57 Works

Training on dsRNA bio manufacturing and management of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus on stored cowpea in Kano, Nigeria

Abou TOGOLA, Alison Nwokeoji & Boukar Ousmane
The proposed is a multidisciplinary project for development of a novel RNA-based crop protection strategy for managing cowpea pests. The RNA biopesticides have the potential for use in the management of a wide range of insect pests and pathogens but we will focus on the design and biomanufacturing of novel RNA based pesticides to target the cowpea pod borer (Maruca vitrata). Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) the most damaging pest of cowpea at podding stage....

A genome-wide linkage map for the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) provides insights into the evolutionary history of the avian genome

Ingerid Hagen, Sigbjørn Lien, Anna Billing, Tore O. Elgvin, Cassandra Trier, Alina K. Niskanen, Maja Tarka, Jon Slate, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Henrik Jensen
The house sparrow is an important model species for studying physiological, ecological and evolutionary processes in wild populations. Here, we present a medium density, genome wide linkage map for house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has aided the assembly of the house sparrow reference genome, and that will provide an important resource for ongoing mapping of genes controlling important traits in the ecology and evolution of this species. Using a custom house sparrow 10K iSelect Illumina...

Long-term cloud forest response to climate warming revealed by insect speciation history

Antonia Salces-Castellano, Sean Stankowski, Paula Arribas, Jairo Patiño, Dirk N. Karger, Roger Butlin & Brent C. Emerson
Montane cloud forests are areas of high endemism, and are one of the more vulnerable terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Thus, understanding how they both contribute to the generation of biodiversity, and will respond to ongoing climate change, are important and related challenges. The widely accepted model for montane cloud forest dynamics involves upslope forcing of their range limits with global climate warming. However, limited climate data provides some support for an alternative model, where...

The role of evolutionary time, diversification rates and dispersal in determining the global diversity of a large radiation of passerine birds

Tianlong Cai, Shimiao Shao, Jonathan Kennedy, Per Alström, Robert Moyle, Yanhua Qu, Fumin Lei & Jon Fjeldså
Aim: Variation in species diversity among different geographic areas may result from differences in speciation and extinction rates, immigration and time for diversification. An area with high species diversity may be the result of a high net diversification rate, multiple immigration events from adjacent regions,anda long time available for the accumulation of species (know as the “time-for-speciation effect”). Here, we examine the relative importance of the three aforementionedprocesses in shaping the geographic diversity patterns of...

Individual differences determine the strength of ecological interactions

Jason I. Griffiths, Dylan Z. Childs, Ronald D. Bassar, Tim Coulson, David N Reznick & Mark Rees
Biotic interactions are central to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In the vast majority of empirical studies, the strength of intraspecific interactions is estimated by using simple mea- sures of population size. Biologists have long known that these are crude metrics, with experiments and theory suggesting that interactions between individuals should depend on traits, such as body size. Despite this, it has been difficult to estimate the impact of traits on competitive ability from ecological...

Fast and furious: Early differences in growth rate drive short-term plant dominance and exclusion under eutrophication

Yann Hautier, Zhang Pengfei, Mariet Hefting, Merel Soons, George Kowalchuk, Mark Rees, Andrew Hector, Lindsay Turnbull, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Chengjin Chu, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. The reduction of plant diversity following eutrophication threatens many ecosystems worldwide. Yet, the mechanisms by which species are lost following nutrient enrichment are still not completely understood, nor are the details of when such mechanisms act during the growing season, which hampers understanding and the development of mitigation strategies. 2. Using a common garden competition experiment, we found that early-season differences in growth rates among five perennial grass species measured in monoculture predicted short-term...

Data from: Large-scale mutation in the evolution of a gene complex for cryptic coloration

Zachariah Gompert, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa De Carvalho, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Dorothea Lindtke, Marisol De-La-Mora, Moritz Muschick, Jeffrey Feder, Thomas Parchman & Patrik Nosil
The types of mutations affecting adaptation in the wild are only beginning to be understood. In particular, whether structural changes shape adaptation by suppressing recombination or by creating new mutations is unresolved. Here we show that multiple, linked but recombining loci underlie cryptic color morphs of Timema chumash stick insects. In a related species, these loci are found in a region of suppressed recombination, forming a supergene. However, in seven species of Timema we find...

Adaptive zones shape the magnitude of premating reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Moritz Muschick, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffrey Feder, Zachariah Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Simpson's fossil-record inspired model of ‘adaptive zones’ proposes that evolution is dominated by small fluctuations within adaptive zones, occasionally punctuated by larger shifts between zones. This model can help explain why the process of population divergence often results in weak or moderate reproductive isolation (RI), rather than strong RI and distinct species. Applied to the speciation process, the adaptive zones hypothesis makes two inter-related predictions: (i) large shifts between zones are relatively rare, (ii) when...

