19 Works

Data from: Age-related effects of chronic hantavirus infection on female host fecundity

Eva R. Kallio, Heikki Helle, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes & Olli Vapalahti
1. Pathogens often cause detrimental effects to their hosts and, consequently, may influence host population dynamics that may, in turn, feed back to pathogen transmission dynamics. Understanding fitness effects of pathogens upon animal host populations can help to predict the risks that zoonotic pathogens pose to humans. 2. Here we determine whether chronic infection by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) affects important fitness-related traits, namely the probability of breeding, reproductive effort and mother and offspring condition, in...

Data from: Enriched rearing environment and wild genetic background can enhance survival and disease resistance of salmonid fishes during parasite epidemics

Anssi Karvonen, Mariella Aalto-Araneda, Anna-Maija Virtala, Raine Kortet, Perttu Koski & Pekka Hyvärinen
The importance and volume of aquaculture is increasing world-wide. Rearing practices play a key role in determining growth rate, survival and disease resistance in aquaculture fishes. Recent evidence suggests that in comparison with a standard stimulus-poor rearing environment, an enriched or variable rearing environment has significant positive effects on several traits underlying growth and well-being of fish. However, the effect of enriched rearing on one of the most important threats for aquaculture development, occurrence of...

Data from: Experimental reduction of intromittent organ length reduces male reproductive success in a bug

Liam R. Dougherty, Imran A. Rahman, Emily R. Burdfield-Steel, E. V. Greenway & David M. Shuker
It is now clear in many species that male and female genital evolution has been shaped by sexual selection. However, it has historically been difficult to confirm correlations between morphology and fitness, as genital traits are complex and manipulation tends to impair function significantly. In this study, we investigate the functional morphology of the elongate male intromittent organ (or processus) of the seed bug Lygaeus simulans, in two ways. We first use micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)...

Data from: Simultaneous age-dependent and age-independent sexual selection in the lekking black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix)

Matti Kervinen, Christophe Lebigre & Carl D. Soulsbury
Individuals' reproductive success is often strongly associated with their age, with typical patterns of early-life reproductive improvement and late-life senescence. These age-related patterns are due to the inherent trade-offs between life-history traits competing for a limited amount of resources available to the organisms. In males, such trade-offs are exacerbated by the resource requirements associated with the expression of costly sexual traits, leading to dynamic changes in trait expression throughout their life span. Due to the...

Data from: Gene flow from an adaptively divergent source causes rescue through genetic and demographic factors in two wild populations of Trinidadian guppies

Sarah W. Fitzpatrick, Jill C. Gerberich, Lisa M. Angeloni, Larissa L. Bailey, Emily Dale Broder, Julian Torres-Dowdall, Corey A. Handelsman, Andrés López-Sepulcre, David N. Reznick, Cameron K. Ghalambor & W. Chris Funk
Genetic rescue, an increase in population growth owing to the infusion of new alleles, can aid the persistence of small populations, but its use as a management tool is limited by a lack of empirical data geared towards predicting effects of gene flow on local adaptation and demography. Experimental translocations provide an ideal opportunity to monitor the demographic consequences of gene flow. In this study we take advantage of two experimental introductions of Trinidadian guppies...

Data from: Host infection history modifies co-infection success of multiple parasite genotypes

Ines Klemme, Katja-Riikka Louhi & Anssi Karvonen
1. Co-infections by multiple parasite genotypes are common and have important implications for host-parasite ecology and evolution through within-host interactions. Typically, these infections take place sequentially and therefore, the outcome of co-infection may be shaped by host immune responses triggered by previous infections. For example, in vertebrates specific immune responses play a central role in protection against disease over the course of life, but co-infection research has mostly focused on previously uninfected individuals. 2. Here,...

Data from: Colour polymorphism torn apart by opposing positive frequency-dependent selection, yet maintained in space

Swanne P. Gordon, Hanna Kokko, Bibiana Rojas, Ossi Nokelainen & Johanna Mappes
1. Polymorphic warning signals in aposematic species are enigmatic because predator learning and discrimination should select for the most common coloration, resulting in positive frequency-dependent survival selection. 2. Here, we investigated whether differential mating success could create sufficiently strong negative frequency-dependent selection for rare morphs to explain polymorphic (white and yellow) warning coloration in male wood tiger moths (Parasemia plantaginis). 3. We conducted an experiment in semi-natural conditions where we estimated mating success for both...

Data from: Intralocus tactical conflict: genetic correlations between fighters and sneakers of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus

Bruno A. Buzatto, Janne S. Kotiaho, Joseph L. Tomkins & Leigh W. Simmons
Males and females differ in their phenotypic optima for many traits, and since the majority of genes are expressed in both sexes, some alleles can be beneficial to one sex but harmful to the other (intralocus sexual conflict; ISC). ISC theory has recently been extended to intrasexual dimorphisms, where certain alleles may have opposite effects on the fitness of males of different morphs that employ alternative reproductive tactics (intralocus tactical conflict; ITC). Here we use...

Data from: Epigenetic mutations can both help and hinder adaptive evolution

Ilkka Kronholm & Sinéad Collins
Epigenetic variation is being integrated into our understanding of adaptation, yet we lack models on how epigenetic mutations affect evolution that includes de novo genetic change. We model the effects of epigenetic mutations on the dynamics and endpoints of adaptive walks-a process where a series of beneficial mutations move a population towards a fitness optimum. We use an individual-based model of an asexual population, where mutational effects are drawn from Fisher's geometric model. We find...

