22 Works

Ecological and evolutionary drivers of hemoplasma infection and genotype sharing in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Alexis Brown, Alex Washburne, Brock Fenton, Sonia Altizer, Daniel Streicker, Raina Plowright, Vladimir Chizhikov, Nancy Simmons & Dmitriy Volokhov
Most emerging pathogens can infect multiple species, underscoring the importance of understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that allow some hosts to harbor greater infection prevalence and share pathogens with other species. However, our understanding of pathogen jumps is primarily based around viruses, despite bacteria accounting for the greatest proportion of zoonoses. Because bacterial pathogens in bats (Order: Chiroptera) can have conservation and human health consequences, studies that examine the ecological and evolutionary drivers of...

Uncovering structural features that underlie coexistence in an invaded woody plant community with interaction networks at multiple life stages

Nicole Kinlock
Understanding the patterns of competitive and facilitative interactions within and among species in plant communities is a central goal of plant ecology, because these patterns determine species coexistence and community dynamics. Network theory provides tools that allow these patterns to be quantified, and can provide greater understanding of important community properties, including community stability, than can documenting pairwise species interactions. I characterized the interactions of multiple, co-occurring invasive and native species in an old field...

Reproductive hormones mediate changes in the gut microbiome during pregnancy and lactation in Phayre’s leaf monkeys

Elizabeth Mallott, Carola Borries, Andreas Koenig, Amy Lu & Katherine R. Amato
Studies in multiple host species have shown that gut microbial diversity and composition change during pregnancy and lactation. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these shifts are not well understood. Here, we use longitudinal data from wild Phayre’s leaf monkeys to test the hypothesis that fluctuations in reproductive hormone concentrations contribute to gut microbial shifts during pregnancy. We described the microbial taxonomic composition of 91 fecal samples from 15 females (n=16 cycling, n=36 pregnant, n=39 lactating)...

Foraging shifts and visual preadaptation in ecologically diverse bats

Kalina T. J. Davies, Laurel R. Yohe, Jesus Almonte, Miluska K. R. Sánchez, Edgardo M. Rengifo, Elizabeth R. Dumont, Karen E. Sears, Liliana M. Dávalos & Stephen J. Rossiter
Changes in behaviour may initiate shifts to new adaptive zones, with physical adaptations for novel environments evolving later. While new mutations are commonly considered engines of adaptive change, sensory evolution enabling access to new resources might also arise from standing genetic diversity, and even gene loss. We examine the relative contribution of molecular adaptations, measured by positive and relaxed selection, acting on eye expressed genes associated with shifts to new adaptive zones in ecologically diverse...

Language and Hermeneutics

Don Ihde
This essay for the inaugural issue of Technology and Language builds on the author’s longstanding commitments and forthcoming book on Material Hermeneutics. These concern the technological revolutions in imaging technologies which created the ways for material things to "speak", as in visualism and its expansion. Science though its instruments changed perception – but in different ways at different times. Early Modern Science began in the 17th century in an instrumentally optical or "visualist" mode with...

Fraternal Leadership: Differences in Leadership Practices Among Four Governing Councils

Anthony DiChara

Tier-Based Strictly Local Stringsets: Perspectives from Model and Automata Theory

Dakotah Lambert & James Rodgers

Data from: Evaluating the target‐tracking performance of scanning avian radars by augmenting data with simulated echoes

Samuel Urmy & Joseph Warren
1. Small scanning radars have been used for many years to track the movements of insects, birds, and bats. While the ability to track multiple flying animals simultaneously has numerous applications in basic ecology and applied conservation, translating radar tracks into accurate animal densities and fluxes requires estimates of detection and tracking probabilities. These can be challenging to determine, especially in environments with variable background clutter. 2. In order to assess radar tracking probabilities, we...

Data from: Late Cretaceous bird from Madagascar reveals unique development of beaks

Patrick O'Connor, Alan Turner, Joseph Groenke, Ryan Felice, Raymond Rogers, David Krause & Lydia Rahantarisoa
Mesozoic birds display considerable diversity in size, flight adaptations and feather organization, but exhibit relatively conserved patterns of beak shape and development. Although Neornithine (that is, crown group) birds also exhibit constraint on facial development, they have comparatively diverse beak morphologies associated with a range of feeding and behavioural ecologies, in contrast to Mesozoic birds. Here we describe a crow-sized stem bird, Falcatakely forsterae gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous epoch of Madagascar...

