59 Works

Data from: RAD-sequencing reveals within-generation polygenic selection in response to anthropogenic organic and metal contamination in North Atlantic Eels

Martin Laporte, Scott A. Pavey, Clément Rougeux, Fabien Pierron, Hélène Budzinski, M. Lauzent, P. Labadie, E. Geneste, P. Couture, M. Baudrimont & L. Bernatchez
Measuring the effects of selection on the genome imposed by human-altered environment is currently a major goal in ecological genomics. Given the polygenic basis of most phenotypic traits, quantitative genetic theory predicts that selection is expected to cause subtle allelic changes among covarying loci rather than pronounced changes at few loci of large effects. The goal of this study was to test for the occurrence of polygenic selection in both North Atlantic eels (European Eel,...

Data from: Cryptic species diversity and reproductive isolation among sympatric lineages of Strongylocentrotus sea urchins in the northwest Atlantic

Jason A. Addison & Jin-Hong Kim
Distinguishing between intra- and inter-specific variation in genetic studies is critical to understanding evolution because the mechanisms driving change among populations are expected to be different than those that shape reproductive isolation among lineages. Genetic studies of north Atlantic green sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Müller, 1776) have detected significant population substructure and asymmetric gene flow from Europe to Atlantic Canada and interspecific hybridization between S. droebachiensis and Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars, 1871). However, combined with patterns...

Data from: Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape

Mark Baah-Acheamfour, Charles P. A. Bourque, Fan-Rui Meng, D. Edwin Swift & Charles P.-A. Bourque
There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by...

Data from: Adaptation to random and systematic errors: Comparison of amputee and non-amputee control interfaces with varying levels of process noise

Reva E. Johnson, Konrad P. Kording, Levi J. Hargrove & Jonathon W. Sensinger
The objective of this study was to understand how people adapt to errors when using a myoelectric control interface. We compared adaptation across 1) non-amputee subjects using joint angle, joint torque, and myoelectric control interfaces, and 2) amputee subjects using myoelectric control interfaces with residual and intact limbs (five total control interface conditions). We measured trial-by-trial adaptation to self-generated errors and random perturbations during a virtual, single degree-of-freedom task with two levels of feedback uncertainty,...

Data from: Seascape genomics provides evidence for thermal adaptation and current-mediated population structure in American lobster (Homarus americanus)

Laura M. Benestan, Brady K. Quinn, Halim Maaroufi, Martin Laporte, Fraser K. Clark, Spencer J. Greenwood, Rémy Rochette, Louis Bernatchez & Laura Benestan
Investigating how environmental features shape the genetic structure of populations is crucial for understanding how they are potentially adapted to their habitats, as well as for sound management. In this study, we assessed the relative importance of spatial distribution, ocean currents and sea surface temperature (SST) on patterns of putatively neutral and adaptive genetic variation among American lobster from 19 locations using population differentiation (PD) approaches combined with environmental association (EA) analyses. First, PD approaches...

Data from: Genotype by sequencing identifies natural selection as a driver of intraspecific divergence in Atlantic populations of the high dispersal marine invertebrate, Macoma petalum

Stacy L. Metivier, Jin-Hong Kim & Jason A. Addison
Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that the Bay of Fundy population of the intertidal tellinid bivalve Macoma petalum is genetically divergent from coastal populations in the Gulf of Maine and Nova Scotia. To further examine the evolutionary forces driving this genetic break, we performed double digest genotype by sequencing (GBS) to survey the nuclear genome for evidence of both neutral and selective processes shaping this pattern. The resulting reads were mapped to a partial transcriptome of...

Data from: Correlates of alternative migratory strategies in western bluebirds

Catherine A. Dale, Joseph J. Nocera, Samantha E. Franks, T. Kurt Kyser & Laurene M. Ratcliffe
Partial migration occurs when only some animals in a population migrate. While evidence suggests that migratory strategies are partially controlled by genes, individual and environmental conditions which alter the cost‐benefit trade‐off of migration among individuals are also likely to play a role. Three hypotheses have been advanced to explain condition‐dependent partial migration: the arrival time, dominance, and body size hypotheses. In this study, we asked whether these hypotheses explained differences in migratory strategy among individuals...

