36 Works

Living and fossil Ginkgo leaves

Luke Mander, Haibin Hang, Martin Bauer & Washington Mio
The data presented here are a collection of images of living and fossil Ginkgo leaves. Mature and fully expanded leaves were harvested from a reproductively immature Ginkgo biloba tree growing in partial shade as a specimen on the campus of The Open University, UK. The specimen was ascended using a ladder and seven branches growing towards the West at approximately halfway up the specimen were removed from the trunk using a saw. Every leaf growing...

Data from: Simulated annealing approach to vascular structure with application to the coronary arteries

Jonathan Keelan, James P. Hague & Emma M. L. Chung
Do the complex processes of angiogenesis during organism development ultimately lead to a near optimal coronary vasculature in the organs of adult mammals? We examine this hypothesis using a powerful and universal method, built on physical and physiological principles, for the determination of globally energetically optimal arterial trees. The method is based on simulated annealing, and can be used to examine arteries in hollow organs with arbitrary tissue geometries. We demonstrate that the approach can...

Data from: Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests

Lydia E. S. Cole, Shonil A. Bhagwat, Kathy J. Willis & Katherine J. Willis
1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three...

Data from: Decomposition of coarse woody debris in a long-term litter manipulation experiment: a focus on nutrient availability

Evan M. Gora, Emma J. Sayer, Benjamin L. Turner & Edmund V. J. Tanner
1.The majority of aboveground carbon in tropical forests is stored in wood, which is returned to the atmosphere during decomposition of coarse woody debris. However, the factors controlling wood decomposition have not been experimentally manipulated over time scales comparable to the length of this process. 2.We hypothesized that wood decomposition is limited by nutrient availability and tested this hypothesis in a long-term litter addition and removal experiment in a lowland tropical forest in Panama. Specifically,...

Intensity and Insight: Qualitative Longitudinal Methods as a Route to the Psycho-social

Rachel Thomson, Wendy Hollway, Karen Henwood & Mark Finn
Timescapes Working Paper Series, 3

G-Chron 2019 – Round 1: An International Proficiency Test for U-Pb Geochronology Laboratories; Report on the 2019 Round of G-Chron based on Palaeozoic Zircon Rak-17 (Distribution: September 2019)

Peter Webb, Michael Wiedenbeck & Johannes Glodny
Scientific Technical Report STR - Data ; 21/06

Dynamics of Motherhood Dataset

Lucy Hadfield, Mary Jane Kehily, Rachel Thomson & Sue Sharpe
This project explores the dynamics of family life across the generations, following the arrival of a new child. Data were generated from a diverse sample of mothers aged between 15 and 49, and a subsample of grandmothers and significant others within the same families. A creative range of methods was used, including in depth interviews and participant observation. The project was located in two geographical locations, a new town and an inner city suburb, in...

Data from: The evolution of canaliculate rudists in the light of a new canaliculate polyconitid rudist from the Albian of the Central Pacific

Shin-Ichi Sano, Yasuhiro Iba, Peter W. Skelton, Jean-Pierre Masse, Yolanda M. Aguilar & Tomoki Kase
A new polyconitid rudist, Magallanesia canaliculata gen. et sp. nov., of probably late Albian age, is described from the Pulangbato area, central Cebu Island, the Philippines in the western Central Pacific and Takuyo Daini Seamount, now located in the Northwest Pacific. It is similar to Praecaprotina Yabe and Nagao, 1926, a Japanese – Central Pacific endemic genus of late Aptian – early Albian age, but differs in having canals that developed by partitioning of the...

Data from: The Automated Root Exudate System (ARES): a method to apply solutes at regular intervals to soils in the field

Luis Lopez-Sangil, Charles T. George, Eduardo Medina-Barcenas, Ali J. Birkett, Catherine Baxendale, Laetitia M. Bréchet, Eduard Estradera-Gumbau, Emma J. Sayer & Charles George
1) Root exudation is a key component of nutrient and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Exudation rates vary widely by plant species and environmental conditions but our understanding of how root exudates affect soil functioning is incomplete, in part because there are few viable methods to manipulate root exudates in situ. To address this, we devised the Automated Root Exudate System (ARES), which simulates increased root exudation by applying small amounts of labile solutes at...

Data from: Quantification of population sizes of large herbivores and their long-term functional role in ecosystems using dung fungal spores

Ambroise G. Baker, Perry Cornelissen, Shonil Bhagwat, Fransciscus W. M. Vera, Katherine J. Willis & Shonil A. Bhagwat
The relationship between large herbivore numbers and landscape cover over time is poorly understood. There are two schools of thought: one views large herbivores as relatively passive elements upon the landscape and the other as ecosystem engineers driving vegetation succession. The latter relationship has been used as an argument to support reintroductions of large herbivores onto many landscapes in order to increase vegetation heterogeneity and biodiversity through local-scale disturbance regimes. Most of the research examining...

