88 Works

An Armour of Sound. ‘Sancte Sator’ (‘Carmen ad Deum’) and its German Gloss

Sophie Marshall
Das lateinische Reimgebet Sancte sator / Carmen ad deum steht in der frühmittelalterlichen Tradition der loricae; in der Handschrift clm 19410 (BSB München) aus dem 9. Jahrhundert wird es von einer althochdeutschen Glosse begleitet. Der Aufsatz fragt nach unterschiedlichen Dimensionen von Materialität, die für die Gattung der loricae und im Besonderen für Sancte sator zentral sind; es lässt sich zeigen, dass die Glosse auf diese physischen Aspekte Bezug nimmt und reagiert. Wesentlich sind die grundlegende...

Text as Thing. The Dog Lead in Albrecht’s ‘Jüngerer Titurel’

Tamara Elsner
Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit der Hundeleine (Brackenseil) in Albrechts Jüngerem Titurel und untersucht die Beziehung zwischen ihren spezifischen materiellen Eigenschaften und den Figurenhandlungen. Die Eigenschaften des Brackenseils führen zu verschiedenen Ebenen von Dinglichkeit (thingness), die mit dem Verlauf der Handlung zusammenhängen: Erstens ist das Brackenseil als Hundeleine ein Alltagsgegenstand, der einen Hund am Weglaufen hindert. Es ist etwas Einschränkendes, das Bewegungen führt und daher ein Instrument zur Machtausübung ist. Diese handlungsleitende Eigenschaft ist im...

Konzept für den digitalen Ausbau der typologisch-vergleichenden Märchenforschung

Elguja Dadunashvili
Im Zentrum dieses Beitrags stehen die Präsentation und Diskussion der Konzeptionierung einer XML-Datenbank für Volksmärchen (erweiterbar auf andere populäre Erzählgattungen) sowie der dazu benötigten digitalen Infrastruktur. Der Zweck ist eine weltweite Systematisierung der Archivmaterialien durch eine geeignete Datenbank und die Ausarbeitung eines Content-Annotationsstandards (ConAS) für die typologisch-vergleichende Analyse der internationalen Märchen.

Data from: An integrative phylogenomic approach illuminates the evolutionary history of cockroaches and termites (Blattodea)

Dominic A. Evangelista, Benjamin Wipfler, Olivier Béthoux, Alexander Donath, Mari Fujita, Manpreet K. Kohli, Frédéric Legendre, Shanlin Liu, Ryuichiro Machida, Berhard Misof, Ralph Peters, Lars Podsiadlowski, Jes Rust, Kai Schuette, Ward Tollenaar, Jessica L. Ware, Torsten Wappler, Xin Zhou, Karen Meusemann & Sabrina Simon
READMEREADME of Supplementary Archives and included files of Evangelista et al. 2019Evangelista_et_al_README_DRYAD.pdfSupplementary Archive 1Files included in Supplementary Archive 1, see Evangelista_et_al_README_DRYAD.pdfSupplementary_Archive_1.zipSupplementary Archive 2Files included in Supplementary Archive 2, see Evangelista_et_al_README_DRYAD.pdfSupplementary_Archive_2.zip

Data from: Association mapping of morphological traits in wild and captive zebra finches: reliable within but not between populations

Ulrich Knief, Holger Schielzeth, Niclas Backstrom, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak, Michael Wittig, Andre Franke, Simon C. Griffith, Hans Ellegren, Bart Kempenaers & Wolfgang Forstmeier
Identifying causal genetic variants underlying heritable phenotypic variation is a longstanding goal in evolutionary genetics. We previously identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for five morphological traits in a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by whole-genome linkage mapping. We here follow up on these studies with the aim to narrow down on the quantitative trait variants (QTN) in one wild and three captive populations. First, we performed an association study using 672 single...

Data from: Forests as promoters of terrestrial life history strategies in East African amphibians

Hendrik Müller, Michele Menegon, Jan Beck, Liliana Ballesteros-Mejia, Peter Nagel, Simon P. Loader & H. Christoph Liedtke
Many amphibian lineages show terrestrialization of their reproductive strategy and breeding is partially or completely independent of water. A number of causal factors have been proposed for the evolution of terrestrialized breeding. While predation has received repeated attention as a potential factor, the influence of others such as habitat has never been tested using appropriate data or methods. Using a dataset that comprises 180 amphibian species from various East African habitats, we tested whether species...