Electronic tag tracking data from starry smooth-hound Mustelus asterias in the northeast Atlantic 2004-2018

The data is derived from the deployment of mark-recapture and electronic tags on starry smooth-hound (Mustelus asterias) in the North Sea and English Channel. Tags were deployed throughout the time period 2004 to 2018. The dataset includes 36 individual M. asterias, 18 of which were tagged with mark-recapture tags only, and 18 were tagging with both mark-recapture and electronic tags. Six electronically tagged M. asterias were geolocated and their estimated daily geographical locations (latitude and...

Data from: Heritability and correlations among learning and inhibitory control traits

Ellis Langley, Gracie Adams, Christine Beardsworth, Deborah Dawson, Philippa Laker, Jayden Van Horik, Mark Whiteside, Alastair Wilson & Joah Madden
To understand the evolution of cognitive abilities, we need to understand both how selection acts upon them and their genetic (co)variance structure. Recent work suggests that there are fitness consequences for free-living individuals with particular cognitive abilities. However, our current understanding of the heritability of these abilities is restricted to domesticated species subjected to artificial selection. We investigated genetic variance for, and genetic correlations among four cognitive abilities: inhibitory control, visual and spatial discrimination, and...

Data from: Burning savanna for avian species richness and functional diversity

Teegan D.S. Docherty, Matthew G. Hethcoat, Lynne M. MacTavish, Dougal MacTavish, Stephen Dell, Philip A. Stephens & Stephen G. Willis
Prescribed fire is used throughout fire-prone landscapes to conserve biodiversity. Current best practice in managing savanna systems advocates methods based on the assumption that increased fire-mediated landscape heterogeneity (pyrodiversity) will promote biodiversity. However, considerable knowledge gaps remain in our understanding of how savanna wildlife responds to the composition and configuration of pyrodiverse landscapes. The effects of pyrodiversity on functional diversity has rarely been quantified and assessing this relationship at a landscape scale which is commensurate...

Using genomic prediction to detect microevolutionary change of a quantitative trait

Jon Slate
Detecting microevolutionary responses to natural selection by observing temporal changes in individual breeding values is challenging. The collection of suitable datasets can take many years and disentangling the contributions of the environment and genetics to phenotypic change is not trivial. Furthermore, pedigree-based methods of obtaining individual breeding values have known biases. Here, we apply a genomic prediction approach to estimate breeding values of adult weight in a 35-year dataset of Soay sheep (Ovis aries). Comparisons...

Fast and furious: Early differences in growth rate drive short-term plant dominance and exclusion under eutrophication

Yann Hautier, Zhang Pengfei, Mariet Hefting, Merel Soons, George Kowalchuk, Mark Rees, Andrew Hector, Lindsay Turnbull, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Chengjin Chu, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. The reduction of plant diversity following eutrophication threatens many ecosystems worldwide. Yet, the mechanisms by which species are lost following nutrient enrichment are still not completely understood, nor are the details of when such mechanisms act during the growing season, which hampers understanding and the development of mitigation strategies. 2. Using a common garden competition experiment, we found that early-season differences in growth rates among five perennial grass species measured in monoculture predicted short-term...

Data from: Age-dependent changes in infidelity in Seychelles warblers

Sara Raj Pant, Miartijn Hammers, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke, Hannah Dugdale & David Richardson
Extra-pair paternity (EPP) is often linked to male age in socially monogamous vertebrates, i.e. older males are more likely to gain EPP and less likely to be cuckolded. However, whether this occurs because males improve at gaining paternity as they grow older, or because ‘higher quality’ males that live longer are preferred by females, has rarely been tested, despite being central to our understanding of the evolutionary drivers of female infidelity. Moreover, how extra-pair reproduction...

Anthropogenic noise reduces avian feeding efficiency and increases vigilance along an urban-rural gradient regardless of species’ tolerances to urbanisation

E. S. Merrall & K. L. Evans
Anthropogenic noise can adversely impact urban bird populations by interfering with vocal communication. Less research has addressed if anthropogenic noise masks the adventitious sounds that birds use to aid predator detection, which may lead to increased vigilance and reduced feeding efficiency. We test this hypothesis using a controlled playback experiment along an urban-rural gradient in Sheffield (UK). We also test the related predictions that anthropogenic noise has the greatest impacts on vigilance and feeding efficiency...

Data from: Thermal tolerance and the importance of microhabitats for Andean frogs in the context of land-use and climate change

Pamela González-Del-Pliego, Brett Scheffers, Robert Freckleton, Edmund Basham, Miguel Araújo, Andrés Acosta-Galvis, Claudia Medina Uribe, Torbjørn Haugaasen & David Edwards
1. Global warming is having impacts across the Tree of Life. Understanding species’ physiological sensitivity to temperature change and how they relate to local temperature variation in their habitats is crucial to determining vulnerability to global warming. 2. We ask how species’ vulnerability varies across habitats and elevations, and how climatically-buffered microhabitats can contribute to reduce their vulnerability. 3. We measured thermal sensitivity (critical thermal maximum – CTmax) of 14 species of Pristimantis frogs inhabiting...

The effects of tropical secondary forest regeneration on avian phylogenetic diversity.

