50 Works

Data from: The evolution of labile traits in sex- and age-structured populations

Dylan Z. Childs, Ben Sheldon, Mark Rees & Ben C. Sheldon
Many quantitative traits are labile (e.g. somatic growth rate, reproductive timing and investment), varying over the life cycle as a result of behavioural adaptation, developmental processes and plastic responses to the environment. At the population level, selection can alter the distribution of such traits across age classes and among generations. Despite a growing body of theoretical research exploring the evolutionary dynamics of labile traits, a data-driven framework for incorporating such traits into demographic models has...

Data from: Localization of QTL for diapause and other photoperiodically regulated life-history traits important in adaptation to seasonally varying environments

Venera I. Tyukmaeva, Paris Veltsos, Jon Slate, Emma Gregson, Hannele Kauranen, Maaria Kankare, Michael G. Ritchie, Roger K. Butlin & Anneli Hoikkala
Seasonally changing environments at high latitudes present great challenges for the reproduction and survival of insects, and photoperiodic cues play an important role in helping them to synchronize their life cycle with prevalent and forthcoming conditions. We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the photoperiodic regulation of four life history traits, female reproductive diapause, cold tolerance, egg-to-eclosion development time and juvenile body weight in Drosophila montana strains from different latitudes in Canada and...

Data from: Effects of the demographic transition on the genetic variances and covariances of human life history traits

Elisabeth Bolund, Adam Hayward, Jenni E. Pettay & Virpi Lummaa
The recent demographic transitions to lower mortality and fertility rates in most human societies have led to changes and even quick reversals in phenotypic selection pressures. This can only result in evolutionary change if the affected traits are heritable, but changes in environmental conditions may also lead to subsequent changes in the genetic variance and covariance (the G matrix) of traits. It currently remains unclear if there have been concomitant changes in the G matrix...

Data from: Modelling short-rotation coppice and tree planting for urban carbon management – a city-wide analysis

Nicola McHugh, Jill L. Edmondson, Kevin J. Gaston, Jonathan R. Leake, Odhran S. O’Sullivan & Odhran S. O'Sullivan
1. The capacity of urban areas to deliver provisioning ecosystem services is commonly overlooked and underutilized. Urban populations have globally increased fivefold since 1950, and they disproportionately consume ecosystem services and contribute to carbon emissions, highlighting the need to increase urban sustainability and reduce environmental impacts of urban dwellers. Here, we investigated the potential for increasing carbon sequestration, and biomass fuel production, by planting trees and short-rotation coppice (SRC), respectively, in a mid-sized UK city...

Data from: Ancestral origins and invasion pathways in a globally invasive bird correlate with climate and influences from bird trade

Hazel Jackson, Diederik Strubbe, Simon Tollington, Robert Prys-Jones, Erik Matthysen & Jim J. Groombridge
Invasive species present a major threat to global biodiversity. Understanding genetic patterns and evolutionary processes that reinforce successful establishment is paramount for elucidating mechanisms underlying biological invasions. Among birds, the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is one of the most successful invasive species, established in over 35 countries. However, little is known about the evolutionary genetic origins of this species and what population genetic signatures tell us about patterns of invasion. We reveal the ancestral origins...

Data from: Constraining the role of early land plants in Early Palaeozoic weathering and global cooling

Joe Quirk, Jonathan R. Leake, David A. Johnson, Lyla L. Taylor, Loredana Saccone & David J. Beerling
How the colonization of terrestrial environments by early land plants over 400 Ma influenced rock weathering, the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and phosphorus, and climate in the Palaeozoic is uncertain. Here we show experimentally that mineral weathering by liverworts—an extant lineage of early land plants—partnering arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, like those in 410 Ma-old early land plant fossils, amplified calcium weathering from basalt grains threefold to sevenfold, relative to plant-free controls. Phosphate weathering by mycorrhizal...

Data from: Social genetic and social environment effects on parental and helper care in a cooperatively breeding bird

Mark James Adams, Matthew R. Robinson, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Ben Hatchwell & Ben J. Hatchwell
Phenotypes expressed in a social context are not only a function of the individual, but can also be shaped by the phenotypes of social partners. These social effects may play a major role in the evolution of cooperative breeding if social partners differ in the quality of care they provide and if individual carers adjust their effort in relation to that of other carers. When applying social effects models to wild study systems, it is...

Data from: What can aquatic gastropods tell us about phenotypic plasticity? A review and meta-analysis

Paul E. Bourdeau, Roger K. Butlin, Christer Brönmark, Timothy C. Edgell, Jason T. Hoverman & Johan Hollander
There have been few attempts to synthesise the growing body of literature on phenotypic plasticity to reveal patterns and generalities about the extent and magnitude of plastic responses. Here, we conduct a review and meta-analysis of published literature on phenotypic plasticity in aquatic (marine and freshwater) gastropods, a common system for studying plasticity. We identified 96 studies, using pre-determined search terms, published between 1985 and November 2013. The literature was dominated by studies of predator-induced...

