56 Works

Heliconius butterfly collection records in the Chocó-Darien Rainforest (Ecuador, Colombia, Panama) 2014-2016

N.J Nadeau, E.V. Curran, C. Pardo-Diaz, C. Salazar & M. Linares
These data comprise collection records of Heliconius butterfly samples collected in the Chocó-Darien ecoregion between the Andes and the Pacific in Ecuador and Colombia, and the Pacific coast of the Darien region of Panama. Samples were collected over five sampling trips between 2014 and 2016. Data were collected for a study of clinal variation across this region in Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene, so focus on these two species. However, in most cases all observed...

The hidden costs of dietary restriction: implications for its evolutionary and mechanistic origins

Andrew W McCracken, Gracie Adams, Laura Hartshorne, Marc Tatar & Mirre J. P. Simons
Dietary restriction (DR) extends life span across taxa. Despite considerable research, universal mechanisms of DR have not been identified, limiting its translational potential. Guided by the conviction that DR evolved as an adaptive, pro-longevity physiological response to food scarcity, biomedical science has interpreted DR as an activator of pro-longevity molecular pathways. Current evolutionary theory predicts that organisms invest in their soma during DR, and thus when resource availability improves, should outcompete rich-fed controls in survival...

Within-population sperm competition intensity does not predict asymmetry in conpopulation sperm precedence

Martin Garlovsky, Leeban Yusuf, Mike Ritchie Ritchie, Rhonda Snook, Martin D. Garlovsky, Leeban H. Yusuf, Michael G. Ritchie & Rhonda R. Snook
Postcopulatory sexual selection can generate evolutionary arms races between the sexes resulting in the rapid coevolution of reproductive phenotypes. As traits affecting fertilization success diverge between populations, postmating prezygotic (PMPZ) barriers to gene flow may evolve. Conspecific sperm precedence is a form of PMPZ isolation thought to evolve early during speciation yet has mostly been studied between species. Here , we show conpopulation sperm precedence (CpSP) between Drosophila montana populations. Using Pool-seq genomic data we...

Contrasted histories of organelle and nuclear genomes underlying physiological diversification in a grass species

Matheus Bianconi, Luke Dunning, Emma Curran, Oriane Hidalgo, Robyn Powell, Sahr Mian, Ilia Leitch, Marjorie Lundgren, Sophie Manzi, Maria Vorontsova, Guillaume Besnard, Colin Osborne, Jill Olofsson & Pascal-Antoine Christin
C4 photosynthesis evolved multiple times independently in angiosperms, but most origins are relatively old so that the early events linked to photosynthetic diversification are blurred. The grass Alloteropsis semialata is an exception, as this species encompasses C4 and non-C4 populations. Using phylogenomics and population genomics, we infer the history of dispersal and secondary gene flow before, during, and after photosynthetic divergence in A. semialata. We further analyse the genome composition of individuals with varied ploidy...

Short-term resistance that persists: Rapidly induced silicon anti-herbivore defence affects carbon-based plant defences

Jamie Waterman, Casey Hall, Meena Mikhael, Christopher Cazzonelli, Susan Hartley & Scott Johnson
1. Silicon (Si) is known to alleviate diverse biotic and abiotic stresses including insect herbivory. Si accumulation in plants, notably the Poaceae, can be induced through stimulation of the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway (associated with chewing herbivores). Nevertheless, the temporal dynamics of Si accumulation as a defence response and its consequential effects on carbon-based defences (e.g. phenolics), particularly in the short-term, remain unclear. 2. The model grass Brachypodium distachyon was grown in a hydroponic solution...

Maximum carboxylation rate estimation with chlorophyll content as a proxy of rubisco content

Xuehe Lu, Weimin Ju, Jing Li, Holly Croft, Jing M. Chen, Yiqi Luo, Hua Yu & Haijing Hu
The maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) is a key parameter in determining the plant photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area. However, most terrestrial biosphere models currently treat Vcmax as constants changing only with plant functional types, leading to large uncertainties in modelled carbon fluxes. Vcmax is tightly linked with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Here we investigated the relationship between leaf chlorophyll content and Rubisco (Chl-Rub) within a winter wheat paddock. With chlorophyll as a proxy of Rubisco,...

Numbers of sperm associated with the perivitelline layer of seabird (and other bird species) eggs

Nicola Hemmings
Following copulation, females of many seabird species spend a prolonged period of time away from the colony, building up reserves for egg formation and incubation. Here, we report that the number of sperm associated with eggs of single-egg clutch seabirds was almost an order of magnitude greater than predicted from the relationship between ovum size and sperm numbers in multi-egg clutch non-seabirds. Sperm numbers were also several times greater than the estimated number necessary for...