Emma Hughes, David Edwards, Catherine Sayer, Philip Martin & Gavin Thomas
1. The conversion of tropical forests to farmland is a key driver of the current extinction crisis. With the present rate of deforestation unlikely to subside, secondary forests that regenerate on abandoned agricultural land may provide an option for safeguarding biodiversity. While species richness (SR) may recover as secondary forests get older, the extent to which phylogenetic diversity (PD)—the total amount of evolutionary history present in a community—is conserved is less clear. Maximising PD has...

Climate and mating systems as drivers of global diversity of parental care in frogs

Balázs Vági, Zsolt Végvári, András Liker, Robert P. Freckleton & Tamás Székely
Aim Amphibians exhibit unusually diverse reproductive modes, including a wide array of parental care strategies. The evolutionary drivers of this diversity, however, remain unclear. Here we investigate three major factors which may predict interspecific variation in parental care strategies: climate, intrasexual selection and social environment. We hypothesise that some care forms evolved to cope with harsh conditions such as dry or unpredictable habitats. We contrast this prediction with the hypothesis that parental roles have coevolved...

Data from: Müllerian mimicry of a quantitative trait despite contrasting levels of genomic divergence and selection

Emma Curran, Sean Stankowski, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Camilo Salazar, Mauricio Linares & Nicola Nadeau
Hybrid zones, where distinct populations meet and interbreed, give insight into how differences between populations are maintained despite gene flow. Studying clines in genetic loci and adaptive traits across hybrid zones is a powerful method for understanding how selection drives differentiation within a single species, but can also be used to compare parallel divergence in different species responding to a common selective pressure. Here, we study parallel divergence of wing colouration in the butterflies Heliconius...

Paternal effects in a wild-type zebrafish implicate a role of sperm-derived small RNAs

James Ord, Paul Heath, Alireza Fazeli & Penelope Watt
While the importance of maternal effects has long been appreciated, a growing body of evidence now points to the paternal environment having an important influence on offspring phenotype. Indeed, research on rodent models suggests that paternal stress leaves an imprint on the behaviour and physiology of offspring via non-genetic information carried in the spermatozoa, however fish have been understudied with regard to these sperm-mediated effects. Here we investigated whether the zebrafish was subject to heritable...

Data from: Assortative mating, sexual selection and their consequences for gene flow in Littorina

Samuel Perini, Marina Rafajlovic, Anja Westram, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
When divergent populations are connected by gene flow, the establishment of complete reproductive isolation usually requires the joint action of multiple barrier effects. One example where multiple barrier effects are coupled consists of a single trait that is under divergent natural selection and also mediates assortative mating. Such multiple-effect traits can strongly reduce gene flow. However, there are few cases where patterns of assortative mating have been described quantitatively and their impact on gene flow...

Seminal fluid protein divergence among populations exhibiting postmating prezygotic reproductive isolation

Martin Garlovsky, Caroline Evans, Matthew A. Rosenow, Timothy L. Karr & Rhonda R. Snook
Despite holding a central role for fertilisation success, reproductive traits often show elevated rates of evolution and diversification. The rapid evolution of seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) within populations is predicted to cause mis-signalling between the male ejaculate and female reproductive tract between populations resulting in postmating prezygotic (PMPZ) isolation. Crosses between populations of Drosophila montana show PMPZ isolation in the form of reduced fertilisation success in both noncompetitive and competitive contexts. Here we test whether...

Pooled whole genome sequencing from year 2004 and Early-Late SNP data from year 2014

Jonna Kulmuni, Pierre Nouhaud, Lucy Pluckrose, Kishor Dhaygude & Roger Butlin
Speciation underlies the generation of novel biodiversity. Yet, there is much to learn about how natural selection shapes genomes during speciation. Selection is assumed to act against gene flow at barrier loci, promoting reproductive isolation. However, evidence for gene flow and selection is often indirect and we know very little about the temporal stability of barrier loci. Here we utilize haplodiploidy to identify candidate male barrier loci in hybrids between two wood ant species. As...

Growth rates of grass species with contrasting photosynthetic pathways and life histories

R.N. Wade, P. Seed, E. McLaren, E. Wood, P.A. Christin, K. Thompson, M. Rees & C.P. Osborne
This dataset contains sequential biomass harvests from a plant growth experiment carried out under controlled environmental conditions in Sheffield. The experiment was carried out in three parts in 2016 and 2017, and was designed to investigate differences in growth among grasses with the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, and with annual and perennial life histories. Plants were harvested approximately weekly over a period of five weeks. The data include information on the dry biomass of...

Elevated atmospheric CO2 suppresses jasmonate and silicon-based defences without affecting herbivores

Casey Hall, Meena Mikhael, Susan Hartley & Scott Johnson
1. Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) not only increases plant growth but can also interfere with defence against insect herbivory through the disruption of the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. Silicon (Si) plays an important role in plant stress tolerance and resistance to herbivory, particularly in grasses, many of which accumulate high amounts of Si. Activation of the JA pathway has been reported to stimulate Si uptake, while Si supplementation can alter both constitutive and induced phytohormone...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Copenhagen
  • Universiti of Malaysia Sabah
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
  • Utah State University
  • University of Notre Dame