95 Works

Data from: Lack of evidence for selection favouring MHC haplotypes that combine high functional diversity

Arnaud Gaigher, Alexandre Roulin, Walid H. Gharib, Pierre Taberlet, Reto Burri & Luca Fumagalli
High rates of gene duplication and the highest levels of functional allelic diversity in vertebrate genomes are the main hallmarks of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a multigene family with a primordial role in pathogen recognition. The usual tight linkage among MHC gene duplicates may provide an opportunity for the evolution of haplotypes that associate functionally divergent alleles and thus grant the transmission of optimal levels of diversity to coming generations. Even though such associations...

Data from: Effects of management on aquatic tree-hole communities in temperate forests are mediated by detritus amount and water chemistry

Martin M. Gossner, Peggy Lade, Anja Rohland, Nora Sichardt, Tiemo Kahl, Jürgen Bauhus, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Jana S. Petermann
1. Arthropod communities in water-filled tree-holes may be sensitive to impacts of forest management, for example via changes in environmental conditions such as resource input. 2. We hypothesized that increasing forest management intensity negatively affects arthropod abundance and richness and shifts community composition and trophic structure of tree-hole communities. We predicted that this shift is caused by reduced habitat and resource availability at the forest stand scale as well as reduced tree-hole size, detritus amount...

Data from: Morphological and colour morph clines along an altitudinal gradient in the meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus

Günter Köhler, Jörg Samietz & Holger Schielzeth
Many animals show altitudinal clines in size, shape and body colour. Increases in body size and reduction in the length of body appendices in colder habitats are usually attributed to improved heat conservation at lower surface-to-volume ratios (known as Bergmann's and Allen's rule, respectively). However, the patterns are more variable and sometimes reversed in small ectotherms that are affected by shortened growing seasons. Altitude can also affect colouration. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts darker colours...

Data from: Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates

Malte Jochum, Andrew D. Barnes, Patrick Weigelt, David Ott, Katja Rembold, Achmad Farajallah & Ulrich Brose
1. The high biodiversity and biomass of soil communities is crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality, and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. 2. Using...

Data from: Trait means, trait plasticity and trait differences to other species jointly explain species performances in grasslands of varying diversity

Christiane Roscher, Marlén Gubsch, Annett Lipowsky, Jens Schumacher, Alexandra Weigelt, Nina Buchmann, Ernst-Detlef Schulze & Bernhard Schmid
Functional traits may help to explain the great variety of species performances in plant communities, but it is not clear whether the magnitude of trait values of a focal species or trait differences to co-occurring species are key for trait-based predictions. In addition, trait expression within species is often plastic, but this variation has been widely neglected in trait-based analyses. We studied functional traits and plant biomass of 59 species in 66 experimental grassland mixtures...

Data from: Less is more: selective advantages can explain the prevalent loss of biosynthetic genes in bacteria

Glen D’Souza, Silvio Waschina, Samay Pande, Katrin Bohl, Christoph Kaleta, Christian Kost & Glen D'Souza
Bacteria that have adapted to nutrient-rich, stable environments are typically characterized by reduced genomes. The loss of biosynthetic genes frequently renders these lineages auxotroph, hinging their survival on an environmental uptake of certain metabolites. The evolutionary forces that drive this genome degradation, however, remain elusive. Our analysis of 949 metabolic networks revealed auxotrophies are likely highly prevalent in both symbiotic and free-living bacteria. To unravel whether selective advantages can account for the rampant loss of...

Data from: The impact of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on regional biodiversity of multiple taxa in European beech forests

Peter Schall, Martin M. Gossner, Steffi Heinrichs, Markus Fischer, Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Kirsten Jung, Vanessa Baumgartner, Stefan Blaser, Stefan Böhm, Francois Buscot, Rolf Daniel, Kezia Goldmann, Kirstin Kaiser, Tiemo Kahl, Markus Lange, Jörg Müller, Jörg Overmann, Swen C. Renner, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Johannes Sikorski, Marco Tschapka, Manfred Türke, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Bernd Wemheuer … & Kristin Kaiser
For managed temperate forests, conservationists and policymakers favour fine-grained uneven-aged management over more traditional coarse-grained even-aged management, based on the assumption that within-stand habitat heterogeneity enhances biodiversity. There is, however, little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We investigated for the first time how differently grained forest management systems affect the biodiversity of multiple above- and below-ground taxa across spatial scales. We sampled 15 taxa of animals, plants, fungi and bacteria within the largest contiguous...

The Zagros Mountain Front Flexure in Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Structural style and Late Pleistocene-Holocene Fault Slip Rates Derived from Structural Modeling and Luminescence Dating of River Terraces

Mjahid Zebari , Frank Preusser , Christoph Grützner , Payman Navabpour & Kamil Ustaszewski
The Zagros Mountain Front Flexure (MFF) makes a prominent topographic and structural step along the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt that accommodates a significant amount of shortening between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. Here, the structural style below the MFF in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq was reconstructed using balanced cross-sections and forward modeling, and Late Pleistocene-Holocene fault-slip rates were calculated across several structures using luminescence dating of river terraces along the Greater Zab River. A balanced...