The Making of Modern Motherhoods Dataset

Rachel Thomson, Mary Jane Kehily, Lucy Hadfield & Sue Sharpe
Becoming a mother is a profound moment of personal change which ties us to the past, the future and to each other. Yet what it means to be a mother is changing and fragmenting in line with women's increased participation in work and education. The Making of Modern Motherhoods project investigates how women negotiate mothering identities over generations and time. We combined longitudinal and cross-generational research designs to capture interplay of historical, generational and biographical...

Conducting Qualitative Longitudinal Research: Fieldwork Experiences

Joanna Bornat, Bill Bytheway, Lucy Hadfield, Louise Hemmerman, Fiona Shirani & Susie Weller
This collection draws on the fieldwork experiences of some of the researchers involved in the ESRC 'Timescapes: Changing Relationships and Identities throughthe Life Course‘ programme. Timescapes, the first major Qualitative Longitudinal (QLL) study to be funded in the UK, aims to build a picture of life in 21st century Britain by gathering, archiving and analysing interviews from over 400 people living in a variety of circumstances across the UK. Temporal understanding is central to the...

Data from: Tree functional diversity affects litter decomposition and arthropod community composition in a tropical forest

Benita C. Laird-Hopkins, Laëtitia M. Bréchet, Biancolini C. Trujillo & Emma J. Sayer
Disturbance can alter tree species and functional diversity in tropical forests, which in turn could affect carbon and nutrient cycling via the decomposition of plant litter. However, the influence of tropical tree diversity on forest floor organisms and the processes they mediate are far from clear. We investigated the influence of different litter mixtures on arthropod communities and decomposition processes in a 60-year-old lowland tropical forest in Panama, Central America. We used litter mixtures representing...

Data from: Mauritius on fire: tracking historical human impacts on biodiversity loss

William D. Gosling, Jona De Kruif, Sietze J. Norder, Erik J. De Boer, Henry Hooghiemstra, Kenneth F. Rijsdijk, Crystal N.H. McMichael & Crystal N. H. McMichael
Fire was rare on Mauritius prior to human arrival (AD 1598); subsequently three phases of elevated fire activity occurred: c. 1630-1747, 1787-1833, and 1950-modern. Elevated fire frequency coincided with periods of high human impact evidenced from the historical record, and is linked to the extinction of island endemics.

Data from: Tropical forest restoration: fast resilience of plant biomass contrasts with slow recovery of stable soil C stocks

Faming Wang, Yongzhen Ding, Emma Sayer, Qinlu Li, Bi Zou, Qifeng Mo, Yingwen Li, Xiaoliang Lu, Jianwu Tang, Weixing Zhu, Zhian Li & Emma J. Sayer
1. Due to intensifying human disturbance, over half of the world’s tropical forests are reforested or afforested secondary forests or plantations. Understanding the resilience of carbon (C) stocks in these forests, and estimating the extent to which they can provide equivalent carbon (C) sequestration and stabilization to the old growth forest they replace, is critical for the global C balance. 2. In this study, we combined estimates of biomass C stocks with a detailed assessment...

Data from: Crowdsourcing the identification of organisms: a case-study of iSpot

Jonathan Silvertown, Martin Harvey, Richard Greenwood, Mike Dodd, Jon Rosewell, Tony Rebelo, Janice Ansine & Kevin McConway
Accurate species identification is fundamental to biodiversity science, but the natural history skills required for this are neglected in formal education at all levels. In this paper we describe how the web application ispotnature.org and its sister site ispot.org.za (collectively, "iSpot") are helping to solve this problem by combining learning technology with crowdsourcing to connect beginners with experts. Over 94% of observations submitted to iSpot receive a determination. To date (2014), iSpot has crowdsourced the...

Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions

Zenobia Lewis, Julia Cooke, Yoseph Araya, Karen Bacon, Joanna Bagniewska, Lesley Batty, Tom Bishop, Moya Burns, Magda Charalambous, David Daversa, Liam Dougherty, Miranda Dyson, Adam Fisher, Dan Forman, Cristina Garcia, Ewan Harney, Thomas Hesselberg, Elizabeth John, Robert Knell, Kadmiel Maseyk, Alice Mauchline, Julie Peacock, Angelo Pernetto, Jeremy Pritchard, William Sutherland … & Nicholas Worsfold
We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and therole of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences. Here we present the results of a horizon scanning exercise that identified current and future challenges facing the teaching of ecology,...