Data from: No ecological opportunity signal on a continental scale? Diversification and life-history evolution of African true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)

H. Christoph Liedtke, Hendrik Müller, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Michele Menegon, LeGrand Nono Gonwouo, Michael F. Barej, Václav Gvoždík, Andreas Schmitz, Alan Channing, Peter Nagel & Simon P. Loader
The niche-filling process predicted by the “ecological opportunity” (EO) model is an often-invoked mechanism for generating exceptional diversity in island colonizers. Whether the same process governs lineage accumulation and trait disparity during continental colonization events is less clear. Here, we test this prediction by investigating the rate dynamics and trait evolution of one of Africa's most widespread amphibian colonizers, the true toads (Bufonidae). By reconstructing the most complete molecular phylogeny of African Bufonidae to date,...

Data from: Metabarcoding and metabolome analyses of copepod grazing reveal feeding preference and linkage to metabolite classes in dynamic microbial plankton communities

Jessica L. Ray, Julia Althammer, Katrine S. Skaar, Paolo Simonelli, Aud Larsen, Diane Stoecker, Andrey Sazhin, Umer Z. Ijaz, Christopher Quince, Jens C. Nejstgaard, Marc Frischer, Georg Pohnert & Christofer Troedsson
In order to characterize copepod feeding in relation to microbial plankton community dynamics, we combined metabarcoding and metabolome analyses during a 22-day seawater mesocosm experiment. Nutrient amendment of mesocosms promoted the development of haptophyte (Phaeocystis pouchetii)- and diatom (Skeletonema marinoi)-dominated plankton communities in mesocosms, in which Calanus sp. copepods were incubated for 24 h in flow-through chambers to allow access to prey particles (<500 μm). Copepods and mesocosm water sampled six times spanning the experiment...

Data from: Moth assemblages in Costa Rica rain forest mirror small‐scale topographic heterogeneity

Dominik Rabl, Brigitte Gottsberger, Gunnar Brehm, Florian Hofhansl & Konrad Fiedler
In many tropical lowland rainforests, topographic variation increases environmental heterogeneity thus contributing to the extraordinary biodiversity of tropical lowland forests. While a growing number of studies have addressed effects of topographic differences on tropical insect communities at regional scales (e.g., along extensive elevational gradients), surprisingly little is known about topographic effects at smaller spatial scales. The present study investigates moth assemblages in a topographically heterogeneous lowland rainforest landscape, at distances of less than a few...

Data from: Plant intraspecific functional trait variation is related to within-habitat heterogeneity and genetic diversity in Trifolium montanum L.

Kevin Karbstein, Kathleen Prinz, Frank Hellwig & Christine Römermann
Intraspecific trait variation (ITV), based on available genetic diversity, is one of the major means plant populations can respond to environmental variability. The study of functional trait variation and diversity has become popular in ecological research, e.g. as a proxy for plant performance influencing fitness. Up to now, it is unclear which aspects of intraspecific functional trait variation (iFDCV) can be attributed to the environment or genetics under natural conditions. Here, we examined 260 individuals...

Foliar summer frost resistance measured via electrolyte leakage approach as related to plant distribution, community composition and performance

Solveig Franziska Bucher & Sergey Rosbakh
1. Frost resistance (FR) is a fundamental process determining various aspects of plant life. Measurements of FR remain challenging as existing methods are time- and labour-intensive. 2. Here, we test the applicability of foliar summer FR measured via the ‘electrolyte leakage’ approach (FRPEL), a simple and inexpensive technique so far underused in ecological research to estimate FR. We tested the ability of this trait to predict i) species occurrence, ii) community composition along an elevational...

Annual occupancy estimates for butterflies, grasshoppers and dragonflies in Bavaria (Germany), 1980-2019

Eva Katharina Engelhardt, Matthias F. Biber, Matthias Dolek, Thomas Fartmann, Axel Hochkirch, Jan Leidinger, Franz Löffler, Stefan Pinkert, Dominik Poniatowski, Johannes Voith, Michael Winterholler, Dirk Zeuss, Diana E. Bowler & Christian Hof
Recent climate and land-use changes are having substantial impacts on biodiversity, including population declines, range shifts, and changes in community composition. However, few studies have compared these impacts among multiple taxa, particularly because of a lack of standardized time series data over long periods. Existing datasets are typically of low resolution or poor coverage, both spatially and temporally, thereby limiting the inferences that can be drawn from such studies. Here, we compare climate and land-use...