Gibbon genome (Nleu3.0) custom gene annotation file

Mariam Okhovat, Kimberly A. Nevonen, Brett A. Davis, Pryce Michener, Samantha Ward, Mark Milhaven, Lana Harshman, Ajuni Sohota, Jason D. Fernandes, Sofie R. Salama, Rachel J. O'Neill, Nadav Ahituv, Krishna R. Veeramah & Lucia Carbone
Co-option of transposable elements (TEs) to become part of existing or new enhancers is an important mechanism for evolution of gene regulation. However, contributions of lineage-specific TE insertions to recent regulatory adaptations remain poorly understood. Gibbons present a suitable model to study these contributions as they have evolved a lineage-specific TE called LAVA, which is still active in the gibbon genome. The LAVA retrotransposon is thought to have played a role in the emergence of...

Multi-city street-sidewalk imagery from pedestrian mobile cameras

Shubham Jain
We present TerraFirma, a multi-city dataset which captures street and sidewalk imagery from the pedestrians' perspective. Motivated by challenges in the realm of pedestrian safety, we present a diverse and extensive dataset that provides a foundation for the design and validation of pedestrian safety systems that rely on street-sidewalk imagery. The data was collected by 9 volunteers in 4 metropolitan cities across the world. Volunteers carried mobile cameras or smartphones in a texting position, such...

Disentangling interactions among mercury, immunity, and infection in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Jennifer Korstian, Dmitriy Volokhov, Hannah Droke, Alexis Brown, Catherene Baijnauth, Ticha Padgett-Stewart, Hugh Broders, Raina Plowright, Thomas Rainwater, Brock Fenton, Nancy Simmons & Matthew Chumchal
Contaminants such as mercury are pervasive and can have immunosuppressive effects on wildlife. Impaired immunity could be important for forecasting pathogen spillover risks, as many land-use changes that generate mercury contamination also bring wildlife into close contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the interactions among contaminants, immunity, and infection are difficult to study in natural systems, and empirical tests of possible directional relationships remain rare. We capitalized on extreme mercury variation in a diverse...

Resources for gasAcu1-4, a new stickleback reference genome

Garrett Roberts Kingman, Heidi Chen, David Kingsley, Deven Vyas, Krishna Veeramah, Felicity Jones & Mike Bell
gasAcu1-4 is a new version of the stickleback reference genome. It only minorly differs from the 2017 Hi-C guided assembly by Peichel, Sullivan, Liachko, and White (https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esx058) to improve the subtelomeric Pitx1 locus and the mitochondrial genome. We here present basic resources for utilizing this version of the reference genome: the fasta sequence of the assembly and liftOver chains for converting coordinates between this reference version and the original (Broad S1) gasAcu1 assembly (https://www.nature.com/articles/nature10944). This...

Supporting data to: Evolution of realized Eltonian niches across Rajidae species

Oliver Shipley, Joseph Kelly, Joseph Bizzarro, Jill Olin, Robert Cerrato, Michael Power & Michael Frisk
The notion that closely related species resemble each other in ecological niche space (i.e., phylogenetic dependence) has been a longstanding, contentious paradigm in evolutionary biology, the incidence of which is important for predicting the ecosystem-level effects of species loss. Despite being examined across a multitude of terrestrial taxa, many aspects of niche conservatism have yet to be explored in marine species, especially for characteristics related to resource use and trophic behavior (Eltonian niche characteristics, ENCs)....

The allometry of daily energy expenditure in hummingbirds: an energy budget approach

Anusha Shankar, Donald R Powers, Liliana M Dávalos & Catherine H Graham
1. Within-clade allometric relationships represent standard laws of scaling between energy and size, and their outliers provide new avenues for physiological and ecological research. According to the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, metabolic rates as a function of mass are expected to scale closer to 0.67 when driven by surface-related processes (e.g., heat or water flux), while volume-related processes (e.g., activity) generate slopes closer to one. 2. In birds, daily energy expenditure (DEE) scales with body...