Re-engaging in the practice of academic reading: the power of the pledge

Charlotte Stevens

Ancient orogenic and monsoon-driven assembly of the world's richest temperate alpine flora

Wen-Na Ding, Richard H. Ree, Robert A. Spicer & Yao-Wu Xing
Understanding how alpine biotas formed in response to historical environmental change may improve our ability to predict and mitigate the threats to alpine species posed by global warming. In the world's richest temperate alpine flora, that of the Tibet-Himalaya-Hengduan region, phylogenetic reconstructions of biome and geographic range evolution show that extant lineages emerged by the early Oligocene and diversified first in the Hengduan Mountains. By the early to middle Miocene, accelerated diversification and colonization of...

Data from: Plant, soil and microbial controls on grassland diversity restoration: a long-term, multi-site mesocosm experiment

Ellen L. Fry, Emma S. Pilgrim, Jerry R.B. Tallowin, Roger S. Smith, Simon R. Mortimer, Deborah A. Beaumont, Janet Simkin, Stephanie J. Harris, Robert S. Shiel, Helen Quirk, Kate A. Harrison, Clare S. Lawson, Phil A. Hobbs & Richard D. Bardgett
The success of grassland biodiversity restoration schemes is determined by many factors; as such their outcomes can be unpredictable. There is a need for improved understanding of the relative importance of belowground factors to restoration success, such as contrasting soil type and management intensities, as well as plant community composition and order of assembly. We carried out an eight-year mesocosm experiment across three locations in the UK to explore the relative and interactive roles of...

Data from: Escitalopram and NHT normalized stress-induced anhedonia and molecular neuroadaptations in a mouse model of depression

Or Burstein, Motty Franko, Eyal Gale, Assaf Handelsman, Segev Barak, Shai Motsan, Alon Shamir, Roni Toledano, Omri Simhon, Yafit Hirshler, Gang Chen & Ravid Doron
Anhedonia is defined as a diminished ability to obtain pleasure from otherwise positive stimuli. Anxiety and mood disorders have been previously associated with dysregulation of the reward system, with anhedonia as a core element of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether stress-induced anhedonia could be prevented by treatments with escitalopram or novel herbal treatment (NHT) in an animal model of depression. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) was...

Late Quaternary palynological data from the eastern Andean montane forest of Ecuador

N.J.D. Loughlin
Palaeoecological proxy data (pollen, non-pollen palynomorph (NPP), micro-charcoal, macro-charcoal, loss-on-ignition (LOI) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF)) recovered from lake sediments, cliff exposures, surface soils and moss pollsters within the eastern Andean cloud forest of Ecuador. Palaeoecological proxy data were recovered from lake sediments, surface soil and moss pollsters within the eastern Andean cloud forest of Ecuador. Materials and proxy data were collected with the aim of understanding how ecosystem dynamics were driven by anthropogenic, physical and...

Data from: Consistent alleviation of abiotic stress with silicon addition: a meta-analysis

Julia Cooke & Michelle R. Leishman
Hundreds of single species studies have demonstrated the facility of silicon (Si) to alleviate diverse abiotic stresses in plants. Understanding of the mechanisms of Si-mediated stress alleviation is progressing, and several reviews have brought information together. A quantitative assessment of the alleviative capacity of Si, however, which could elucidate plant Si function more broadly, was lacking. We combined the results of 145 experiments, predominantly on agricultural species, in a meta-analysis to statistically assess the responses...

Data from: Latitudinal and altitudinal patterns of plant community diversity on mountain summits across the tropical Andes

Francisco Cuesta, Priscilla Muriel, Luis D. Llambí, Stephan Halloy, Nikolay Aguirre, Stephan Beck, Julieta Carilla, Rosa I. Meneses, Soledad Cuello, Alfredo Grau, Luis E. Gámez, Javier Irazábal, Jorge Jacome, Ricardo Jaramillo, Lirey Ramírez, Natalia Samaniego, David Suárez-Duque, Natali Thompson, Alfredo Tupayachi, Paul Viñas, Karina Yager, María T. Becerra, Harald Pauli & William D. Gosling
The high tropical Andes host one of the richest alpine floras of the world, with exceptionally high levels of endemism and turnover rates. Yet, little is known about the patterns and processes that structure altitudinal and latitudinal variation in plant community diversity. Herein we present the first continental-scale comparative study of plant community diversity on summits of the tropical Andes. Data were obtained from 792 permanent vegetation plots (1m2) within 50 summits, distributed along a...

Data from: The direct effects of male-killer infection on fitness of ladybird hosts (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Sherif Elnagdy, Mark Gardener, Lori-Jayne Lawson-Handley, L.-J. Lawson Handley & M. E. N. Majerus
Male-killing bacteria are common in insects, and are thought to persist in host populations primarily by indirect fitness benefits to infected females, while direct fitness effects are generally assumed to be neutral or deleterious. Here, we estimated the effect of male-killer infection on direct fitness (number of eggs laid, as a measure of fecundity, together with survival) and other life-history traits (development time and body size) in seven ladybird host/male-killer combinations. Effects of male-killers on...

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