148 Works

Data from: Temporal relationship between genetic and warning signal variation in the aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis)

Juan A. Galarza, Ossi Nokelainen, Roghaeih Ashrafi, Robert H. Hegna & Johanna Mappes
Many plants and animals advertise unpalatability through warning signals in the form of colour and shape. Variation in warning signals within local populations is not expected because they are subject to directional selection. However, mounting evidence of warning signal variation within local populations suggests that other selective forces may be acting. Moreover, different selective pressures may act on the individual components of a warning signal. At present, we have a limited understanding about how multiple...

Data from: Genotypic and phenotypic variation in transmission traits of a complex life cycle parasite

Katja-Riikka Louhi, Anssi Karvonen, Christian Rellstab & Jukka Jokela
Characterizing genetic variation in parasite transmission traits and its contribution to parasite vigor is essential for understanding the evolution of parasite life-history traits. We measured genetic variation in output, activity, survival, and infection success of clonal transmission stages (cercaria larvae) of a complex life cycle parasite (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum). We further tested if variation in host nutritional stage had an effect on these traits by keeping hosts on limited or ad libitum diet. The traits we...

Data from: To quiver or to shiver: increased melanisation benefits thermoregulation, but reduces warning signal efficacy in the wood tiger moth

Jonathan R. Hegna, Ossi Nokelainen, Johanna Mappes & R. H. Hegna
Melanin production is often considered costly, yet beneficial for thermoregulation. Studies of variation in melanization and the opposing selective forces that underlie its variability contribute greatly to understanding natural selection. We investigated whether melanization benefits are traded off with predation risk to promote observed local and geographical variation in the warning signal of adult male wood tiger moths (Parasemia plantaginis). Warning signal variation is predicted to reduce survival in aposematic species. However, in P. plantaginis,...

Data from: The effect of inbreeding rate on fitness, inbreeding depression and heterosis over a range of inbreeding coefficients

Nina Pekkala, K. Emily Knott, Janne S. Kotiaho, Kari Nissinen & Mikael Puurtinen
Understanding the effects of inbreeding and genetic drift within populations and hybridization between genetically differentiated populations is important for many basic and applied questions in ecology and evolutionary biology. The magnitudes and even the directions of these effects can be influenced by various factors, especially by the current and historical population size (i.e., inbreeding rate). Using Drosophila littoralis as a model species, we studied the effect of inbreeding rate over a range of inbreeding levels...

Data from: Testis asymmetry in birds: the influences of sexual and natural selection

Sara Calhim & Robert Montgomerie
Gonad size and shape asymmetries are particularly common in birds. Although some obvious size and shape differences between the left and right testes in birds were first documented more than a century ago, little is known about what influences the variation across species in either the degree or the direction of these asymmetries. Here we show that a left bias in size is the most likely ancestral state in most orders and families, and that...

Data from: Phosphorus limitation enhances parasite impact: feedback effects at the population level

Katja Pulkkinen, Marcin W. Wojewodzic & Dag O. Hessen
Background: Nutrient deficiency affects the growth and population dynamics of consumers. Endoparasites can be seen as consumers that drain carbon (C) or energy from their host while simultaneously competing for limiting resources such as phosphorus (P). Depending on the relative demands of the host and the parasite for the limiting nutrient, intensified resource competition under nutrient limitation can either reduce the parasite?s effect on the host or further reduce the fitness of the nutrient-limited host....

Data from: Constant, cycling, hot and cold thermal environments: strong effects on mean viability but not on genetic estimates

T. Ketola, V. Kellermann, T. N. Kristenson & V. Loeschcke
It has frequently been suggested that trait heritabilities are environmentally sensitive, and there are genetic trade-offs between tolerating different environments such as hot and cold or constant and fluctuating temperatures. Future climate predictions suggest an increase in both temperatures and their fluctuations. How species will respond to these changes is uncertain, particularly as there is a lack of studies which compare genetic performances in constant vs. fluctuating environments. In this study, we used a nested...

Data from: Propagule pressure increase and phylogenetic diversity decrease community’s susceptibility to invasion

Tarmo Ketola, Kati Saarinen & Leena Lindström
Invasions pose a large threat to native species, but the question of why some species are more invasive, and some communities more prone to invasions than others, is far from solved. Using ten different three-species bacterial communities, we tested experimentally if the phylogenetic relationships between an invader and a resident community and propagule pressure affect invasion probability. We found that greater diversity in phylogenetic distances between the resident community members and the invader lowered invasion...

Data from: Age, condition and dominance-related sexual ornament size before and during the breeding season in the black grouse Lyrurus tetrix

Sarah Harris, Matti Kervinen, Christophe Lebigre, Thomas W. Pike & Carl D. Soulsbury
Male ornaments function as honest cues of male quality in many species and are subject to intra- and intersexual selection. These ornaments are generally studied during peak expression, however their size outside the breeding season may determine ultimate ornament size and costliness, and as such reproductive success. We investigated whether male black grouse Lyrurus tetrix eye comb size was related to age, condition and measures of male dominance before and during the breeding season. Total...

