56 Works

Data from: Limited contributions of plant pathogens to density-dependent seedling mortality of mast fruiting Bornean trees

Patrick Cannon, Michael O'Brien, Kalsum Yasah, David Edwards & Robert Freckleton
Fungal pathogens are implicated in driving tropical plant diversity by facilitating strong, negative density-dependent mortality of conspecific seedlings (C-NDD). Assessment of the role of fungal pathogens in mediating coexistence derives from relatively few tree species and predominantly the Neotropics, limiting our understanding of their role in maintaining hyper-diversity in many tropical forests. A key question is whether fungal pathogen-mediated C-NDD seedling mortality is ubiquitous across diverse plant communities. Using a manipulative shadehouse experiment, we tested...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

Phylogenomics and species delimitation for effective conservation of manta and devil rays

Emily Humble, Jane Hosegood, Rob Ogden, Mark De Bruyn, Simon Creer, Guy Stevens, Mohammed Abudaya, Kim Bassos-Hull, Ramon Bonfil, Daniel Fernando, Andrew Foote, Helen Hipperson, Rima Jabado, Jenny Kaden, Muhammad Moazzam, Lauren Peel, Stephen Pollett, Alessandro Ponzo, Marloes Poortvliet, Jehad Salah, Helen Senn, Joshua Stewart, Sabine Wintner & Gary Carvalho
Practical biodiversity conservation relies on delineation of biologically meaningful units. Manta and devil rays (Mobulidae) are threatened worldwide, yet morphological similarities and a succession of recent taxonomic changes impede the development of an effective conservation strategy. Here, we generate genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from a geographically and taxonomically representative set of manta and devil ray samples to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and evaluate species boundaries under the general lineage concept. We show that nominal...

Environmental change reduces body condition, but not population growth, in a high-arctic herbivore

Kate Layton-Matthews, Vidar Grøtan, Brage Bremset Hansen, Maarten J. J.E. Loonen, Eva Fuglei & Dylan Childs
Environmental change influences fitness-related traits and demographic rates, which in herbivores are often linked to resource-driven variation in body condition. Coupled body condition-demographic responses may therefore be important for herbivore population dynamics in fluctuating environments, such as the Arctic. We applied a transient Life-Table Response Experiment (‘transient-LTRE’) to demographic data from Svalbard barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis), to quantify their population-dynamic responses to changes in body mass. We partitioned contributions from direct and delayed demographic and...

Data from: The global diversity and distribution of lizard clutch sizes

Shai Meiri, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, David Chapple, Indraneil Das, Tiffany Doan, Paul Doughty, Ryan Ellis, Lee Grismer, Fred Kraus, Mariana Morando, Paul Oliver, Daniel Pincheira-Donoso, Marco-Antonio Ribeiro-Junior, Glenn Shea, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Alex Slavenko & Uri Roll
Aim. Clutch size is a key life-history trait. In lizards, it ranges over two orders of magnitude. The global drivers of spatial and phylogenetic variation in clutch have been extensively studied in birds, but such tests in other organisms are lacking. To test the generality of latitudinal gradients in clutch size, and their putative drivers, we present the first global-scale analysis of clutch sizes across of lizard taxa. Location, Global Time period. Recent Major taxa...

Glucocorticoids link forest type to local abundance in tropical birds

Simone Messina, David Edwards, Valeria Marasco, Virginie Canoine, Cindy Cosset, Suzanne Tomassi, Suzan Benedick, Marcel Eens & David Costantini
Selective logging is a major driver of environmental changes in the tropics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in understanding which traits make bird species resilient or vulnerable to such changes. Physiological stress mediated by the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) might underlie changes in local abundance of species because it regulates a range of body functions and behaviours to maintain homeostasis in changing environments. We conducted a three-year study to assess: (i) the variation in...

Secondary contact zones of closely-related Erebia butterflies overlap with narrow phenotypic and parasitic clines

Kay Lucek, Roger Butlin & Theofania Patsiou
Zones of secondary contact between closely related taxa are a common legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Despite their abundance, the factors that keep species apart and prevent hybridisation are often unknown. Here we study a very narrow contact zone between three closely related butterfly species of the Erebia tyndarus species complex. Using genomic data, we first determined if gene flow occurs and then assessed whether it might be hampered by differences in chromosome number...

Growth rates of grass species with contrasting photosynthetic pathways and life histories

R.N. Wade, P. Seed, E. McLaren, E. Wood, P.A. Christin, K. Thompson, M. Rees & C.P. Osborne
This dataset contains sequential biomass harvests from a plant growth experiment carried out under controlled environmental conditions in Sheffield. The experiment was carried out in three parts in 2016 and 2017, and was designed to investigate differences in growth among grasses with the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, and with annual and perennial life histories. Plants were harvested approximately weekly over a period of five weeks. The data include information on the dry biomass of...

