44 Works

When Asking \"What\" and \"How\" Helps You Win: Mimicry of Interrogative Terms Facilitates Successful Online Negotiations

Kate Muir, Adam Joinson, Emily Collins, Rachel Cotterill & Nigel Dewdney

Regional Stakeholders Workshops Sessions and Interviews Transcripts

Raquel Ortega-Argilés, Chloe Billing, Deniz Sevinc & Philip McCann
The data was collected by recording the videos of workshop sessions and a series of interviews after the workshops

Ocean warming reduces gastropod survival despite maintenance of feeding and oxygen consumption rates

Kathryn Anderson, Laura Falkenberg & Dina-Leigh Simons
Short-term, sub-lethal response variables are increasingly used to provide rapid indications of whole organism responses to future climate conditions. Accumulating evidence suggests, however, that these response variables may not consistently reflect whole organism responses which manifest over longer time scales. Here, we consider the effect of moderate warming on longer-term whole organism fitness, as reflected by survival, as well as two shorter-term response variables, feeding rate and oxygen consumption, for two tropical gastropod species. We...

Genomic prediction in the wild: a case study in Soay sheep

Jon Slate
Genomic prediction, the technique whereby an individual’s genetic component of their phenotype is estimated from its genome, has revolutionised animal and plant breeding and medical genetics. However, despite being first introduced nearly two decades ago, it has hardly been adopted by the evolutionary genetics community studying wild organisms. Here, genomic prediction is performed on eight traits in a wild population of Soay sheep. The population has been the focus of a >30 year evolutionary ecology...

Plant traits of grass and legume species for flood resilience and N2O mitigation

Natalie J. Oram, Yan Sun, Diego Abalos, Jan-Willem Van Groenigen, & Gerlinde De Deyn
Flooding threatens the functioning of managed grasslands by decreasing primary productivity and increasing nitrogen losses, notably as the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Sowing species with traits that promote flood resilience and mitigate flood-induced N2O emissions within these grasslands could safeguard their productivity while mitigating nitrogen losses. We tested how plant traits and resource acquisition strategies could predict flood resilience and N2O emissions of 12 common grassland species (eight grasses and four legumes) grown...

Testing the effectiveness of the Forest Integrity Assessment: A field-based tool for estimating the condition of tropical forest

Andrew Suggitt, Kok Yeong, Anders Lindhe, Agnes Agama, Keith Hamer, Glen Reynolds, Jane Hill & Jennifer Lucey
1. Global targets to halt biodiversity losses and mitigate climate change will require protecting rainforest beyond current protected area networks, necessitating responsible forest stewardship from a diverse range of companies, communities and private individuals. Robust assessments of forest condition are critical for successful forest management, but many existing techniques are highly technical, time-consuming, expensive, or require specialist knowledge. 2. To make assessment of tropical forests accessible to a wide range of actors, many of whom...

NanoString nCounter copy number variation assay

Thea Rogers & Alison Wright
The sex chromosomes often follow unusual evolutionary trajectories. In particular, the sex-limited Y and W chromosomes frequently exhibit a small but unusual gene content in numerous species, where many genes have undergone massive gene amplification. The reasons for this remain elusive with a number of recent studies implicating meiotic drive, sperm competition, genetic drift and gene conversion in the expansion of gene families. However, our understanding is primarily based on Y chromosome studies, and the...

Interactions between silicon and alkaloid defences in endophyte-infected grasses and the consequences for a folivore

Ximena Cibils-Stewart, Wade J. Mace, Alison J. Popay, Fernando A. Lattanzi, Susan E. Hartley, Casey R. Hall, Jeff R. Powell & Scott N. Johnson
1. Grasses have developed a wide range of morphological and physiological mechanisms to resist herbivory. For instance, they accumulate silicon (Si) in tissue, as physical defence, and associate symbiotically with foliar Epichloë-endophytes that provide chemical defence via antiherbivore alkaloids. Recent evidence showed that some Epichloë-endophytes increase foliar Si in forage grasses; however, it is unknown whether this impacts insect herbivores. Furthermore, while Si is primarily a physical defence, it also affects production of plant defensive...

Hybridisation boosts dispersal of two contrasted ecotypes in a grass species

Emma Curran
Genetic exchanges between closely related groups of organisms with different adaptations have well-documented beneficial and detrimental consequences. In plants, pollen-mediated exchanges affect the sorting of alleles across physical landscapes, and influence rates of hybridisation. How these dynamics affect the emergence and spread of novel ecological strategies remains only partially understood. Here, we use phylogenomics and population genomics to retrace the origin and spread of two geographically overlapping ecotypes of the African grass Alloteropsis angusta. Besides...

Simulated ice thickness, supraglacial debris thickness and subglacial topography for Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, using the iSOSIA ice-flow model - VERSION 2.0

Ann Rowan & David Egholm
Simulated ice thickness (ice, metres, 100 m grid spacing) and supraglacial debris thickness (debris, metres, 100 m grid spacing) for Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, produced using the iSOSIA ice-flow model presented in Rowan et al. (2021; Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface). The model domains used for the entire glacier and active glacier simulations (metres above sea level, 100 m grid spacing), and the present-day ice thickness estimate (metres, 30 m grid spacing) used to create the...