Eco‐evolutionary dynamics driven by fishing: from single species models to dynamic evolution within complex food webs

Tommi Perälä & Anna Kuparinen
Evidence of contemporary evolution across ecological time scales stimulated research on the eco-evolutionary dynamics of natural populations. Aquatic systems provide a good setting to study eco-evolutionary dynamics owing to a wealth of long-term monitoring data and the detected trends in fish life-history traits across intensively harvested marine and freshwater systems. In the present study, we focus on modelling approaches to simulate eco-evolutionary dynamics of fishes and their ecosystems. Firstly, we review the development of modelling...

Maps of northern peatland extent, depth, carbon storage and nitrogen storage

Gustaf Hugelius, Julie Loisel, Sarah Chadburn, Robert B. Jackson, Miriam Jones, Glen MacDonald, Maija Marushchak, David Olefeldt, Maara Packalen, Matthias B. Siewert, Claire Treat, Merritt Turestsky, Carolina Voigt & Zicheng Yu
This dataset is grids of peatland extent, peat depth, peatland organic carbon storage, peatland total nitrogen storage and approximate extent of ombrotrophic/minerotrophic peatlands. The grids are geotiff files in 10 km pixel resolution projected in the World Azimuthal Equidistant projection. Note that the peat depth grid shows potential peat depth everywhere,also where there is no peatland cover. For files on peatland organic carbon, total nitrogen extent and extent of ombrotrophic/minerotrophic peatlands, there are separate files...

Data from: Quantitative genetics of temperature performance curves of Neurospora crassa

Ilkka Kronholm, Neda N. Moghadam, Karendeep Sidhu, Pauliina A. M. Summanen & Tarmo Ketola
Earth's temperature is increasing due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions; and organisms need either to adapt to higher temperatures, migrate into colder areas, or face extinction. Temperature affects nearly all aspects of an organism's physiology via its influence on metabolic rate and protein structure, therefore genetic adaptation to increased temperature may be much harder to achieve compared to other abiotic stresses. There is still much to be learned about the evolutionary potential for adaptation to higher...

High variation in last male sperm precedence and genital morphology in the emerald damselfly Lestes sponsa

Frank Johansson, David Berger, Jacob Höglund, Yvonne Meyer-Lucht, Patrik Rödin-Mörch, Szymon Sniegula & Phillip Watts
In organisms where individuals mate multiply, knowledge on the proportion of offspring sired by the last male to mate (P2) under field conditions is important for a thorough understanding of how sexual selection works in nature. In many insect groups, pronounced intraspecific variation in P2 is commonplace. Interestingly, however, in stark contrast to these observations, compilation of P2 data in dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) indicate that a high P2, seldom below 0.95, is a feature...

Appearance before performance? Nutritional constraints on life‐history traits, but not warning signal expression in aposematic moths

Carita Lindstedt, Kaisa Suisto & Johanna Mappes
1. Trade-offs have been shown to play an important role in the divergence of mating strategies and sexual ornamentation, but their importance in explaining warning signal diversity has received less attention. In aposematic organisms, allocation costs of producing the conspicuous warning signal pigmentation under nutritional stress could potentially trade-off with life-history traits and maintain variation in warning colouration. 2. We studied this with an aposematic herbivore Arctia plantaginis (Arctiidae), whose larvae and adults show extensive...

Data from: Predators’ consumption of unpalatable prey does not vary as a function of bitter taste perception

Liisa Hämäläinen, Johanna Mappes, Rose Thorogood, Janne Valkonen, Kaijamari Karttunen, Tuuli Salmi & Hannah Rowland
Many prey species contain defensive chemicals that are described as tasting bitter. Bitter taste perception is therefore assumed to be important when predators are learning about prey defenses. However, it is not known how individuals differ in their response to bitter taste, and how this influences their foraging decisions. We conducted taste perception assays in which wild-caught great tits (Parus major) were given water with increasing concentrations of bitter-tasting chloroquine diphosphate until they showed an...

Innate anti-predator behavior can promote infection in fish even in the absence of predators

Victor Mikheev, Anna Pasternak, Andrey Morozov & Jouni Taskinen
Natural enemies - predators and parasites - largely shape the dynamics of ecosystems. It is known that anti-predator and anti-parasite defense can be mutually conflicting, however consequences of this trade-off for the regulation of infection burden in animals are still poorly understood. We hypothesize that even in the absence of cues from predators, innate anti-predator behavior (“ghost of predation past”) interferes with defense against parasites and can enhance the infection risk. As a case study,...