Data from: Quaternary land bridges have not been universal conduits of gene flow

Emilie Cros, Balaji Chattopadhyay, Kritika M. Garg, Nathaniel Ng, Suzanne Tomassi, Suzan Benedick, David P. Edwards & Frank E. Rheindt
Quaternary climate oscillations are a well-known driver of animal diversification, but their effects are most well studied in areas where glaciations lead to habitat fragmentation. In large areas of the planet, however, glaciations have had the opposite effect, but here their impacts are much less well understood. This is especially true in Southeast Asia, where cyclical changes in land distribution have generated enormous land expansions during glacial periods. In this study, we selected a panel...

Data from: The global distribution of grass functional traits within grassy biomes

Emma Jardine, Colin Osborne, Gavin Thomas, Caroline Lehmann & Elisabeth Forrestel
Aim: The sorting of functional traits along environmental gradients is an important driver of community and landscape scale patterns of functional diversity. However, the significance of environmental factors in driving functional gradients within biomes and across continents remains poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the relationship of soil nutrients and climate to leaf traits in grasses (Poaceae) that are hypothesised to reflect different strategies of resource-use along gradients of resource availability. Location: Global Taxon: Poaceae Methods:...

Data from: How do predators generalize warning signals in simple and complex prey communities? Insights from a videogame

Monica Arias, John W. Davey, Simon Martin, Chris Jiggins, Nicola Nadeau, Mathieu Joron & Violaine Llaurens
The persistence of distinct warning signals within and between sympatric mimetic communities is a puzzling evolutionary question because selection favours convergence of colour patterns among toxic species. Such convergence is partly shaped by predators’ reaction to similar but not identical stimulus, i.e. generalization behaviour. And generalisation by predators is likely to be shaped by the diversity of local prey. However, studying generalization behaviour is generally limited to simple variations of prey colour patterns. Here, we...

Data from: On the use of random graphs in analysing resource utilization in urban systems

Hadi Arbabi, Giuliano Punzo, Gregory Meyers, Ling Min Tan, Qianqian Li, Danielle Densley Tingley & Martin Mayfield
Urban resource models increasingly rely on implicit network formulations. Resource consumption behaviours documented in the existing empirical studies are ultimately by-products of the network abstractions underlying these models. Here we present an analytical formulation and examination of a generic demand-driven network model that accounts for the effectiveness of resource utilisation and its implications for policy levers in addressing resource management in cities. We establish simple limiting boundaries to systems' resource effectiveness. These limits are found...

Data from: C4 photosynthesis and the economic spectra of leaf and root traits independently influence growth rates in grasses

Kimberley Simpson, Christopher Bennett, Rebecca Atkinson, Emily Mockford, Scott McKenzie, Robert Freckleton, Ken Thompson, Mark Rees & Colin Osborne
Photosynthetic pathway is an important cause of growth rate variation between species, such that the enhanced carbon uptake of C4 species leads to faster growth than their C3 counterparts. Leaf traits that promote rapid resource acquisition may further enhance the growth capacity of C4 species. However, how root economic traits interact with leaf traits, and the different growth strategies adopted by plants with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways is unclear. Plant economic traits could interact...

Elevated atmospheric CO2 suppresses jasmonate and silicon-based defences without affecting herbivores

Casey Hall, Meena Mikhael, Susan Hartley & Scott Johnson
1. Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) not only increases plant growth but can also interfere with defence against insect herbivory through the disruption of the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. Silicon (Si) plays an important role in plant stress tolerance and resistance to herbivory, particularly in grasses, many of which accumulate high amounts of Si. Activation of the JA pathway has been reported to stimulate Si uptake, while Si supplementation can alter both constitutive and induced phytohormone...

Linkage maps and phenotypic data for Bainbridge et al. 2020

Melanie Brien
Limited genetic parallels underlie convergent evolution of quantitative pattern variation in mimetic butterflies Mimetic systems allow us to address the question of whether the same genes control similar phenotypes in different species. Although widespread parallels have been found for major effect loci, much less is known about genes that control quantitative trait variation. In this study, we identify and compare the loci that control subtle changes in the size and shape of forewing pattern elements...

Estimation of environmental, genetic and parental age at conception effects on telomere length in a wild mammal

Sil H.J. Van Lieshout, Alexandra M. Sparks, Amanda Bretman, Chris Newman, Christina D. Buesching, Terry Burke, David W. Macdonald & Hannah L. Dugdale
Understanding individual variation in fitness-related traits requires separating the environmental and genetic determinants. Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that are thought to be a biomarker of senescence as their length predicts mortality risk and reflect the physiological consequences of environmental conditions. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to individual variation in telomere length is however unclear, yet important for understanding its evolutionary dynamics. In particular, the evidence for transgenerational...