Exposition gegenüber SARS-CoV-2 bei medizinischem Fachpersonal in der ambulanten Versorgung

Jörg Bätzing, Joachim Heuer, Urs Dieter Kuhn, Anke Möckel, Manas K. Akmatov, Florian Wolf, Jutta Bleidorn, André Scherag & Thomas Schröter
Schlüsselwörter: Antikörpertest, Arztpraxen, COVID-19, COVID-PraxImmun, ELISA, Exposition, Kohortenstudie, medizinisches Fachpersonal, SARS-CoV-2, Schnelltest, Serologie, Serostatus, Thüringen, Vertragsarztpraxen

Soil fungal (ITS) communities from 10 grassland plots in Germany (2015-2018; Illumina MiSeq) - OTU abundances (subset of dataset 25026)

Anna Abrahão & Ali Nawaz
Cooperation between the BE projects SADE, Scalemic, Microorganisms (core): Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) underlying grassland plant richness and productivity are typically coupled with nutrient availability; however, we lack understanding of how restoration measures to increase plant diversity might affect PSFs. We examined the roles of sward disturbance, seed addition and land-use intensity (LUI) on PSFs. We conducted a disturbance and seed addition experiment in ten grasslands along a LUI gradient and characterized plant biomass and richness,...

Data and code from: Functional rarity of plants in German hay meadows - patterns on the species level and mismatches with community species richness

Gabriel Walther, Ute Jandt, Jens Kattge & Christine Römermann
Functional rarity (FR) - a feature combining a species’ rarity with the distinctiveness of its traits - represents a promising tool to better understand the ecological importance of rare species and consequently to protect functional diversity more efficiently. Yet, we lack a systematic understanding of FR on both the species level (which species are functionally rare and why) and the community level (how is FR associated with biodiversity and environmental conditions). Here, we quantify FR...

Innovative Gründer:innen mit Migrationserfahrung in Deutschland

Susann Schäfer
Innovationen sind die Grundlage für wirtschaftlich-technologische Wettbewerbsfähigkeit – und zugleich ein wichtiger Schlüssel zu gesellschaftlichem Fortschritt. Folglich ist es im Sinne eines dynamischen und zukunftsorientierten Wirtschaftsstandorts, junge innovative Unternehmen zu fördern. Neben ihrem Beitrag zur Wertschöpfung beleben diese etablierte Märkte oder schaffen gar gänzlich neue. Zudem treiben sie Digitalisierung und strukturellen Wandel voran und gestalten beide mit. Allerdings ist die Innovationsdynamik hierzulande insgesamt zu gering. Das muss sich ändern.

Data from: Beyond biomass: soil feedbacks are transient over plant life-stages and alter fitness

Jan-Hendrik Dudenhöffer, Anne Ebeling, Alexandra-Maria Klein & Cameron Wagg
1. Plants influence associated soil biotic communities that in turn can alter the performance of the subsequently growing plants. Although such ‘plant-soil feedbacks’ (PSFs) are considered as important drivers of plant community assembly, past PSF studies have mainly addressed plant biomass production. However, plant performance is not only the production of biomass, but comprises a sequence of different life-stages: from seed germination over vegetative growth up to the production of a viable progeny. 2. Here...

Data from: Plasticity and epistasis strongly affect bacterial fitness after losing multiple metabolic genes

Glen D’Souza, Silvio Waschina, Christoph Kaleta, Christian Kost & Glen D'Souza
Many bacterial lineages lack seemingly essential metabolic genes. Previous work suggested selective benefits could drive the loss of biosynthetic functions from bacterial genomes when the corresponding metabolites are sufficiently available in the environment. However, the factors that govern this ‘genome streamlining’ remain poorly understood. Here we determine the effect of plasticity and epistasis on the fitness of Escherichia coli genotypes from whose genome biosynthetic genes for one, two, or three different amino acids have been...

Data from: Fitting functional responses: direct parameter estimation by simulating differential equations

Benjamin Rosenbaum & Björn Christian Rall
1. The feeding functional response is one of the most widespread mathematical frameworks in Ecology, Marine Biology, Freshwater Biology, Microbiology and related scientific fields describing the resource-dependent uptake of a consumer. Since the exact knowledge of its parameters is crucial to predict, for example, the efficiency of biocontrol agents, population dynamics, food web structure and subsequently biodiversity, a trustworthy parameter estimation method is highly important for scientists using this framework. Classical approaches for estimating functional...

Data from: Forest management intensity affects aquatic communities in artificial tree holes

Jana S. Petermann, Anja Rohland, Nora Sichardt, Peggy Lade, Brenda Guidetti, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Martin M. Gossner
Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers...

Data from: Testing the validity of functional response models using molecular gut content analysis for prey choice in soil predators

Bernhard Eitzinger, Björn Rall, Michael Traugott & Stefan Scheu
Analysis of predator - prey interactions is a core concept of animal ecology, explaining structure and dynamics of animal food webs. Measuring the functional response, i.e. the intake rate of a consumer as a function of prey density, is a powerful method to predict the strength of trophic links and assess motives of prey choice, particularly in arthropod communities. However, due to their reductionist set-up, functional responses, which are based on laboratory feeding experiments, may...