A new method to reconstruct quantitative food webs and nutrient flows from isotope tracer addition experiments

Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Matthieu Bruneaux, Sarah Michelle Collins, Rana El-Sabaawi, Alexander S Flecker & Steven A Thomas
Understanding how nutrients flow through food webs is central in ecosystem ecology. Tracer addition experiments are powerful tools to reconstruct nutrient flows by adding an isotopically enriched element into an ecosystem, and tracking its fate through time. Historically, the design and analysis of tracer studies have varied widely, ranging from descriptive studies to modeling approaches of varying complexity. Increasingly, isotope tracer data is being used being used to compare ecosystems and analyze experimental manipulations. Currently,...

Data from: Age-related effects of chronic hantavirus infection on female host fecundity

Eva R. Kallio, Heikki Helle, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes & Olli Vapalahti
1. Pathogens often cause detrimental effects to their hosts and, consequently, may influence host population dynamics that may, in turn, feed back to pathogen transmission dynamics. Understanding fitness effects of pathogens upon animal host populations can help to predict the risks that zoonotic pathogens pose to humans. 2. Here we determine whether chronic infection by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) affects important fitness-related traits, namely the probability of breeding, reproductive effort and mother and offspring condition, in...

Data from: Grazing decreases N partitioning among coexisting plant species

Hélène Barthelemy, Sari Stark, Minna-Maarit Kytoviita & Johan Olofsson
1. Herbivores play a key role in shaping ecosystem structure and functions by influencing plant and microbial community composition and nutrient cycling. 2. This study investigated the long-term effects of herbivores on plant resource acquisition. We explored differences in the natural δ15N signatures in plant, microbial and soil N pools, and examined mycorrhizal colonization in two tundra sites that have been either lightly or heavily grazed by reindeer for more than 50 years. The study...

Data from: Replicated origin of female biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

Jeffrey D. Arendt, David N. Reznick & Andres López-Sepulcre
There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size which affects population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However a...

Data from: Enriched rearing environment and wild genetic background can enhance survival and disease resistance of salmonid fishes during parasite epidemics

Anssi Karvonen, Mariella Aalto-Araneda, Anna-Maija Virtala, Raine Kortet, Perttu Koski & Pekka Hyvärinen
The importance and volume of aquaculture is increasing world-wide. Rearing practices play a key role in determining growth rate, survival and disease resistance in aquaculture fishes. Recent evidence suggests that in comparison with a standard stimulus-poor rearing environment, an enriched or variable rearing environment has significant positive effects on several traits underlying growth and well-being of fish. However, the effect of enriched rearing on one of the most important threats for aquaculture development, occurrence of...

Data from: Age and quality-dependent DNA methylation correlate with melanin-based colouration in a wild bird

Carl D. Soulsbury, Anssi Lipponen, Kristie Wood, Charles A. Mein, Joe I. Hoffman, Christophe Lebigre & Joseph I. Hoffman
Secondary sexual trait expression can be influenced by fixed individual factors (such as genetic quality) but also by dynamic factors (such as age and environmentally induced gene expression) that may be associated with variation in condition or quality. In particular, melanin-based traits are known to relate to condition and there is a well-characterized genetic pathway underpinning their expression. However, the mechanisms linking variable trait expression to genetic quality remain unclear. One plausible mechanism is that...

Data from: Social transmission in the wild reduces predation pressure on novel prey signals

Liisa Hämäläinen, William Hoppitt, Hannah Rowland, Johanna Mappes, Anthony Fulford, Sebastian Sosa & Rose Thorogood
Social transmission of information is taxonomically widespread and could have profound effects on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of animal communities. Demonstrating this in the wild, however, has been challenging. Here we show by field experiment that social transmission among predators can shape how selection acts on prey defences. Using artificial prey and a novel approach in statistical analyses of social networks, we find that blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) predators...

Data and code from: Accounting for species interactions is necessary for predicting how arctic arthropod communities respond to climate change

Nerea Abrego, Tomas Roslin, Tea Huotari, Yinqiu Ji, Niels Martin Schmid, Jiaxin Wang, Douglas W. Yu & Otso Ovaskainen
Species interactions are known to structure ecological communities. Still, the influence of climate change on biodiversity has primarily been evaluated by correlating individual species distributions with local climatic descriptors, then extrapolating into future climate scenarios. We ask whether predictions on arctic arthropod response to climate change can be improved by accounting for species interactions. For this, we use a 14-year-long, weekly time series from Greenland, resolved to the species level by mitogenome mapping. During the...

Data for: Evolutionary rescue at different rates of environmental change is affected by trade-offs between short-term performance and long-term survival, by Martta Liukkonen, Ilkka Kronholm and Tarmo Ketola

Tarmo Ketola, Martta Liukkonen & Ilkka Kronholm
As climate change accelerates and habitats free from anthropogenic impacts diminish, populations are forced to migrate or to adapt quickly. Evolutionary rescue (ER) is a phenomenon, in which a population is able to avoid extinction through adaptation. ER is considered to be more likely at slower rates of environmental change. However, the effects of correlated characters on evolutionary rescue are seldom explored yet correlated characters could play a major role in ER. We tested how...

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