Effects of large herbivores on fire regimes and wildfire mitigation

Julia Rouet-Leduc, Guy Pe'er, Francisco Moreira, Aletta Bonn, Wouter Helmer, S. Alain Aidan Shahsavan Zadeh, Alexander Zizka & Fons Van Der Plas
1. Abandonment of agricultural land is widespread in many parts of the world, leading to shrub and tree encroachment. The increase of flammable plant biomass, i.e. fuel load, increases the risk and intensity of wildfires. Fuel reduction by herbivores is a promising management strategy to avoid fuel build-up and mitigate wildfires. However, their effectiveness in mitigating wildfire damage may depend on a range of factors, including herbivore type, population density and feeding patterns. 2. Here...

Data from: Evidence for morph-specific substrate choice in a green-brown polymorphic grasshopper

Pauline Heinze, Petra Dieker, Hannah Rowland & Holger Schielzeth
Orthopteran insects are characterized by high variability in body coloration, in particular featuring a widespread green-brown color polymorphism. The mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of this apparently balanced polymorphism are not yet understood. To investigate whether morph-dependent microhabitat choice might contribute to the continued coexistence of multiple morphs, we studied substrate choice in the meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus. The meadow grasshopper occurs in multiple discrete, genetically determined color morphs that range from uniform brown...

Stromatolitic microorganisms in and on top of fluid-escape structures of the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group

Sebastian Reimann , Christoph Heubeck , Martin Homann , Deon Johannes Janse van Rensburg & Michael Wiedenbeck
The global record of early life is only poorly preserved, but has an ark in the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa and Eswatini. It preserves silicified photosynthetic and sulfate-reducing metabolic signatures in sandstone-dominated, terrestrial to shallow-marine strata. Large fluid-escape structures are common in thick-bedded kerogen-laminated sandstones of (sub-)tidal facies. We document and interpret silicified, massive and laminated carbonate aggregates and beds, both of likely microbial origin, within and on...

Ordnung ins Chaos. Digitale Netzwerkanalyse am Beispiel von Galberts von Brügge De multro, traditione, et occisione gloriosi Karoli, comitis Flandriarum

Clemens Beck & Markus Krumm
Gesammelte Beiträge von Masterstudierenden der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München aus der Übung „Ordnung ins Chaos – Digitale Netzwerkanalyse am Beispiel mittelalterlicher Geschichtsschreibung“, zusammengestellt und betreut von den Übungsleitern Clemens Beck und Dr. Markus Krumm.

Long-term (1901-2017) phenology data of 20 forest understory herbs in Europe, collected from herbaria and GBIF, used in: \"Forest wildflowers bloom earlier as Europe warms: Lessons from herbaria and spatial modeling\", New Phytologist

Franziska Merle Willems
Today plants often flower earlier due to climate warming, and the collection dates of herbarium specimens can provide proof of this.
To test for such fingerprints of climate change in Europe, we compiled a long-term (1901-2017) dataset from 6131 herbarium specimens of 20 early-flowering European forest understory herbs. The data were collected in the herbaria of Jena (JE), Stuttgart (STU) and Tübingen (TUB), and were complemented with herbarium data from the database GBIF.
The final data file...

Zwischen dem Recht, der Analyse und dem Kampf : Über die Polyvalenz des Privilegs

Tobias Braun
Um die wissenschaftliche Nützlichkeit des Konzeptes der Privilegien taxieren zu können, bietet sich die Distinktion in die Kategorien des Rechts, der Analyse und des Kampfs an. Wie die Verwendung des Begriffs im Sinne eines kodifizierten Rechtsinstituts zwischen einem semantischen Fundus und einer genuinen Funktion politischer Ordnung alterniert, so vermischen sich in der Analyse der Formen sozialer Privilegierung und Diskriminierung Referenzen von Normativität und Faktizität. Als Kampfbegriff kann das Privileg indes als diskursive Figur öffentlicher Debatten...

