57 Works

Training on dsRNA bio manufacturing and management of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus on stored cowpea in Kano, Nigeria

Abou TOGOLA, Alison Nwokeoji & Boukar Ousmane
The proposed is a multidisciplinary project for development of a novel RNA-based crop protection strategy for managing cowpea pests. The RNA biopesticides have the potential for use in the management of a wide range of insect pests and pathogens but we will focus on the design and biomanufacturing of novel RNA based pesticides to target the cowpea pod borer (Maruca vitrata). Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) the most damaging pest of cowpea at podding stage....

A genome-wide linkage map for the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) provides insights into the evolutionary history of the avian genome

Ingerid Hagen, Sigbjørn Lien, Anna Billing, Tore O. Elgvin, Cassandra Trier, Alina K. Niskanen, Maja Tarka, Jon Slate, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Henrik Jensen
The house sparrow is an important model species for studying physiological, ecological and evolutionary processes in wild populations. Here, we present a medium density, genome wide linkage map for house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has aided the assembly of the house sparrow reference genome, and that will provide an important resource for ongoing mapping of genes controlling important traits in the ecology and evolution of this species. Using a custom house sparrow 10K iSelect Illumina...

Adaptive zones shape the magnitude of premating reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Moritz Muschick, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffrey Feder, Zachariah Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Simpson's fossil-record inspired model of ‘adaptive zones’ proposes that evolution is dominated by small fluctuations within adaptive zones, occasionally punctuated by larger shifts between zones. This model can help explain why the process of population divergence often results in weak or moderate reproductive isolation (RI), rather than strong RI and distinct species. Applied to the speciation process, the adaptive zones hypothesis makes two inter-related predictions: (i) large shifts between zones are relatively rare, (ii) when...

Data from: Large-scale mutation in the evolution of a gene complex for cryptic coloration

Zachariah Gompert, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa De Carvalho, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Dorothea Lindtke, Marisol De-La-Mora, Moritz Muschick, Jeffrey Feder, Thomas Parchman & Patrik Nosil
The types of mutations affecting adaptation in the wild are only beginning to be understood. In particular, whether structural changes shape adaptation by suppressing recombination or by creating new mutations is unresolved. Here we show that multiple, linked but recombining loci underlie cryptic color morphs of Timema chumash stick insects. In a related species, these loci are found in a region of suppressed recombination, forming a supergene. However, in seven species of Timema we find...

Fast and furious: Early differences in growth rate drive short-term plant dominance and exclusion under eutrophication

Yann Hautier, Zhang Pengfei, Mariet Hefting, Merel Soons, George Kowalchuk, Mark Rees, Andrew Hector, Lindsay Turnbull, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Chengjin Chu, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. The reduction of plant diversity following eutrophication threatens many ecosystems worldwide. Yet, the mechanisms by which species are lost following nutrient enrichment are still not completely understood, nor are the details of when such mechanisms act during the growing season, which hampers understanding and the development of mitigation strategies. 2. Using a common garden competition experiment, we found that early-season differences in growth rates among five perennial grass species measured in monoculture predicted short-term...

Individual differences determine the strength of ecological interactions

Jason I. Griffiths, Dylan Z. Childs, Ronald D. Bassar, Tim Coulson, David N Reznick & Mark Rees
Biotic interactions are central to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In the vast majority of empirical studies, the strength of intraspecific interactions is estimated by using simple mea- sures of population size. Biologists have long known that these are crude metrics, with experiments and theory suggesting that interactions between individuals should depend on traits, such as body size. Despite this, it has been difficult to estimate the impact of traits on competitive ability from ecological...

Long-term cloud forest response to climate warming revealed by insect speciation history

Antonia Salces-Castellano, Sean Stankowski, Paula Arribas, Jairo Patiño, Dirk N. Karger, Roger Butlin & Brent C. Emerson
Montane cloud forests are areas of high endemism, and are one of the more vulnerable terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Thus, understanding how they both contribute to the generation of biodiversity, and will respond to ongoing climate change, are important and related challenges. The widely accepted model for montane cloud forest dynamics involves upslope forcing of their range limits with global climate warming. However, limited climate data provides some support for an alternative model, where...

