the scale-dependent effect of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of species. We tested the role of climatic and land cover variables in structuring the distribution of genetic variation in the grey long-eared bat, Plecotus austriacus, across spatial scales. Although landscape genetics has been widely used to describe spatial patterns of gene flow in a variety of taxa, volant animals have generally been neglected because of their perceived...

Data from: The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler

David J. Wright, Lewis G. Spurgin, Nigel J. Collar, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke & David S. Richardson
Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short and long term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity and how this affects genetic structure among the conserved populations overall has received little investigation. We compared the impact of translocating different numbers of founders on both microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)...

Data from: Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host

Adam J. Dobson, Joanne Purves & Jens Rolff
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of ‘arming the enemy’: bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a...

Data from: Costly infidelity: low lifetime fitness of extra-pair offspring in a passerine bird

Yu-Hsun Hsu, Julia Schroeder, Isabel Winney, Terry A. Burke, Shinichi Nakagawa & Terry Burke
Extra-pair copulation (EPC) is widespread in socially monogamous species, but its evolutionary benefits remain controversial. Indirect genetic benefit hypotheses postulate that females engage in EPC to produce higher quality extra-pair offspring (EPO) than within-pair offspring (WPO). In contrast, the sexual conflict hypothesis posits that EPC is beneficial to males but not to females. Thus, under the sexual conflict hypothesis, EPO are predicted to be no fitter than WPO. We tested these two hypotheses with a...

Data from: Outbreeding effects in an inbreeding insect, Cimex lectularius

Toby Fountain, Roger K. Butlin, Klaus Reinhardt & Oliver Otti
In some species, populations with few founding individuals can be resilient to extreme inbreeding. Inbreeding seems to be the norm in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a flightless insect that, nevertheless, can reach large deme sizes and persist successfully. However, bed bugs can also be dispersed passively by humans, exposing inbred populations to gene flow from genetically distant populations. The introduction of genetic variation through this outbreeding could lead to increased fitness (heterosis) or...

Data from: At the Central European – Balkan transition: forest land snail faunas of the Banat contrasted with those of the Carpathian chain

Robert A. D. Cameron, Beata M. Pokryszko, Voichita Gheoca & Michal Horsák
Twenty-nine forest sites in six sampling areas in the Banat region of Romania, adjacent to Serbia, were sampled to obtain inventories of their snail faunas and to make comparisons between these and previously studied faunas in the mountains from the Sudetes in the north-west to the Southern Transylvanian Carpathians in the south. 65 species were recorded overall, with between 13 and 33 at individual sites. Among the six sampling areas that on Schist rock at...

Data from: Selection on outlier loci and their association with adaptive phenotypes in Littorina saxatilis contact zones

Johan Hollander, Juan Galindo & Roger K. Butlin
A fundamental issue in speciation research is to evaluate phenotypic variation and the genomics driving the evolution of reproductive isolation between sister taxa. Above all, hybrid zones are excellent study systems for researchers to examine the association of genetic differentiation, phenotypic variation and the strength of selection. We investigated two contact zones in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis and utilized landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis together with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess phenotypic...

Data from: Selection from parasites favors immunogenetic diversity but not divergence among locally adapted host populations

Michael Tobler, Martin Plath, Rüdiger Riesch, Ingo Schlupp, Anna Grasse, Gopi K. Munimanda, Claudia Setzer, Dustin J. Penn & Yoshan Moodley
The unprecedented polymorphism in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by balancing selection from parasites. However, do parasites also drive divergence at MHC loci between host populations, or do the effects of balancing selection maintain similarities among populations? We examined MHC variation in populations of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana and characterized their parasite communities. Poecilia mexicana populations in the Cueva del Azufre system are locally adapted to darkness and...