Data from: The genetic architecture of sexually selected traits in two natural populations of Drosophila montana

Paris Veltsos, Emma Gregson, Barbara Morrissey, Jon Slate, Anneli Hoikkala, Roger K. Butlin & Michael G. Ritchie
We investigated the genetic architecture of courtship song and cuticular hydrocarbon traits in two phygenetically distinct populations of Drosophila montana. In order to study natural variation in these two important traits, we analysed within-population crosses among individuals sampled from the wild. Hence, the genetic variation analysed should represent that available for natural and sexual selection to act upon. In contrast to previous between-population crosses in this species, no major QTLs were detected, perhaps because the...

Data from: Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits

Mélissa Lemoine, Kay Lucek, Charles Perrier, Verena Saladin, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Eduardo J. Belda, Anne Charmantier, Mariusz Cichon, Eeva Tapio, Arnaud Gregoire, Camilla A. Hinde, Arild Johnsen, Jan Komdeur, Raivo Mand, Erik Matthysen, Ana Claudia Norte, Natalia Pitala, Ben C. Sheldon, Tore Slagsvold, Joost M. Tinbergen, Janos Torok, Richard Ubels, Kees Van Oers, Marcel E. Visser … & Tapio Eeva
Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species – the great...

Data from: Selection analysis on the rapid evolution of a secondary sexual trait

Swanne P. Gordon, David Reznick, Jeffrey D. Arendt, Allen Roughton, Michelle N. Ontiveros Hernandez, Paul Bentzen, Andrés López-Sepulcre & Jeff D. Arendt
Evolutionary analyses of population translocations (experimental or accidental) have been important in demonstrating speed of evolution because they subject organisms to abrupt environmental changes that create an episode of selection. However, the strength of selection in such studies is rarely measured, limiting our understanding of the evolutionary process. This contrasts with long-term, mark–recapture studies of unmanipulated populations that measure selection directly, yet rarely reveal evolutionary change. Here, we present a study of experimental evolution of...

Data from: Ants medicate to fight disease

Nick Bos, Liselotte Sundström, Siiri Fuchs & Dalial Freitak
Parasites are ubiquitous, and the ability to defend against these is of paramount importance. One way to fight diseases is self-medication, which occurs when an organism consumes biologically active compounds to clear, inhibit or alleviate disease symptoms. Here, we show for the first time that ants selectively consume harmful substances (Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS) upon exposure to a fungal pathogen, yet avoid these in the absence of infection. This increased intake of ROS, while harmful...

Data from: Interactions among bacterial strains and fluke genotypes shape virulence of co-infection

Katja-Riikka Louhi, Lotta-Riina Sundberg, Jukka Jokela & Anssi Karvonen
Most studies of virulence of infection focus on pairwise host-parasite interactions. However, hosts are almost universally co-infected by several parasite strains and/or genotypes of the same or different species. While theory predicts that co infection favours more virulent parasite genotypes through intensified competition for host resources, knowledge of effects of genotype by genotype (G×G) interactions between unrelated parasite species on virulence of co infection is limited. Here we tested such relationship by challenging rainbow trout...

Data from: Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent

Kristian M. Forbes, Heikki Henttonen, Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Anja Kipar, Tapio Mappes, Peter Stuart & Otso Huitu
While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability...

Data from: Inter-annual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds

Kalle Meller, Anssi V Vähätalo, Tatu Hokkanen, Jukka Rintala, Markus Piha & Aleksi Lehikoinen
Partial migration – a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site – is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the...

Data from: Localization of QTL for diapause and other photoperiodically regulated life-history traits important in adaptation to seasonally varying environments

Venera I. Tyukmaeva, Paris Veltsos, Jon Slate, Emma Gregson, Hannele Kauranen, Maaria Kankare, Michael G. Ritchie, Roger K. Butlin & Anneli Hoikkala
Seasonally changing environments at high latitudes present great challenges for the reproduction and survival of insects, and photoperiodic cues play an important role in helping them to synchronize their life cycle with prevalent and forthcoming conditions. We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the photoperiodic regulation of four life history traits, female reproductive diapause, cold tolerance, egg-to-eclosion development time and juvenile body weight in Drosophila montana strains from different latitudes in Canada and...

Data from: Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes

Antti P. Eloranta, Kimmo K. Kahilainen, Per-Arne Amundsen, Rune Knudsen, Chris Harrod & Roger I. Jones
Prey preference of top predators and energy flow across habitat boundaries are of fundamental importance for structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as they may have strong effects on production, species diversity, and food-web stability. In lakes, littoral and pelagic food-web compartments are typically coupled and controlled by generalist fish top predators. However, the extent and determinants of such coupling remains a topical area of ecological research and is largely unknown in oligotrophic...

Data from: Predator mimicry, not conspicuousness, explains the efficacy of butterfly eyespots

Sebastiano De Bona, Janne K. Valkonen, Andres Lopez-Sepulcre & Johanna Mappes
Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or sensory overloads. We conducted an experiment to directly test whether the eye-mimicry or the conspicuousness hypothesis better explain eyespot efficacy. We used great...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Jyväskylä
  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Zurich
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Liverpool
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
  • University of Antwerp
  • University of Eastern Finland