The role of evolutionary time, diversification rates and dispersal in determining the global diversity of a large radiation of passerine birds

Tianlong Cai, Shimiao Shao, Jonathan Kennedy, Per Alström, Robert Moyle, Yanhua Qu, Fumin Lei & Jon Fjeldså
Aim: Variation in species diversity among different geographic areas may result from differences in speciation and extinction rates, immigration and time for diversification. An area with high species diversity may be the result of a high net diversification rate, multiple immigration events from adjacent regions,anda long time available for the accumulation of species (know as the “time-for-speciation effect”). Here, we examine the relative importance of the three aforementionedprocesses in shaping the geographic diversity patterns of...

Data from: The global distribution of grass functional traits within grassy biomes

Emma Jardine, Colin Osborne, Gavin Thomas, Caroline Lehmann & Elisabeth Forrestel
Aim: The sorting of functional traits along environmental gradients is an important driver of community and landscape scale patterns of functional diversity. However, the significance of environmental factors in driving functional gradients within biomes and across continents remains poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the relationship of soil nutrients and climate to leaf traits in grasses (Poaceae) that are hypothesised to reflect different strategies of resource-use along gradients of resource availability. Location: Global Taxon: Poaceae Methods:...

Numbers of sperm associated with the perivitelline layer of seabird (and other bird species) eggs

Nicola Hemmings
Following copulation, females of many seabird species spend a prolonged period of time away from the colony, building up reserves for egg formation and incubation. Here, we report that the number of sperm associated with eggs of single-egg clutch seabirds was almost an order of magnitude greater than predicted from the relationship between ovum size and sperm numbers in multi-egg clutch non-seabirds. Sperm numbers were also several times greater than the estimated number necessary for...

Data from: How do predators generalize warning signals in simple and complex prey communities? Insights from a videogame

Monica Arias, John W. Davey, Simon Martin, Chris Jiggins, Nicola Nadeau, Mathieu Joron & Violaine Llaurens
The persistence of distinct warning signals within and between sympatric mimetic communities is a puzzling evolutionary question because selection favours convergence of colour patterns among toxic species. Such convergence is partly shaped by predators’ reaction to similar but not identical stimulus, i.e. generalization behaviour. And generalisation by predators is likely to be shaped by the diversity of local prey. However, studying generalization behaviour is generally limited to simple variations of prey colour patterns. Here, we...

Maximum carboxylation rate estimation with chlorophyll content as a proxy of rubisco content

Xuehe Lu, Weimin Ju, Jing Li, Holly Croft, Jing M. Chen, Yiqi Luo, Hua Yu & Haijing Hu
The maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) is a key parameter in determining the plant photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area. However, most terrestrial biosphere models currently treat Vcmax as constants changing only with plant functional types, leading to large uncertainties in modelled carbon fluxes. Vcmax is tightly linked with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Here we investigated the relationship between leaf chlorophyll content and Rubisco (Chl-Rub) within a winter wheat paddock. With chlorophyll as a proxy of Rubisco,...

Contrasted histories of organelle and nuclear genomes underlying physiological diversification in a grass species

Matheus Bianconi, Luke Dunning, Emma Curran, Oriane Hidalgo, Robyn Powell, Sahr Mian, Ilia Leitch, Marjorie Lundgren, Sophie Manzi, Maria Vorontsova, Guillaume Besnard, Colin Osborne, Jill Olofsson & Pascal-Antoine Christin
C4 photosynthesis evolved multiple times independently in angiosperms, but most origins are relatively old so that the early events linked to photosynthetic diversification are blurred. The grass Alloteropsis semialata is an exception, as this species encompasses C4 and non-C4 populations. Using phylogenomics and population genomics, we infer the history of dispersal and secondary gene flow before, during, and after photosynthetic divergence in A. semialata. We further analyse the genome composition of individuals with varied ploidy...

