67 Works

Evolutionary mechanisms underpinning fitness response to multiple stressors in Daphnia

Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Jelena H. Pantel, Hollie Marshall, Tien T. T. Nguyen, Henar Tomero-Sanz & Luisa Orsine
Multiple stressors linked to anthropogenic activities can influence how organisms adapt and evolve. So far, a consensus on how multiple stressors drive adaptive trajectories in natural populations has not been reached. Some meta-analysis reports show predominance of additive effects of stressors on ecological endpoints (e.g. fecundity, mortality), whereas others show synergistic effects more frequently. Moreover, it is unclear what mechanisms of adaptation underpin responses to complex environments. Here, we use populations of the crustacean Daphnia...

Exceptionally high apparent adult survival in three tropical species of plovers in Madagascar

William Jones, Luke Eberhart-Hertel, Robert Freckleton, Joseph Hoffmann, Oliver Krüger, Brett Sandercock, Orsolya Vincze, Sama Zefania & Tamás Székely
Adult survival is a key component of population dynamics and understanding variation in and the drivers of adult survival rates and longevity is critical for ecological and evolutionary studies, as well as for conservation biology and practice. Tropical species of landbirds are often selected to have higher adult survival due to high nest predation rates, but it is unclear if the same patterns occur in other avian lineages with different life history strategies. Here, we...

Quantifying the Computational Capability of a Nanomagnetic Reservoir Computing Platform with Emergent Magnetisation Dynamics

Ian Vidamour
Data used in the production of the publication 'Quantifying the Computational Capability of a Nanomagnetic Reservoir Computing Platform with Emergent Magnetisation Dynamics'.

AI3SD Video: Fireflies-Lévy Flights algorithm for peptides conformational optimization

Zied Hosni
Over the last 50 years, several algorithms and approaches were introduced and improved to tackle the challenges of exploring a large and multidimensional conformational space. Optimisation algorithms are frequently used to guide the search in a conformational space of complex molecules such as proteins. It is a crucial step to access molecular properties corresponding to the most stable conformer. The optimisers are usually buried in docking software with limited tuning possibilities. We implement a Fireflies...

Data for manuscript titled \"Personalised 3D assessment of trochanteric soft tissues improves hip fracture classification accuracy\"

Alessandra Aldieri, Mara Terzini, Alberto Audenino, cristina bignardi, Margaret Paggiosi, Richard Eastell, Marco Viceconti & Pinaki Bhattacharya
This dataset contain the three-dimensional characterisation of soft tissue thickness (STT) in the near hip region. The data is for 94 British postmenopausal subjects. Of these subjects, 47 had suffered a hip fracture, and the remaining 47 were age, height and weight matched controls. STT was measured from proximal femur CT images, and is defined as the distance between the femur surface and the skin layer along a specific fall impact direction with origin at...

The pandemic veneer: COVID-19 research as a mobilisation of collective intelligence by the global research community

Daniel Hook & James Wilsdon

The global research community responded with speed and at scale to the emergence of COVID-19, with around 4.6% of all research outputs in 2020 related to the pandemic. That share almost doubled through 2021, to reach 8.6% of research outputs. This reflects a dramatic mobilisation of global collective intelligence in the face of a crisis. It also raises fundamental questions about the funding, organisation and operation of research. In this Perspective article, we present...

Anisogamy is unrelated to the intensity of sexual selection

Judit Mokos, István Scheuring, András Liker, Robert P. Freckelton & Tamás Székely
Males and females often display different behaviours and, in the context of reproduction, these behaviours are labelled sex roles. The Darwin–Bateman paradigm argues that the root of these differences is anisogamy (i.e., differences in size and/or function of gametes between the sexes) that leads to biased sexual selection, and sex differences in parental care and body size. This evolutionary cascade, however, is contentious since some of the underpinning assumptions have been questioned. Here we investigate...

Data from: Genetic variation for adaptive traits is associated with polymorphic inversions in Littorina saxatilis

Eva Koch, Hernán Morales, Jenny Larsson, Anja Westram, Rui Faria, Alan Lemmon, Emily Lemmon, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms, segments of chromosomes that are flipped in orientation and occur in reversed order in some individuals, have long been recognized to play an important role in local adaptation. They can reduce recombination in heterozygous individuals and thus help to maintain sets of locally adapted alleles. In a wide range of organisms, populations adapted to different habitats differ in frequency of inversion arrangements. However, getting a full understanding of the importance of inversions...

Evaluation of cesarean delivery rates in different levels of hospitals in Jiangsu Province, China, using the 10-Group classification system

Ning Gu, Yimin Dai, Dan Lu, Tingmei Chen, Muling Zhang, Tao Huang, Yalan Qi, Xinning Han, Lihua Xie, Jishi Yang, Chengling Fan, Yunhua Yan, Anhong Zhang, Xiaoping Weng, Huiling Zhang, Li Su, Yingyan Li & Yali Hu
To compare cesarean delivery (CD) rates in referral and non-referral hospitals in Maternal Safety Collaboration in Jiangsu province, China. Sixteen participants (4 referral hospitals, 12 non-referral hospitals) from Drum Tower Hospital Collaboration for Maternal Safety reported CD rates in 2019 using ten-group classification system and maternal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. A total of 22,676 CDs were performed among 52,499 deliveries and the average CD rate was 43.2% (range 34.8–69.6%). CD rate in non-referral hospitals (44.7%) was...