Mineralogical responses to 9-years of interaction of a CO2-charged brine with a sandstone aquifer: Observations from the Ketzin CO2-storage pilot site (Germany)

Hans-Jürgen Förster, Franziska Wilke, Susanne Bock, Darleen Eisner & Andrea Förster
This report compiles observations made within a time frame of two months on 24 representative thin-section samples representing the periods before and after 4- and 9-years of injection of CO2 into the reservoir. Given this short period of time until completion of this report, some observations and conclusions drawn have to be judged preliminary. Further analytical work and in-depth interpretation of the results are underway. Information provided for the period 0–4 years after CO2 injection...

Eco-evolutionary dynamics modulate plant responses to global change depending on plant diversity and species identity

Peter Dietrich, Jens Schumacher, Nico Eisenhauer & Christiane Roscher
Global change has dramatic impacts on grassland diversity. However, little is known about how fast species can adapt to these changes and how this affects their responses to global change. To close this gap, we performed a common garden experiment testing whether plant responses to global change are influenced by the selection history of the plants and the conditioning history of soil at different levels of plant diversity. Therefore, we collected seeds and took soil...

Data from: An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola)

Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Bernhard Misof, Karen Meusemann, Doria Lieberz, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Böhm, Shanlin Liu, Paschalia Kapli, Carola Greve, James E. Jepson, Xingyue Liu, Xin Zhou, Horst Aspöck & Ulrike Aspöck
Background The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has been extensively studied, but no strong consensus exists concerning the phylogenetic relationships within the order Neuroptera, and the timeline of diversification of thelineages of Neuropterida. Here, we assembled a novel transcriptomic dataset to address previously unresolved issues in the phylogeny of Neuropterida and to...

The timing of leaf senescence relates to flowering phenology and functional traits in 17 herbaceous species along elevational gradients

Solveig Franziska Bucher & Christine Römermann
1. Leaf senescence is a major event in a plant’s life history as autumn marks the end of the growing season. The optimal timing of leaf senescence is crucial to both, minimize risks of low temperature events and maximize carbon gain during the growing season. As abiotic conditions are currently changing at unprecedented rates, it is important to study how leaf senescence of different species is responding to these changes in order to forecast future...

Data from: Stay at home aphids: comparative spatial and seasonal metapopulation structure and dynamics of two specialist tansy aphid species studied using microsatellite markers

Hugh D. Loxdale, Gerhard Schöfl, Kerstin R. Wiesner, Franklin N. Nyabuga, David G. Heckel & Wolfgang W. Weisser
Two tansy-feeding aphids – Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria (MA) and Metopeurum fuscoviride (ME) – were studied at a small spatial scale in and around Jena (< 80 km2) using polymorphic microsatellite markers. Both species were found in ~ 60% of sites formerly known to harbour the aphids, although generally when they did occur, they occurred singly (MA ~ 50%; ME ~60%) and rarely together on the same plant at the same time (~10%) and then usually only...

Data from: Whole-genome patterns of linkage disequilibrium across flycatcher populations clarify the causes and consequences of fine-scale recombination rate variation in birds

Takeshi Kawakami, Carina F. Mugal, Alexander Suh, Alexander Nater, Reto Burri, Linnea Smeds & Hans Ellegren
Recombination rate is heterogeneous across the genome of various species, and so are genetic diversity and differentiation as a consequence of linked selection. However, we still lack a clear picture of the underlying mechanisms for regulating recombination. Here we estimated fine-scale population recombination rate based on the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genomes of multiple populations of two closely related flycatcher species (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca). This revealed an overall conservation of...

Data from: Lack of evidence for selection favouring MHC haplotypes that combine high functional diversity

Arnaud Gaigher, Alexandre Roulin, Walid H. Gharib, Pierre Taberlet, Reto Burri & Luca Fumagalli
High rates of gene duplication and the highest levels of functional allelic diversity in vertebrate genomes are the main hallmarks of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a multigene family with a primordial role in pathogen recognition. The usual tight linkage among MHC gene duplicates may provide an opportunity for the evolution of haplotypes that associate functionally divergent alleles and thus grant the transmission of optimal levels of diversity to coming generations. Even though such associations...

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