Data from: Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta)

Patricia Brekke, John G. Ewen, Gemma Clucas & Anna W. Santure
Floating males are usually thought of as non-breeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders’ sex-ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used...

Data from: Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect

Aaron A. Comeault, Samuel M. Flaxman, Rüdiger Riesch, Emma Curran, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Timothy E. Farkas, Moritz Muschick, Thomas L. Parchman, Tanja Schwander, Jon Slate & Patrik Nosil
The interplay between selection and aspects of the genetic architecture of traits (such as linkage, dominance, and epistasis) can either drive or constrain speciation. Despite accumulating evidence that speciation can progress to “intermediate” stages—with populations evolving only partial reproductive isolation—studies describing selective mechanisms that impose constraints on speciation are more rare than those describing drivers. The stick insect Timema cristinae provides an example of a system in which partial reproductive isolation has evolved between populations...

Data from: Fine-scale genetic structure reflects sex-specific dispersal strategies in a population of sociable weavers (Philetairus socius)

René E. Van Dijk, Rita Covas, Claire Doutrelant, Claire N. Spottiswoode & Ben J. Hatchwell
Dispersal is a critical driver of gene flow, with important consequences for population genetic structure, social interactions and other biological processes. Limited dispersal may result in kin-structured populations in which kin selection may operate, but it may also increase the risk of kin competition and inbreeding. Here, we use a combination of long-term field data and molecular genetics to examine dispersal patterns and their consequences for the population genetics of a highly social bird, the...

Data from: Enhancing gardens as habitats for flower-visiting aerial insects (pollinators): should we plant native or exotic species?

Andrew Salisbury, James Armitage, Helen Bostock, Joe Perry, Mark Tatchell & Ken Thompson
1. Domestic gardens typically consist of a mixture of native and non-native plants which support biodiversity and provide valuable ecosystem services, particularly in urban environments. Many gardeners wish to encourage biodiversity by choosing appropriate plant taxa. The value of native and non-native plants in supporting animal biodiversity is, however, largely unknown. 2. The relative value of native and non-native garden plants to invertebrates was investigated in a replicated field experiment. Plots (deliberately akin to garden...

Data from: Stronger neural modulation by visual motion intensity in autism spectrum disorders

Ina Peiker, Till R. Schneider, Elizabeth Milne, Daniel Schöttle, Kai Vogeley, Alexander Münchau, Odette Schunke, Markus Siegel, Andreas K. Engel & Nicole David
Theories of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have focused on altered perceptual integration of sensory features as a possible core deficit. Yet, there is little understanding of the neuronal processing of elementary sensory features in ASD. For typically developed individuals, we previously established a direct link between frequency-specific neural activity and the intensity of a specific sensory feature: Gamma-band activity in the visual cortex increased approximately linearly with the strength of visual motion. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG),...

Data from: Antagonistic effect of helpers on breeding male and female survival in a cooperatively breeding bird

Matthieu Paquet, Claire Doutrelant, Ben J. Hatchwell, Claire N. Spottiswoode & Rita Covas
1. Cooperatively breeding species are typically long lived and hence, according to theory, are expected to maximize their lifetime reproductive success through maximizing survival. Under these circumstances, the presence of helpers could be used to lighten the effort of current reproduction for parents to achieve higher survival. 2. In addition, individuals of different sexes and ages may follow different strategies, but whether male and female breeders and individuals of different ages benefit differently from the...

Data from: Sex differences in parental care: gametic investment, sexual selection and social environment

András Liker, Robert P. Freckleton, Vladimir Remes & Tamás Székely
Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (i) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (ii) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (iii) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here we provide the most comprehensive assessment of...

Data from: Opportunities and challenges of Integral Projection Models for modeling host-parasite dynamics

C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Andrea L. Graham, Micaela Martinez-Bakker & Dylan Z. Childs
Epidemiological dynamics are shaped by and may in turn shape host demography. These feedbacks can result in hard to predict patterns of disease incidence. Mathematical models that integrate infection and demography are consequently a key tool for informing expectations for disease burden and identifying effective measures for control. A major challenge is capturing the details of infection within individuals and quantifying their downstream impacts to understand population-scale outcomes. For example, parasite loads and antibody titres...

Data from: No evidence for MHC class I based disassortative mating in a wild population of great tits

Irem Sepil, Reinder Radersma, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are regarded as a potentially important target of mate choice due to the fitness benefits that may be conferred to the offspring. According to the complementary genes hypothesis, females mate with MHC dissimilar males to enhance the immunocompetence of their offspring or to avoid inbreeding depression. Here, we investigate whether selection favours a preference for maximally dissimilar or optimally dissimilar MHC class I types, based on MHC genotypes,...