Elevated atmospheric CO2 suppresses jasmonate and silicon-based defences without affecting herbivores

Casey Hall, Meena Mikhael, Susan Hartley & Scott Johnson
1. Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) not only increases plant growth but can also interfere with defence against insect herbivory through the disruption of the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. Silicon (Si) plays an important role in plant stress tolerance and resistance to herbivory, particularly in grasses, many of which accumulate high amounts of Si. Activation of the JA pathway has been reported to stimulate Si uptake, while Si supplementation can alter both constitutive and induced phytohormone...

GPS locations for mechanistic home range analysis reveals drivers of space use patterns for a non-territorial passerine

Natasha Ellison, Ben Hatchwell, Sarah Biddiscombe, Clare Napper & Jonathan Potts
1. Home ranging is a near-ubiquitous phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Understanding the behavioural mechanisms that give rise to observed home range patterns is thus an important general question, and mechanistic home range analysis (MHRA) provides the tools to address it. However, such analysis has hitherto been restricted to scent-marking territorial animals, so its potential breadth of application has not been tested. 2. Here, we apply MHRA to a population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus...

Data from: Peripheral morphology is associated with restricted lineage diversification and endemism across a large passerine radiation

Jonathan Kennedy, Petter Marki, Jon Fjeldså & Carsten Rahbek
Aim: Across a variety of taxonomic scales species diversity is unevenly distributed among its constituent units, and clades with few species are more common than expected assuming homogeneous rates of speciation and extinction among lineages. In order to explain the prevalence of species poor families among a global and speciose radiation of passerine birds, we test whether these groups share common eco-morphological, geographic and phylogenetic attributes. Location: Global Time period: Late Oligocene to the present...

Data from: Changes in age-structure over four decades were a key determinant of population growth rate in a long-lived mammal

John Jackson, Khyne Mar, Win Htut, Dylan Childs & Virpi Lummaa
1. A changing environment directly influences birth and mortality rates, and thus population growth rates. However, population growth rates in the short-term are also influenced by population age-structure. Despite its importance, the contribution of age-structure to population growth rates has rarely been explored empirically in wildlife populations with long-term demographic data. 2. Here, we assessed how changes in age-structure influenced short-term population dynamics in a semi-captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). 3. We addressed...

Data from: On the use of random graphs in analysing resource utilization in urban systems

Hadi Arbabi, Giuliano Punzo, Gregory Meyers, Ling Min Tan, Qianqian Li, Danielle Densley Tingley & Martin Mayfield
Urban resource models increasingly rely on implicit network formulations. Resource consumption behaviours documented in the existing empirical studies are ultimately by-products of the network abstractions underlying these models. Here we present an analytical formulation and examination of a generic demand-driven network model that accounts for the effectiveness of resource utilisation and its implications for policy levers in addressing resource management in cities. We establish simple limiting boundaries to systems' resource effectiveness. These limits are found...

Linkage maps and phenotypic data for Bainbridge et al. 2020

Melanie Brien
Limited genetic parallels underlie convergent evolution of quantitative pattern variation in mimetic butterflies Mimetic systems allow us to address the question of whether the same genes control similar phenotypes in different species. Although widespread parallels have been found for major effect loci, much less is known about genes that control quantitative trait variation. In this study, we identify and compare the loci that control subtle changes in the size and shape of forewing pattern elements...

Data from: C4 photosynthesis and the economic spectra of leaf and root traits independently influence growth rates in grasses

Kimberley Simpson, Christopher Bennett, Rebecca Atkinson, Emily Mockford, Scott McKenzie, Robert Freckleton, Ken Thompson, Mark Rees & Colin Osborne
Photosynthetic pathway is an important cause of growth rate variation between species, such that the enhanced carbon uptake of C4 species leads to faster growth than their C3 counterparts. Leaf traits that promote rapid resource acquisition may further enhance the growth capacity of C4 species. However, how root economic traits interact with leaf traits, and the different growth strategies adopted by plants with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways is unclear. Plant economic traits could interact...

Data from: Cost, risk, and avoidance of inbreeding in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amy Leedale, Michelle Simeoni, Stuart Sharp, Jonathan Green, Jon Slate, Robert Lachlan, Ben Hatchwell & Elva Robinson
Inbreeding is often avoided in natural populations by passive processes such as sex-biased dispersal. But, in many social animals, opposite-sexed adult relatives are spatially clustered, generating a risk of incest and hence selection for active inbreeding avoidance. Here we show that, in long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), a cooperative breeder that risks inbreeding by living alongside opposite-sex relatives, inbreeding carries fitness costs and is avoided by active kin discrimination during mate choice. First, we identified a...

Estimation of environmental, genetic and parental age at conception effects on telomere length in a wild mammal

Sil H.J. Van Lieshout, Alexandra M. Sparks, Amanda Bretman, Chris Newman, Christina D. Buesching, Terry Burke, David W. Macdonald & Hannah L. Dugdale
Understanding individual variation in fitness-related traits requires separating the environmental and genetic determinants. Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that are thought to be a biomarker of senescence as their length predicts mortality risk and reflect the physiological consequences of environmental conditions. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to individual variation in telomere length is however unclear, yet important for understanding its evolutionary dynamics. In particular, the evidence for transgenerational...