Data from: Propulsion in hexapod locomotion: how do desert ants traverse slopes?

Toni Wöhrl, Lars Reinhardt & Reinhard Blickhan
The employment of an alternating tripod gait to traverse uneven terrains is a common characteristic shared among many Hexapoda. Because this could be one specific cause for their ecological success, we examined the alternating tripod gait of the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis together with their ground reaction forces and weight-specific leg impulses for level locomotion and on moderate (±30 deg) and steep (±60 deg) slopes in order to understand mechanical functions of individual legs during...

Data from: Temperature and consumer type dependencies of energy flows in natural communities

Birgit Lang, Roswitha B. Ehnes, Ulrich Brose & Björn C. Rall
With the world continuously warming, a mechanistic understanding of how temperature affects interaction strengths, which are fundamental to food-web stability, is needed. As interaction strengths are determined by the flows of energy from resources to consumers, we investigated effects of temperature on animal energetics. We used newly compiled datasets on respiration rates and assimilation efficiencies to assess how temperature affects the energy use (respiration rates) and the efficiency of energy gain (assimilation efficiency) for different...

Data from: Macroalgal-bacterial interactions: role of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in microbial gardening by Ulva (Chlorophyta)

Ralf W. Kessler, Anne Weiss, Stefan Kuegler, Cornelia Hermes & Thomas Wichard
The marine macroalga Ulva mutabilis (Chlorophyta) develops into callus-like colonies consisting of undifferentiated cells and abnormal cell walls under axenic conditions. U. mutabilis is routinely cultured with two bacteria, the Roseovarius sp. MS2 strain and the Maribacter sp. MS6 strain, which release morphogenetic compounds and ensure proper algal morphogenesis. Using this tripartite community as an emerging model system, we tested the hypothesis that the bacterial-algal interactions evolved as a result of mutually taking advantage of...

Data from: Individual behaviour mediates effects of warming on movement across a fragmented landscape

Andrew D. Barnes, Ina-Kathrin Spey, Lena Rohde, Ulrich Brose & Anthony I. Dell
Global warming and habitat fragmentation impose dramatic and potentially interactive impacts on ecosystems. Warming induces shifts in species' distributions as they track temperature changes, but this can be hindered in fragmented landscapes. Corridors connecting habitat patches might ameliorate the combined effects of fragmentation and global warming. Using novel automated tracking methods, the movement of woodlice (Oniscus asellus) ranging in body size from 15·3 to 108·6 mg was quantified across a temperature range from 15 to...

Data from: Terrestrial reproduction as an adaptation to steep terrain in African toads

H. Christoph Liedtke, Hendrik Müller, Julian Hafner, Johannes Penner, David J. Gower, Tomáš Mazuch, Mark-Oliver Rödel & Simon P. Loader
How evolutionary novelties evolve is a major question in evolutionary biology. It is widely accepted that changes in environmental conditions shift the position of selective optima, and advancements in phylogenetic comparative approaches allow the rigorous testing of such correlated transitions. A longstanding question in vertebrate biology has been the evolution of terrestrial life histories in amphibians and here, by investigating African bufonids, we test whether terrestrial modes of reproduction have evolved as adaptations to particular...

Data from: Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs

Vivian Allen, Karl T. Bates, Zhiheng Li & John R. Hutchinson
Locomotion in living birds (Neornithes) has two remarkable features: feather-assisted flight, and the use of unusually crouched hindlimbs for bipedal support and movement. When and how these defining functional traits evolved remains controversial. However, the advent of computer modelling approaches and the discoveries of exceptionally preserved key specimens now make it possible to use quantitative data on whole-body morphology to address the biomechanics underlying this issue. Here we use digital body reconstructions to quantify evolutionary...

Desert-like badlands and surrounding (semi-)dry grasslands of Central Germany promote small-scale phenotypic and genetic differentiation in Thymus praecox

Kevin Karbstein, Salvatore Tomasello & Kathleen Prinz
Environmental heterogeneity among sites can generate phenotypic and genetic variation facilitating differentiation and microevolution of plant populations. Badlands are desert-like, predominantly vegetation-poor habitats often embedded in (semi-)dry grasslands. The desert-like conditions of badlands demand extreme adaptation of plants, i.e., phenotypic modifications in short-term and/or natural adaptation in long-term. However, detailed knowledge is missing about both plant phenotypic and genetic differentiation in this unique and widely occurring habitat type. The present study focused on the largest...

Data from: Comparative analysis of the multivariate genetic architecture of morphological traits in three species of Gomphocerine grasshoppers

Anasuya Chakrabarty & Holger Schielzeth
Evolutionary change is the change in trait values across generations, and usually occurs in multidimensional trait space rather than along isolated traits. Genetic covariation influences the magnitude and direction of evolutionary change and can be statistically summarized by the additive genetic (co)variance matrix, G. While G can affect the response to selection, it is exposed to evolutionary change by selection and genetic drift, but the magnitude and speed of these changes are poorly understood. We...

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