Traits explain sorting of C4 grasses along a global precipitation gradient

Emma Jardine, Colin Osborne & Gavin Thomas
Species distributions are closely associated with moisture availability, but the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Drought relations are especially important for plants such as C4 grasses that dominate seasonally dry ecosystems. Here, we test the hypothesis that C4 grass species sampled across global precipitation gradients show variation in survival under drought that can be explained by their traits. Our experiment subjected 18 C4 grass species to a lethal drought under controlled environmental conditions. The number of...

Inversions and genomic differentiation after secondary contact: when drift contributes to maintenance, not loss, of differentiation

Marina Rafajlovic, Jordi Rambla, Jeffrey L. Feder, Arcadi Navarro & Rui Faria
Due to their effects on reducing recombination, chromosomal inversions may play an important role in speciation by establishing and/or maintaining linked blocks of genes causing reproductive isolation (RI) between populations. This view fits empirical data indicating that inversions typically harbour loci involved in RI. However, previous computer simulations of infinite populations with 2-4 loci involved in RI implied that, even with gene flux as low as 10^(-8) per gamete, per generation between alternative arrangements, inversions...

Evolution of large males is associated with female-skewed adult sex ratios in amniotes

András Liker, Veronika Bókony, Ivett Pipoly, Jean-François Lemaître, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Tamas Szekely & Robert P. Freckleton
Body size often differs between the sexes (leading to sexual size dimorphism, SSD), as a consequence of differential responses by males and females to selection pressures. Adult sex ratio (the proportion of males in the adult population, ASR) should influence SSD because ASR relates to both the number of competitors and available mates, which shape the intensity of mating competition and thereby promotes SSD evolution. However, whether ASR correlates with SSD variation among species has...

Unlocking real-world data to promote and protect health and prevent ill-health in the Yorkshire and Humber region

Matthew Franklin
This is a blog post authored by Matt Franklin on the topic of Real World Data.
The final report can be accessed by clicking on the title below. Unlocking Data to Inform Public Health Policy and Practice Franklin, Matthew; Stone, Tony; Baxter, Susan; Haywood, Annette; Hinde, Sebastian; Howdon, Daniel; et al. (2022): Unlocking Data to Inform Public Health Policy and Practice. The University of Sheffield. Report. https://doi.org/10.15131/shef.data.21221606.v1

Unlocking real-world data to promote and protect health and prevent ill-health in the Yorkshire and Humber region

Matthew Franklin
This is a blog post authored by Matt Franklin on the topic of Real World Data.
The final report can be accessed by clicking on the title below. Unlocking Data to Inform Public Health Policy and Practice Franklin, Matthew; Stone, Tony; Baxter, Susan; Haywood, Annette; Hinde, Sebastian; Howdon, Daniel; et al. (2022): Unlocking Data to Inform Public Health Policy and Practice. The University of Sheffield. Report. https://doi.org/10.15131/shef.data.21221606.v1

Sex roles in birds: influence of climate, life histories and social environment

Tamas Székely, András Liker, Gavin H. Thomas, Jan Komdeur, Oliver Krügger & Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer
For detailed information concerning data collection please see Gonzalez-Voyer et al. Sex roles in birds: phylogenetic analyses of the influence of climate, life histories and social environment. Ecology Letters. Briefly, data on ecology, life histories and behaviour of birds were extracted from published literature. If several data were available for a given species, we included the ones that were extracted from breeding individuals or had larger sample sizes. The details regarding data processing are provided...

Structural equation modeling reveals determinants of fitness in a cooperatively breeding bird

Michela Busana, Franz J Weissing, Martijn Hammers, Joke Bakker, Hannah L Dugdale, Sara Raj Pant, David S Richardson, Terrence A Burke & Jan Komdeur
Even in well-studied organisms, it is often challenging to uncover the social and environmental determinants of fitness. Typically, fitness is determined by a variety of factors that act in concert, thus forming complex networks of causal relationships. Moreover, even strong correlations between social and environmental conditions and fitness components may not be indicative of direct causal links, as the measured variables may be driven by unmeasured (or unmeasurable) causal factors. Standard statistical approaches, like multiple...

Expanding the agricultural - sanitation circular economy: opportunities and benefits

Steven Banwart, Laura Carter, Tim Daniell, Yong-Guan Zhu, Hongyan Guo, Jeremy Guest, Stuart Kirk, Barbara Evans, Patrick McKenna & Sarah Dennis
An expanded circular economy between agriculture and sanitation waste (sewage) can recycle essential resources for agriculture through the recovery of water, biomass, and nutrients from sewage at scale. Doing so can help to increase or maintain soil productivity and support agricultural outputs; produce heat and power; reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions; and minimise stresses on water reserves.

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