Data from: Reproductive isolation among allopatric Drosophila montana populations

Jackson Hubbard Jennings, Rhonda R. Snook & Anneli Hoikkala
An outstanding goal in speciation research is to trace the mode and tempo of the evolution of barriers to gene flow. Such research benefits from studying incipient speciation, in which speciation between populations has not yet occurred but where multiple potential mechanisms of reproductive isolation (RI: i.e. premating, postmating-prezygotic (PMPZ), and postzygotic barriers) may act. We used such a system to investigate these barriers among allopatric populations of Drosophila montana. In all heteropopulation crosses we...

Data from: Long sperm fertilize more eggs in a bird

Clair Bennison, Nicola Hemmings, Jon Slate & Timothy Birkhead
Sperm competition, in which the ejaculates of multiple males compete to fertilize a female's ova, results in strong selection on sperm traits. Although sperm size and swimming velocity are known to independently affect fertilization success in certain species, exploring the relationship between sperm length, swimming velocity and fertilization success still remains a challenge. Here, we use the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), where sperm size influences sperm swimming velocity, to determine the effect of sperm total...

Data from: Microhabitats in the tropics buffer temperature in a globally coherent manner

Brett R. Scheffers, Theodore A. Evans, Stephen E. Williams & David P. Edwards
Vegetated habitats contain a variety of fine-scale features that can ameliorate temperate extremes. These buffered microhabitats may be used by species to evade extreme weather and novel climates in the future. Yet, the magnitude and extent of this buffering on a global scale remains unknown. Across all tropical continents and using 36 published studies, we assessed temperature buffering from within microhabitats across various habitat strata and structures (e.g. soil, logs, epiphytes and tree holes) and...

Data from: Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon

Sarah E. Yeates, Sigurd Einum, William V. Holt, Ian A. Fleming & Matthew J. G. Gage
Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole...

Data from: Evolution of divergent female mating preference in response to experimental sexual selection

Allan Debelle, Michael G. Ritchie & Rhonda R. Snook
Sexual selection is predicted to drive the coevolution of mating signals and preferences (mating traits) within populations, and could play a role in speciation if sexual isolation arises due to mating trait divergence between populations. However, few studies have demonstrated that differences in mating traits between populations result from sexual selection alone. Experimental evolution is a promising approach to directly examine the action of sexual selection on mating trait divergence among populations. We manipulated the...

Data from: Genetic and phenotypic divergence in an island bird: isolation by distance, by colonisation or by adaptation?

Lewis G. Spurgin, Juan Carlos Illera, Tove H. Jorgensen, Deborah A. Dawson & David S. Richardson
Discerning the relative roles of adaptive and non-adaptive processes in generating differences among populations and species, as well as how these processes interact, are fundamental aims in biology. Both genetic and phenotypic divergence across populations can be the product of limited dispersal and gradual genetic drift across populations (isolation by distance), of colonisation history and founder effects (isolation by colonisation) or of adaptation to different environments preventing migration between populations (isolation by adaptation). Here we...

Data from: Heterozygosity–fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects

Geetha Annavi, Chris Newman, Christina D. Buesching, David W. Macdonald, Terry Burke, Hannah L. Dugdale & Christopher Newman
HFCs (heterozygosity–fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture–mark–recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers...

Data from: Pathogen burden, co-infection and major histocompatibility complex variability in the European badger (Meles meles)

Yung Wa Sin, Geetha Annavi, Hannah L. Dugdale, Chris Newman, Terry Burke & David W. Macdonald
Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to maintain the extreme diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, operating through the heterozygote advantage, rare-allele advantage and fluctuating selection mechanisms. Heterozygote advantage (i.e., recognizing and binding a wider range of antigens than homozygotes) is expected to be more detectable when multiple pathogens are considered simultaneously. Here, we test if MHC diversity in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles) is driven by pathogen-mediated selection. We examined individual...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    34

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    34

Affiliations

  • University of Sheffield
    34
  • University of Groningen
    6
  • University of East Anglia
    5
  • University of Oxford
    3
  • Naturalis Biodiversity Center
    3
  • University of Gothenburg
    2
  • University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
    2
  • University of Tübingen
    2
  • Jagiellonian University
    2
  • Harvard University
    2