Global distribution and evolutionary transitions of angiosperm sexual systems

Yunyun Wang, Ao Luo, Tong Lyu, Dimitar Dimitrov, Xiaoting Xu, Robert Freckleton, Yaoqi Li, Xiangyan Su, Yichao Li, Yunpeng Liu, Denis Sandanov, Qingjun Li, Zhanqing Hao, Shuguang Liu & Zhiheng Wang
Angiosperm sexual systems are fundamental to the evolution and distribution of plant diversity, yet spatiotemporal patterns in angiosperm sexual systems and their drivers remain poorly known. Using data on sexual systems and distributions of 68453 angiosperm species, we present the first global maps of sexual system frequencies and evaluate sexual system evolution during the Cenozoic. Frequencies of dioecy and monoecy increase with latitude, while hermaphrodites are more frequent in warm and arid regions. Transitions to...

Leaf silicification provides herbivore defence regardless of the extensive impacts of water stress

Rebecca Vandegeer, Ximena Cibils-Stewart, Richard Wuhrer, Susan Hartley, David Tissue & Scott Johnson
Altered precipitation patterns due to climate change are likely to impose water-deficit stress in plants resulting in changes to specific leaf mass, leaf water content and chemical defences that may impact herbivorous arthropods. Grasses, in particular, accumulate large concentrations of silicon (Si) which provides physical defence against herbivores. Although Si uptake by plants may be affected by water availability, very few studies have investigated the combined effect of water-deficit stress and Si on insect herbivore...

Morphological traits mediate fish occurrences in oil palm-impacted tropical streams

Kenny Chua, Felix Lim, Amirrudin Ahmad, Heok Hui Tan & Darren Yeo
Land-use change is a leading driver of biodiversity loss, especially in tropical fresh waters where the conversion of natural forest to monoculture plantations impacts freshwater fish assemblages. The environmental pathways underpinning shifts in fish assemblages, however, are poorly understood, but could potentially be inferred from trait-environment relationships. We addressed this knowledge gap using eco-morphological traits to explain fish occurrences in oil palm-impacted streams of the Endau drainage in Peninsular Malaysia. We also investigated how traits...

Data from: Opposing effects of competition and selection on macroevolutionary dynamics

Alex Slavenko & Gavin Thomas
The diversity of species and traits is the outcome of multiple evolutionary processes operating over millions of years. These processes affect rates of trait evolution, speciation, and extinction. A key problem is identifying the relative importance of distinct processes in driving observed patterns in species traits and phylogenetic trees. Here, we show how two processes, competition and stabilising selection, can act opposingly but still leave identifiable traces in macroevolutionary data. Building on previous simulation studies,...

Developing hierarchical density-structured models to study the national-scale dynamics of an arable weed

Rob Goodsell
Population dynamics can be highly variable in the face of environmental heterogeneity, and understanding this variation is central in the study of ecology. Robust management decisions require that we understand how populations respond to management at a range of scales, and under a broad suite of conditions. Population models are potentially valuable tools in addressing this challenge. However, without adequate data, models can fail to produce useful results. Populations of arable weeds are particularly problematic...

Data from: Contemporary evolution of the innate immune receptor gene TLR3 in an isolated vertebrate population

Charli Davies, Martin Taylor, Martijn Hammers, Terry Burke, Jan Komdeur, Hannah Dugdale & David Richardson
Understanding where genetic variation exists, and how it influences fitness within populations is important from an evolutionary and conservation perspective. Signatures of past selection suggest that pathogen-mediated balancing selection is a key driver of immunogenetic variation, but studies tracking contemporary evolution are needed to help resolve the evolutionary forces and mechanism at play. Previous work in a bottlenecked population of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) show that functional variation has been maintained at the viral-sensing Toll-like...

Causes and consequences of telomere lengthening in a wild vertebrate population

Thomas Brown, David Richardson, Lewis Spurgin, Hannah Dugdale, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke & David Richardson
Telomeres have been advocated to be important markers of biological age in evolutionary and ecological studies. Telomeres usually shorten with age, and shortening is frequently associated with environmental stressors and increased subsequent mortality. Telomere lengthening – an apparent increase in telomere length between repeated samples from the same individual – also occurs. However, the exact circumstances, and consequences, of telomere lengthening are poorly understood. Using longitudinal data from the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we tested...