Resprouting grasses are associated with less frequent fire than seeders

Kimberley Simpson, Emma Jardine, Sally Archibald, Elizabeth Forrestel, Caroline Lehmann, Gavin Thomas & Colin Osborne
Plant populations persist under recurrent fire via resprouting from surviving tissues (resprouters) or seedling recruitment (seeders). Woody species are inherently slow-maturing, meaning that seeders are confined to infrequent fire regimes. However, for grasses, which mature faster, the relationships between persistence strategy and fire regime remains unknown. Globally, we analysed associations between fire regimes experienced by hundreds of grass species and their persistence strategy, within a phylogenetic context. We also tested whether persistence strategies are associated...

Data from: Elevation is a stronger predictor of morphological trait divergence than competition in a radiation of tropical lizards

Alex Slavenko, Allen Allison & Shai Meiri
1. Adaptations for efficient performance are expected to shape animal morphology based on selection for microhabitat use and ecological forces. The presence of competitor species is predicted to cause niches to contract and enhance trait divergence. Therefore, increased species richness is expected to lead to greater trait divergence, and to result in reduced overlap and similarity between morphologies of sympatric species. 2. We examined patterns of morphospace occupancy and partitioning in the skink fauna of...

Researching Lives Through Time: Time, Generation and Life Stories

Barbara Adam, Jenny Hockey & Paul Thompson
Timescapes Working Paper Series, 1

Maximum carboxylation rate estimation with chlorophyll content as a proxy of rubisco content

Xuehe Lu, Weimin Ju, Jing Li, Holly Croft, Jing M. Chen, Yiqi Luo, Hua Yu & Haijing Hu
The maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) is a key parameter in determining the plant photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area. However, most terrestrial biosphere models currently treat Vcmax as constants changing only with plant functional types, leading to large uncertainties in modelled carbon fluxes. Vcmax is tightly linked with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Here we investigated the relationship between leaf chlorophyll content and Rubisco (Chl-Rub) within a winter wheat paddock. With chlorophyll as a proxy of Rubisco,...

The hidden costs of dietary restriction: implications for its evolutionary and mechanistic origins

Andrew W McCracken, Gracie Adams, Laura Hartshorne, Marc Tatar & Mirre J. P. Simons
Dietary restriction (DR) extends life span across taxa. Despite considerable research, universal mechanisms of DR have not been identified, limiting its translational potential. Guided by the conviction that DR evolved as an adaptive, pro-longevity physiological response to food scarcity, biomedical science has interpreted DR as an activator of pro-longevity molecular pathways. Current evolutionary theory predicts that organisms invest in their soma during DR, and thus when resource availability improves, should outcompete rich-fed controls in survival...

Data from: Quaternary land bridges have not been universal conduits of gene flow

Emilie Cros, Balaji Chattopadhyay, Kritika M. Garg, Nathaniel Ng, Suzanne Tomassi, Suzan Benedick, David P. Edwards & Frank E. Rheindt
Quaternary climate oscillations are a well-known driver of animal diversification, but their effects are most well studied in areas where glaciations lead to habitat fragmentation. In large areas of the planet, however, glaciations have had the opposite effect, but here their impacts are much less well understood. This is especially true in Southeast Asia, where cyclical changes in land distribution have generated enormous land expansions during glacial periods. In this study, we selected a panel...

Within-population sperm competition intensity does not predict asymmetry in conpopulation sperm precedence

Martin Garlovsky, Leeban Yusuf, Mike Ritchie Ritchie, Rhonda Snook, Martin D. Garlovsky, Leeban H. Yusuf, Michael G. Ritchie & Rhonda R. Snook
Postcopulatory sexual selection can generate evolutionary arms races between the sexes resulting in the rapid coevolution of reproductive phenotypes. As traits affecting fertilization success diverge between populations, postmating prezygotic (PMPZ) barriers to gene flow may evolve. Conspecific sperm precedence is a form of PMPZ isolation thought to evolve early during speciation yet has mostly been studied between species. Here , we show conpopulation sperm precedence (CpSP) between Drosophila montana populations. Using Pool-seq genomic data we...

Numbers of sperm associated with the perivitelline layer of seabird (and other bird species) eggs

Nicola Hemmings
Following copulation, females of many seabird species spend a prolonged period of time away from the colony, building up reserves for egg formation and incubation. Here, we report that the number of sperm associated with eggs of single-egg clutch seabirds was almost an order of magnitude greater than predicted from the relationship between ovum size and sperm numbers in multi-egg clutch non-seabirds. Sperm numbers were also several times greater than the estimated number necessary for...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    56

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    54
  • Text
    2

Affiliations

  • University of Sheffield
    56
  • University of Oxford
    5
  • University of Groningen
    3
  • University of Cambridge
    3
  • University of Copenhagen
    3
  • Universiti of Malaysia Sabah
    3
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    2
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    2
  • Utah State University
    2
  • University of Notre Dame
    2