Within-population sperm competition intensity does not predict asymmetry in conpopulation sperm precedence

Martin Garlovsky, Leeban Yusuf, Mike Ritchie Ritchie, Rhonda Snook, Martin D. Garlovsky, Leeban H. Yusuf, Michael G. Ritchie & Rhonda R. Snook
Postcopulatory sexual selection can generate evolutionary arms races between the sexes resulting in the rapid coevolution of reproductive phenotypes. As traits affecting fertilization success diverge between populations, postmating prezygotic (PMPZ) barriers to gene flow may evolve. Conspecific sperm precedence is a form of PMPZ isolation thought to evolve early during speciation yet has mostly been studied between species. Here , we show conpopulation sperm precedence (CpSP) between Drosophila montana populations. Using Pool-seq genomic data we...

Short-term resistance that persists: Rapidly induced silicon anti-herbivore defence affects carbon-based plant defences

Jamie Waterman, Casey Hall, Meena Mikhael, Christopher Cazzonelli, Susan Hartley & Scott Johnson
1. Silicon (Si) is known to alleviate diverse biotic and abiotic stresses including insect herbivory. Si accumulation in plants, notably the Poaceae, can be induced through stimulation of the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway (associated with chewing herbivores). Nevertheless, the temporal dynamics of Si accumulation as a defence response and its consequential effects on carbon-based defences (e.g. phenolics), particularly in the short-term, remain unclear. 2. The model grass Brachypodium distachyon was grown in a hydroponic solution...

Data from: Quaternary land bridges have not been universal conduits of gene flow

Emilie Cros, Balaji Chattopadhyay, Kritika M. Garg, Nathaniel Ng, Suzanne Tomassi, Suzan Benedick, David P. Edwards & Frank E. Rheindt
Quaternary climate oscillations are a well-known driver of animal diversification, but their effects are most well studied in areas where glaciations lead to habitat fragmentation. In large areas of the planet, however, glaciations have had the opposite effect, but here their impacts are much less well understood. This is especially true in Southeast Asia, where cyclical changes in land distribution have generated enormous land expansions during glacial periods. In this study, we selected a panel...

The hidden costs of dietary restriction: implications for its evolutionary and mechanistic origins

Andrew W McCracken, Gracie Adams, Laura Hartshorne, Marc Tatar & Mirre J. P. Simons
Dietary restriction (DR) extends life span across taxa. Despite considerable research, universal mechanisms of DR have not been identified, limiting its translational potential. Guided by the conviction that DR evolved as an adaptive, pro-longevity physiological response to food scarcity, biomedical science has interpreted DR as an activator of pro-longevity molecular pathways. Current evolutionary theory predicts that organisms invest in their soma during DR, and thus when resource availability improves, should outcompete rich-fed controls in survival...

Heliconius butterfly collection records in the Chocó-Darien Rainforest (Ecuador, Colombia, Panama) 2014-2016

N.J Nadeau, E.V. Curran, C. Pardo-Diaz, C. Salazar & M. Linares
These data comprise collection records of Heliconius butterfly samples collected in the Chocó-Darien ecoregion between the Andes and the Pacific in Ecuador and Colombia, and the Pacific coast of the Darien region of Panama. Samples were collected over five sampling trips between 2014 and 2016. Data were collected for a study of clinal variation across this region in Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene, so focus on these two species. However, in most cases all observed...

Data from: Müllerian mimicry of a quantitative trait despite contrasting levels of genomic divergence and selection

Emma Curran, Sean Stankowski, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Camilo Salazar, Mauricio Linares & Nicola Nadeau
Hybrid zones, where distinct populations meet and interbreed, give insight into how differences between populations are maintained despite gene flow. Studying clines in genetic loci and adaptive traits across hybrid zones is a powerful method for understanding how selection drives differentiation within a single species, but can also be used to compare parallel divergence in different species responding to a common selective pressure. Here, we study parallel divergence of wing colouration in the butterflies Heliconius...