Data from: Genetic pollution of a threatened native crested newt species through hybridization with an invasive congener in the Netherlands

Willem R. M. Meilink, Jan W. Arntzen, Jeroen J. C. W. Van Delft & Ben Wielstra
Genetic pollution of a native species through hybridization with an invasive species poses an insidious conservation threat. To expose genetic pollution, molecular methods employing multilocus data are required. We present a case study of genetic pollution via hybridization of a native crested newt species, Triturus cristatus, by the invasive T. carnifex on the Veluwe in the Netherlands. We sequenced 50 nuclear markers by next generation sequencing and one mitochondrial marker by Sanger sequencing for four...

Data from: Sources of variability in cytosolic calcium transients triggered by stimulation of homogeneous uro-epithelial cell monolayers

Peter A. Appelby, Saqib Shabir, Jennifer Southgate & Dawn Walker
Epithelial tissue structure is the emergent outcome of the interactions between large numbers of individual cells. Experimental cell biology offers an important tool to unravel these complex interactions, but current methods of analysis tend to be limited to mean field approaches or representation by selected subsets of cells. This may result in bias towards cells that respond in a particular way and/or neglect local, context-specific cell responses. Here, an automated algorithm was applied to examine...

Data from: Shared and non-shared genomic divergence in parallel ecotypes of Littorina saxatilis at a local scale

Mark Ravinet, Anja Westram, Kerstin Johannesson, Roger Butlin, Carl André & Marina Panova
Parallel speciation occurs when selection drives repeated, independent adaptive divergence that reduces gene flow between ecotypes. Classical examples show parallel speciation originating from shared genomic variation, but this does not seem to be the case in the rough periwinkle (Littorina saxatilis) that has evolved considerable phenotypic diversity across Europe, including several distinct ecotypes. Small ‘wave’ ecotype snails inhabit exposed rocks and experience strong wave action, while thick-shelled, ‘crab’ ecotype snails are larger and experience crab...

Data from: Exact Bayesian inference for animal movement in continuous time

Paul G. Blackwell, Mu Niu, Mark S. Lambert & Scott D. LaPoint
It is natural to regard most animal movement as a continuous-time process, generally observed at discrete times. Most existing statistical methods for movement data ignore this; the remainder mostly use discrete-time approximations, the statistical properties of which have not been widely studied, or are limited to special cases. We aim to facilitate wider use of continuous-time modelling for realistic problems. We develop novel methodology which allows exact Bayesian statistical analysis for a rich class of...

Data from: Evolutionary novelty in a butterfly wing pattern through enhancer shuffling

Richard W. R. Wallbank, Simon W. Baxter, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Joseph J. Hanly, Simon H. Martin, James Mallet, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, Camilo Salazar, Mathieu Joron, Nicola Nadeau, W. Owen McMillan & Chris D. Jiggins
An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expression of the transcription factor optix, which in...

Data from: Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

Anna W. Santure, Jocelyn Poissant, Isabelle De Cauwer, Kees Van Oers, Matthew R. Robinson, John L. Quinn, Martien A. M. Groenen, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon & Jon Slate
Currently there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar phenotypic variation in different populations? Great tits (Parus major) have been studied extensively in long-term studies across Europe, and consequently are considered an ecological 'model organism'. Recently,...

Data from: Middle Jurassic vegetation dynamics based on quantitative analysis of spore/pollen assemblages from the Ravenscar Group, North Yorkshire, UK

Sam M. Slater & Charles H. Wellman
Quantitative analysis of the distribution of dispersed spores and pollen (sporomorphs) has been used to assess temporal floral variation through the Middle Jurassic Ravenscar Group (Aalenian–Bathonian), North Yorkshire, UK. Aalenian, Bajocian and Bathonian strata possess relatively distinct sporomorph and palynofacies assemblages, which potentially reflect a dynamic history regarding the nature of parent vegetation. Specifically, Aalenian palynofloras are composed of a heterogeneous mixture of conifers, ferns, simple monosulcate pollen producers, sphenophytes and Caytoniales; Bajocian palynofloras are...

Data from: Comparison of Nottingham Prognostic Index and Adjuvant Online prognostic tools in young women with breast cancer: review of a single-institution experience

Benjamin Joseph Hearne, M. Dawn Teare, Mohammad Butt & Leslie Donaldson
Objective: Accurately predicting the prognosis of young patients with breast cancer (<40 years) is uncertain since the literature suggests they have a higher mortality and that age is an independent risk factor. In this cohort study we considered two prognostic tools; Nottingham Prognostic Index and Adjuvant Online (Adjuvant!), in a group of young patients, comparing their predicted prognosis with their actual survival. Setting: North East England. Participants: Data was prospectively collected from the breast unit...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    50

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    50

Affiliations

  • University of Sheffield
    50
  • University of Cambridge
    6
  • University of Oxford
    6
  • University of Auckland
    4
  • University of Exeter
    4
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    3
  • University of Zurich
    3
  • Uppsala University
    3
  • University of Jyväskylä
    3
  • University of Turku
    3