Variation and correlation in the timing of breeding of North Atlantic seabirds across multiple scales

Katharine Keogan, Francis Daunt, Sarah Wanless, Richard Phillips, David Alvarez, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Robert Barrett, Claus Bech, Peter Becker, Per-Arvid Berglund, Sandra Bouwhuis, Zofia Burr, Olivier Chastel, Signe Christensen-Dalsgaard, Sébastien Descamps, Tony Diamond, Kyle Elliott, Kjell Einar Erikstad, Mike Harris, Jonas Hentati-Sundberg, Martin Heubeck, Magdalene Langset, Svein Lorentsen, Heather Major, Mark Mallory … & Stephen Kress
Timing of breeding, an important driver of fitness in many populations, is widely studied in the context of global change, yet despite considerable efforts to identify environmental drivers of seabird nesting phenology, for most populations we lack evidence of strong drivers. Here we adopt an alternative approach, examining the degree to which different populations positively covary in their annual phenology to infer whether phenological responses to environmental drivers are likely to be (i) shared across...

Data from: Environmental filtering of macroinvertebrate traits influences ecosystem functioning in a large river floodplain

Natalie K. Rideout, Zacchaeus G. Compson, Wendy A. Monk, Meghann R. Bruce, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Teresita M. Porter, Michael T.G. Wright & Donald J. Baird
The Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function hypothesis postulates that higher biodiversity is correlated with faster ecosystem process rates and increased ecosystem stability in fluctuating environments. Exhibiting high spatio-temporal habitat diversity, floodplains are highly productive ecosystems, supporting communities that are naturally resilient and highly diverse. We examined linkages among floodplain wetland habitats, invertebrate communities and their associated traits, and ecosystem function across 60 sites within the floodplain wetlands of the lower Wolastoq | Saint John River, New Brunswick, using...

Data from: Opposing effects of mortality factors on progeny operational sex ratio may thwart adaptive manipulation of primary sex ratio

Gaétan Moreau, Eldon S. Eveleigh, Christopher J. Lucarotti, Benoit Morin & Dan T. Quiring
Despite extensive research on mechanisms generating biases in sex ratios, the capacity of natural enemies to shift or further skew operational sex ratios following sex allocation and parental care remains largely unstudied in natural populations. Male cocoons of the sawfly Neodiprion abietis (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) are consistently smaller than those of females, with very little overlap, and thus, we were able to use cocoon size to sex cocoons. We studied three consecutive cohorts of N. abietis...

Data from: Diet tracing in ecology: method comparison and selection

Jens M. Nielsen, Elizabeth L. Clare, Brian Hayden, Michael T. Brett & Pavel Kratina
1. Determining diet is a key prerequisite for understanding species interactions, food web structure and ecological dynamics. In recent years, there has been considerable development in both the methodology and application of novel and more traditional dietary tracing methods, yet there is no comprehensive synthesis that systematically and quantitatively compares among the different approaches. 2. Here we conceptualize diet tracing in ecology, provide recommendations for method selection, and illustrate the advantages of method integration. We...

Data from: Spatial dynamics and mixing of bluefin tuna in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea revealed using next generation sequencing

Gregory Neils Puncher, Alessia Cariani, Gregory E. Maes, Jeroen Van Houdt, Koen Herten, Rita Cannas, Naiara Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Aitor Albaina, M. Andone Estonba, Molly Lutcavage, Alex Hanke, Jay Rooker, James S. Franks, Joseph M. Quattro, Gualtiero Basilone, Igaratza Fraile, Urtzi Laconcha, Nicolas Goñi, Ai Kimoto, A. David Macías, Francisco Alemany, Simeon Deguara, Salem W. Zgozi, Fulvio Garibaldi, Isik K. Oray … & Fausto Tinti
The Atlantic bluefin tuna is a highly migratory species emblematic of the challenges associated with shared fisheries management. In an effort to resolve the species’ stock dynamics, a genome-wide search for spatially informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was undertaken, by way of sequencing reduced representation libraries. An allele frequency approach to SNP discovery was used, combining the data of 555 larvae and young-of-the-year (LYOY) into pools representing major geographical areas and mapping against a newly...