Growth rates of grass species with contrasting photosynthetic pathways and life histories

R.N. Wade, P. Seed, E. McLaren, E. Wood, P.A. Christin, K. Thompson, M. Rees & C.P. Osborne
This dataset contains sequential biomass harvests from a plant growth experiment carried out under controlled environmental conditions in Sheffield. The experiment was carried out in three parts in 2016 and 2017, and was designed to investigate differences in growth among grasses with the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, and with annual and perennial life histories. Plants were harvested approximately weekly over a period of five weeks. The data include information on the dry biomass of...

GPS locations for mechanistic home range analysis reveals drivers of space use patterns for a non-territorial passerine

Natasha Ellison, Ben Hatchwell, Sarah Biddiscombe, Clare Napper & Jonathan Potts
1. Home ranging is a near-ubiquitous phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Understanding the behavioural mechanisms that give rise to observed home range patterns is thus an important general question, and mechanistic home range analysis (MHRA) provides the tools to address it. However, such analysis has hitherto been restricted to scent-marking territorial animals, so its potential breadth of application has not been tested. 2. Here, we apply MHRA to a population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus...

Researching Lives Through Time: Time, Generation and Life Stories

Barbara Adam, Jenny Hockey & Paul Thompson
Timescapes Working Paper Series, 1

Data from: Cost, risk, and avoidance of inbreeding in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amy Leedale, Michelle Simeoni, Stuart Sharp, Jonathan Green, Jon Slate, Robert Lachlan, Ben Hatchwell & Elva Robinson
Inbreeding is often avoided in natural populations by passive processes such as sex-biased dispersal. But, in many social animals, opposite-sexed adult relatives are spatially clustered, generating a risk of incest and hence selection for active inbreeding avoidance. Here we show that, in long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), a cooperative breeder that risks inbreeding by living alongside opposite-sex relatives, inbreeding carries fitness costs and is avoided by active kin discrimination during mate choice. First, we identified a...

Data from: Peripheral morphology is associated with restricted lineage diversification and endemism across a large passerine radiation

Jonathan Kennedy, Petter Marki, Jon Fjeldså & Carsten Rahbek
Aim: Across a variety of taxonomic scales species diversity is unevenly distributed among its constituent units, and clades with few species are more common than expected assuming homogeneous rates of speciation and extinction among lineages. In order to explain the prevalence of species poor families among a global and speciose radiation of passerine birds, we test whether these groups share common eco-morphological, geographic and phylogenetic attributes. Location: Global Time period: Late Oligocene to the present...

Resprouting grasses are associated with less frequent fire than seeders

Kimberley Simpson, Emma Jardine, Sally Archibald, Elizabeth Forrestel, Caroline Lehmann, Gavin Thomas & Colin Osborne
Plant populations persist under recurrent fire via resprouting from surviving tissues (resprouters) or seedling recruitment (seeders). Woody species are inherently slow-maturing, meaning that seeders are confined to infrequent fire regimes. However, for grasses, which mature faster, the relationships between persistence strategy and fire regime remains unknown. Globally, we analysed associations between fire regimes experienced by hundreds of grass species and their persistence strategy, within a phylogenetic context. We also tested whether persistence strategies are associated...

Data from: Elevation is a stronger predictor of morphological trait divergence than competition in a radiation of tropical lizards

Alex Slavenko, Allen Allison & Shai Meiri
1. Adaptations for efficient performance are expected to shape animal morphology based on selection for microhabitat use and ecological forces. The presence of competitor species is predicted to cause niches to contract and enhance trait divergence. Therefore, increased species richness is expected to lead to greater trait divergence, and to result in reduced overlap and similarity between morphologies of sympatric species. 2. We examined patterns of morphospace occupancy and partitioning in the skink fauna of...

Data from: Changes in age-structure over four decades were a key determinant of population growth rate in a long-lived mammal

John Jackson, Khyne Mar, Win Htut, Dylan Childs & Virpi Lummaa
1. A changing environment directly influences birth and mortality rates, and thus population growth rates. However, population growth rates in the short-term are also influenced by population age-structure. Despite its importance, the contribution of age-structure to population growth rates has rarely been explored empirically in wildlife populations with long-term demographic data. 2. Here, we assessed how changes in age-structure influenced short-term population dynamics in a semi-captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). 3. We addressed...

Fast and furious: Early differences in growth rate drive short-term plant dominance and exclusion under eutrophication

Yann Hautier, Zhang Pengfei, Mariet Hefting, Merel Soons, George Kowalchuk, Mark Rees, Andrew Hector, Lindsay Turnbull, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Chengjin Chu, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. The reduction of plant diversity following eutrophication threatens many ecosystems worldwide. Yet, the mechanisms by which species are lost following nutrient enrichment are still not completely understood, nor are the details of when such mechanisms act during the growing season, which hampers understanding and the development of mitigation strategies. 2. Using a common garden competition experiment, we found that early-season differences in growth rates among five perennial grass species measured in monoculture predicted short-term...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Copenhagen
  • Universiti of Malaysia Sabah
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
  • Utah State University
  • University of Notre Dame