The effects of tropical secondary forest regeneration on avian phylogenetic diversity.

Emma Hughes, David Edwards, Catherine Sayer, Philip Martin & Gavin Thomas
1. The conversion of tropical forests to farmland is a key driver of the current extinction crisis. With the present rate of deforestation unlikely to subside, secondary forests that regenerate on abandoned agricultural land may provide an option for safeguarding biodiversity. While species richness (SR) may recover as secondary forests get older, the extent to which phylogenetic diversity (PD)—the total amount of evolutionary history present in a community—is conserved is less clear. Maximising PD has...

Data from: Heritability and correlations among learning and inhibitory control traits

Ellis Langley, Gracie Adams, Christine Beardsworth, Deborah Dawson, Philippa Laker, Jayden Van Horik, Mark Whiteside, Alastair Wilson & Joah Madden
To understand the evolution of cognitive abilities, we need to understand both how selection acts upon them and their genetic (co)variance structure. Recent work suggests that there are fitness consequences for free-living individuals with particular cognitive abilities. However, our current understanding of the heritability of these abilities is restricted to domesticated species subjected to artificial selection. We investigated genetic variance for, and genetic correlations among four cognitive abilities: inhibitory control, visual and spatial discrimination, and...

Data from: Burning savanna for avian species richness and functional diversity

Teegan D.S. Docherty, Matthew G. Hethcoat, Lynne M. MacTavish, Dougal MacTavish, Stephen Dell, Philip A. Stephens & Stephen G. Willis
Prescribed fire is used throughout fire-prone landscapes to conserve biodiversity. Current best practice in managing savanna systems advocates methods based on the assumption that increased fire-mediated landscape heterogeneity (pyrodiversity) will promote biodiversity. However, considerable knowledge gaps remain in our understanding of how savanna wildlife responds to the composition and configuration of pyrodiverse landscapes. The effects of pyrodiversity on functional diversity has rarely been quantified and assessing this relationship at a landscape scale which is commensurate...

Data from: Assortative mating, sexual selection and their consequences for gene flow in Littorina

Samuel Perini, Marina Rafajlovic, Anja Westram, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
When divergent populations are connected by gene flow, the establishment of complete reproductive isolation usually requires the joint action of multiple barrier effects. One example where multiple barrier effects are coupled consists of a single trait that is under divergent natural selection and also mediates assortative mating. Such multiple-effect traits can strongly reduce gene flow. However, there are few cases where patterns of assortative mating have been described quantitatively and their impact on gene flow...

Data from: Thermal tolerance and the importance of microhabitats for Andean frogs in the context of land-use and climate change

Pamela González-Del-Pliego, Brett Scheffers, Robert Freckleton, Edmund Basham, Miguel Araújo, Andrés Acosta-Galvis, Claudia Medina Uribe, Torbjørn Haugaasen & David Edwards
1. Global warming is having impacts across the Tree of Life. Understanding species’ physiological sensitivity to temperature change and how they relate to local temperature variation in their habitats is crucial to determining vulnerability to global warming. 2. We ask how species’ vulnerability varies across habitats and elevations, and how climatically-buffered microhabitats can contribute to reduce their vulnerability. 3. We measured thermal sensitivity (critical thermal maximum – CTmax) of 14 species of Pristimantis frogs inhabiting...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    57

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    55
  • Text
    2

Affiliations

  • University of Sheffield
    57
  • University of Oxford
    4
  • University of Groningen
    3
  • University of Cambridge
    3
  • University of Copenhagen
    3
  • Universiti of Malaysia Sabah
    3
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    2
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    2
  • Utah State University
    2
  • University of Notre Dame
    2