Variance in lifetime reproductive success of male polar bears

Evan Richardson, Corey Davis, Ian Stirling, Andrew Derocher, Nicholas Lunn & René Malenfant
Despite the important role that population density plays in ecological and evolutionary processes, studies of solitary species that occur at low densities remain scarce. In the context of mating systems, density is expected to influence the ability of males to find and monopolize mates, in turn influencing variance in lifetime mating/reproductive success and the opportunity for selection. Herein we investigate variance in male lifetime mating success, lifetime reproductive success, and the mating system of a...

Data from: High ambient temperatures induce aggregations of chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica) inside a roost

Melanie L. Farquhar, Annie Morin & Joseph J. Nocera
One proposed advantage of communal roosting in birds is a reduction in the costs of thermoregulation. As thermoregulatory benefits are directly linked to the distance between roosting birds, we examined whether temperature is related to inter‐bird spacing in roosting chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica). To test the hypothesis that huddling is used to reduce the costs of thermoregulation, we predicted that swifts would cluster more at colder temperatures. We mounted an all‐weather camera atop a 61...

Data from: Boreal tree growth exhibits decadal-scale ecological memory to drought and insect defoliation, but no negative response to their interaction

Malcolm S. Itter, L D'Orangeville, Andria Dawson, Daniel Kneeshaw, Louis Duchesne & Andrew O. Finley
1. Interactions between drought and insect defoliation may dramatically alter forest function under novel climate and disturbance regimes, but remain poorly understood. We empirically tested two important hypotheses regarding tree responses to drought and insect defoliation: 1) trees exhibit delayed, persistent, and cumulative growth responses to these stressors; 2) physiological feedbacks in tree responses to these stressors exacerbate their impacts on tree growth. These hypotheses remain largely untested at a landscape scale, yet are critical...

Data from: The International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) revisited: data availability and global ecological representativity

Shoudong Zhao, Neil Pederson, Loïc D'Orangeville, Janneke HilleRisLambers, Emery Boose, Caterina Penone, Bruce Bauer, Yuan Jiang & Rubén D. Manzanedo
Aim: The International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) is the most comprehensive database of tree growth. To evaluate its usefulness and improve its accessibility to the broad scientific community, we aimed to: i) quantify its biases, ii) assess how well it represents global forests, iii) develop tools to identify priority areas to improve its representativity, and iv) make available the corrected database. Location: Worldwide. Time period: Contributed datasets between 1974 and 2017. Major taxa studied: Trees....

The beautiful and the dammed: defining multi-stressor disturbance regimes in an Atlantic river floodplain wetland

Natalie K. Rideout, Zacchaeus G. Compson, Wendy A. Monk, Meghann R. Bruce & Donald J. Baird
Natural hydrological fluctuations within river floodplains generate habitat diversity through variable connections between habitat patches and the main river channel. Human modification of floodplains can alter the magnitude and frequency of large floods and associated sediment movement by interrupting these floodplain connections. The lower Wolastoq | Saint John River and its associated floodplain wetlands are experiencing anthropogenic disturbances arising from climate change, increased urbanization in the watershed, changing upstream agricultural landscape practices, and, most notably,...

Using semiochemicals to predict biotic resistance and facilitation of invading phytophagous insects

Rylee Isitt, Bjørn Økland, Paal Krokene, Jon Sweeney, Stephen Heard & Deepa Pureswaran
Invasive species are leading causes of biodiversity loss and economic damage. Allocating limited resources towards prevention and management of invasions requires risk assessments based on ecological knowledge for species of potential concern. Interactions of potentially invasive species with heterospecifics in a novel community will contribute to biotic resistance and facilitation experienced by the invader, and thus the likelihood of establishment. To experimentally predict heterospecific interactions, we conducted field experiments using synthetic aggregation-pheromone lures to measure...