Date From: The myriad of complex demographic responses of terrestrial mammals to climate change and gaps of knowledge: A global analysis

Maria Paniw, Tamora James, C. Ruth Archer, Gesa Römer, Sam Levin, Aldo Compagnoni, Judy Che-Castaldo, Joanne Bennett, Andrew Mooney, Dylan Childs, Arpat Ozgul, Owen Jones, Jean Burns, Andrew Beckerman, Abir Patwari, Nora Sanchez-Gassen, Tiffany Knight & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Approximately 25% of mammals are currently threatened with extinction, a risk that is amplified under climate change. Species persistence under climate change is determined by the combined effects of climatic factors on multiple demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction), and hence, population dynamics. Thus, to quantify which species and regions on Earth are most vulnerable to climate-driven extinction, a global understanding of how different demographic rates respond to climate is urgently needed. Here, we perform a...

Data and R scripts for: Identifying existing management practices in the control of Striga asiatica within rice–maize systems in mid-west Madagascar

Donald Scott
Infestations by the parasitic weed genus Striga result in significant losses to cereal crop yields across sub-Saharan Africa. The problem disproportionately affects subsistence farmers who frequently lack access to novel technologies. Effective Striga management therefore requires the development of strategies utilising existing cultural management practices. We report a multi-year, landscape-scale monitoring project for Striga asiatica in the mid-west of Madagascar, undertaken over 2019-2020 with the aims of examining cultural, climatic and edaphic factors currently driving...

Silicon enrichment alters functional traits in legumes depending on plant genotype and symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Rocky Putra, Rebecca K. Vandegeer, Shawan Karan, Jeff R. Powell, Susan E. Hartley & Scott N. Johnson
1. Silicon (Si) uptake and deposition (silicification) in tissues is known to alleviate stresses and generally improve plant health. This is mostly studied in Si-high accumulators, such as grasses, with comparatively less known about its effects on other plant functional groups, such as legumes. There is speculation that Si may positively impact the symbiosis between legumes and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) they associate with, but this is poorly understood. This study examined the effects of...

Expanding the agricultural - sanitation circular economy: opportunities and benefits

Steven Banwart, Laura Carter, Tim Daniell, Yong-Guan Zhu, Hongyan Guo, Jeremy Guest, Stuart Kirk, Barbara Evans, Patrick McKenna & Sarah Dennis
An expanded circular economy between agriculture and sanitation waste (sewage) can recycle essential resources for agriculture through the recovery of water, biomass, and nutrients from sewage at scale. Doing so can help to increase or maintain soil productivity and support agricultural outputs; produce heat and power; reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions; and minimise stresses on water reserves.

Traits explain sorting of C4 grasses along a global precipitation gradient

Emma Jardine, Colin Osborne & Gavin Thomas
Species distributions are closely associated with moisture availability, but the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Drought relations are especially important for plants such as C4 grasses that dominate seasonally dry ecosystems. Here, we test the hypothesis that C4 grass species sampled across global precipitation gradients show variation in survival under drought that can be explained by their traits. Our experiment subjected 18 C4 grass species to a lethal drought under controlled environmental conditions. The number of...

Inversions and genomic differentiation after secondary contact: when drift contributes to maintenance, not loss, of differentiation

Marina Rafajlovic, Jordi Rambla, Jeffrey L. Feder, Arcadi Navarro & Rui Faria
Due to their effects on reducing recombination, chromosomal inversions may play an important role in speciation by establishing and/or maintaining linked blocks of genes causing reproductive isolation (RI) between populations. This view fits empirical data indicating that inversions typically harbour loci involved in RI. However, previous computer simulations of infinite populations with 2-4 loci involved in RI implied that, even with gene flux as low as 10^(-8) per gamete, per generation between alternative arrangements, inversions...

Data from: Genetic variation for adaptive traits is associated with polymorphic inversions in Littorina saxatilis

Eva Koch, Hernán Morales, Jenny Larsson, Anja Westram, Rui Faria, Alan Lemmon, Emily Lemmon, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms, segments of chromosomes that are flipped in orientation and occur in reversed order in some individuals, have long been recognized to play an important role in local adaptation. They can reduce recombination in heterozygous individuals and thus help to maintain sets of locally adapted alleles. In a wide range of organisms, populations adapted to different habitats differ in frequency of inversion arrangements. However, getting a full understanding of the importance of inversions...

Structural equation modeling reveals determinants of fitness in a cooperatively breeding bird

Michela Busana, Franz J Weissing, Martijn Hammers, Joke Bakker, Hannah L Dugdale, Sara Raj Pant, David S Richardson, Terrence A Burke & Jan Komdeur
Even in well-studied organisms, it is often challenging to uncover the social and environmental determinants of fitness. Typically, fitness is determined by a variety of factors that act in concert, thus forming complex networks of causal relationships. Moreover, even strong correlations between social and environmental conditions and fitness components may not be indicative of direct causal links, as the measured variables may be driven by unmeasured (or unmeasurable) causal factors. Standard statistical approaches, like multiple...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    44

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Affiliations

  • University of Sheffield
    44
  • University of Groningen
    8
  • University of Leeds
    7
  • University of East Anglia
    6
  • University of Bath
    5
  • Western Sydney University
    4
  • University of Oxford
    4
  • University of Pannonia
    3
  • Aarhus University
    2
  • University of Edinburgh
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