Data from: Large-scale assessment of intra- and inter-annual breeding success using a remote camera network

Casey Youngflesh, Fiona M. Jones, Heather J. Lynch, Joan Arthur, Zuzana Ročkaiová, Holly R. Torsey & Tom Hart
Changes in the physical environment along the Antarctic Peninsula have been among the most rapid anywhere on the planet. In concert with environmental change, the potential for direct human disturbance resulting from tourism, scientific programs, and commercial fisheries continues to rise in the region. While seabirds, such as the gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua, are commonly used to assess the impact of these disturbances on natural systems, research efforts are often hampered by limited spatial coverage...

Probing RNN Encoder-Decoder Generalization of Subregular Functions using Reduplication

Max Nelson, Hossep Dolatian, Jonathan Rawski & Brandon Prickett

Data from: Inbreeding shapes the evolution of marine invertebrates

Kevin Olsen, Will Ryan, Alice Winn, Ellen Kosman, Jose Moscoso, Stacy Krueger-Hadfield, Scott Burgess, David Carlon, Richard Grosberg, Susan Kalisz & Don Levitan
Inbreeding is a potent evolutionary force shaping the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations of plants and animals. Yet, our understanding of the forces shaping the expression and evolution of non-random mating in general, and inbreeding in particular, remains remarkably incomplete. Most research on plant mating systems focuses on self-fertilization and its consequences for automatic selection, inbreeding depression, purging, and reproductive assurance, whereas studies of animal mating systems have often assumed that inbreeding...

Hummingbird torpor in context: duration, more than temperature, is the key to nighttime energy savings

Anusha Shankar, Rebecca J. Schroeder, Susan M. Wethington, Catherine H. Graham & Donald R. Powers
Torpor is an important energy saving strategy in some small birds, but it has rarely been studied in natural field conditions. We compared torpor use across 43 wild-caught individuals of eight hummingbird species across sites with different natural temperature regimes. Most laboratory studies focus on the relationship between metabolic rate and temperature, but our aim was to evaluate what environmental factors most influence hummingbird nighttime energy management under natural conditions. We found that the probability...

Data from: Redescription and phylogenetic affinities of the caimanine Eocaiman cavernensis (Crocodylia, Alligatoroidea) from the Eocene of Argentina

Pedro L. Godoy, Giovanne Cidade, Felipe Montefeltro, Max Langer & Mark Norell
Caimaninae is one of the few crocodylian lineages that still has living representatives. Today, most of its six extant species are restricted to South and Central America. However, recent discoveries revealed a more complex evolutionary history, with a fossil record richer than previously thought and a possible North American origin. Among the oldest caimanines is Eocaiman cavernensis, from the Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina. It was described by George G. Simpson in the 1930s, representing the...

Data from: Live-cell single particle imaging reveals the role of RNA polymerase II in histone H2A.Z eviction

Anand Ranjan, Vu Q. Nguyen, Sheng Liu, Jan Wisniewski, Kim Jee Min, Xiaona Tang, Gaku Mizuguchi, Vivian Jou, Timothy J. Nickels, Brian P. English, Qinsi Zheng, Ed Luk, Timothee Lionnet, Luke D. Lavis, Carl Wu & Ejlal Elalaoui
The H2A.Z histone variant, a genome-wide hallmark of permissive chromatin, is enriched near transcription start sites in all eukaryotes. H2A.Z is deposited by the SWR1 chromatin remodeler and evicted by unclear mechanisms. We tracked H2A.Z in living yeast at single-molecule resolution, and found that H2A.Z eviction is dependent on RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) and the Kin28/Cdk7 kinase, which phosphorylates Serine 5 of heptapeptide repeats on the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit...

Curbing Feature Coding: Strictly Local Feature Assignment

Thomas Graf

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • Stony Brook University
  • American Museum of Natural History
  • George Fox University
  • University of Waterloo
  • Western University
  • Indiana University Bloomington
  • Montana State University
  • University of Sao Paulo
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • Northwestern University