Vital rate estimates for the common eider Somateria mollissima, a data-rich exemplar of the seaduck tribe

Alex Nicol-Harper, Kevin Wood, Antony Diamond, Heather Major, Aevar Petersen, Grigori Tertitski, C. Patrick Doncaster, Thomas Ezard & Geoff Hilton
This database contains estimates of the following vital rates (as required to parameterise matrix population models), for the common eider (Somateria mollissima): 1st year survival (measured either from hatching, or from fledging, to 1 year old); 2nd year survival; adult annual survival; first breeding (both age-specific recruitment probability, and breeding propensity across potential recruitment ages); breeding propensity of established female breeders; clutch size; hatching success; and fledging success. These estimates are drawn from 134 studies,...

Data from: Evidence for the introduction of the Asian red alga Neosiphonia japonica and its introgression with Neosiphonia harveyi (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Northwest Atlantic

Amanda M. Savoie & Gary W. Saunders
There is currently conflict in the literature on the taxonomic status of the reportedly cosmopolitan species Neosiphonia harveyi, a common red alga along the coast of Atlantic Canada and New England, USA. Neosiphonia harveyi sensu lato was assessed using three molecular markers: COI-5P, ITS and rbcL. All three markers clearly delimited three genetic species groups within N. harveyi sensu lato in this region, which we identified as N. harveyi, N. japonica and Polysiphonia akkeshiensis (here...

Data from: Mitigation of pollen limitation in the lowbush blueberry agroecosystem: effect of augmenting natural pollinators

Melissa Fulton, Linley K. Jesson, Kyle Bobiwash & Daniel J. Schoen
Growers of small fruit crops often supplement the natural pollinator community by introducing pollinators into commercial orchards and fields, but there are relatively few studies that test the extent to which such interventions increase fruit yield. To test whether plants are limited by pollen availability, inflorescences in 78 commercial lowbush blueberry fields during three years were hand-pollinated either with supplemental outcross pollen, or marked and left as controls (open-pollination). Maximum fruit set with supplemental pollination...

Data from: Bringing ecology blogging into the scientific fold: measuring reach and impact of science community blogs

Manu E. Saunders, Meghan A. Duffy, Stephen B. Heard, Margaret Kosmala, Simon R. Leather, Terrence P. McGlynn, Jeff Ollerton & Amy L. Parachnowitsch
The popularity of science blogging has increased in recent years, but the number of academic scientists who maintain regular blogs is limited. The role and impact of science communication blogs aimed at general audiences is often discussed, but the value of science community blogs aimed at the academic community has largely been overlooked. Here, we focus on our own experiences as bloggers to argue that science community blogs are valuable to the academic community. We...

Data from: Historical human activities reshape evolutionary trajectories across both native and introduced ranges

Anthony Einfeldt
The same vectors that introduce species to new ranges could move them among native populations, but how human‐mediated dispersal impacts native ranges has been difficult to address because human‐mediated dispersal and natural dispersal can simultaneously shape patterns of gene flow. Here, we disentangle human‐mediated dispersal from natural dispersal by exploiting a system where the primary vector was once extensive but has since ceased. From 10th to 19th Centuries, ships in the North Atlantic exchanged sediments...

VERA: VERtical coupling in Earth’s Atmosphere at mid and high latitudes. Final Report

Yosuke Yamazaki, Claudia Stolle, Tarique Adnan Siddiqui, Jan Lastovicka, Zbysek Mosna, Michal Kozubek, William Ward, David Themens & Samuel Kristoffersen

Global biogeography and diversification of a group of brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae) driven by clade-specific evolutionary processes

Christophe Vieira, Frederique Steen, Sofie D'hondt, Quinten Bafort, Cindy Fernandez-García, Brian Wysor, Lennert Tyberghein, Ana Tronholm, Lydiane Mattio, Claude Payri, Gary Saunders, Frederik Leliaert, Heroen Verbruggen & Olivier De Clerck
Aim: Historical processes that shaped current diversity patterns of seaweeds remain poorly understood. Using Dictyotales, a globally distributed order of brown seaweeds as a model, we test if historical biogeographical and diversification patterns are comparable across clades. Dictyotales contain some 22 genera, three of which, Dictyota, Lobophora and Padina, are exceptionally diverse. Specifically we test if the evolutionary processes in these clades that shaped their latitudinal diversity patterns are in line with the tropical conservatism,...

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