95 Works

Sequence stratigraphy of the Moodies Group (3.2 Ga), Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

Deon J. Janse van Rensburg , Christoph Heubeck & Sebastian Reimann
The Moodies Group (~3.2 Ga) of the Barberton Greenstone Belt is one of the oldest and best-preserved shallow-water siliciclastic sequences. It also harbors one of the largest occurrences of Paleoarchean microbial mats and the oldest record of early Earth-Moon dynamics. The extent (ca. 40 km * 70 km), lithologic and alluvial-to-prodeltaic facies diversity (incl. paleosols, pedogenic concretions and microbial mats etc.) , good outcrop, and excellent preservation of Moodies strata allows the recognition of mappable...

Reassessing evidence of Moon-Earth dynamics: No evidence of shorter lunar months from tidal bundles at 3.2 Ga (Moodies Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt)

Christoph E. Heubeck & Tom Eulenfeld
The sole Archean data point to reconstruct past orbital parameters of the Earth’s moon is from the Moodies Group (ca. 3.22 Ga) of the Barberton Greenstone Belt. From time-series analysis of tidal bundles of a subaqueous sand wave, Eriksson and Simpson (2000) suggested that the Moon’s anomalistic month at 3.2 Ga was closer to 20 days than the present 27.5 days. This is in apparent accordance with models of orbital mechanics which place the Archean...

Data from: Stay at home aphids: comparative spatial and seasonal metapopulation structure and dynamics of two specialist tansy aphid species studied using microsatellite markers

Hugh D. Loxdale, Gerhard Schöfl, Kerstin R. Wiesner, Franklin N. Nyabuga, David G. Heckel & Wolfgang W. Weisser
Two tansy-feeding aphids – Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria (MA) and Metopeurum fuscoviride (ME) – were studied at a small spatial scale in and around Jena (< 80 km2) using polymorphic microsatellite markers. Both species were found in ~ 60% of sites formerly known to harbour the aphids, although generally when they did occur, they occurred singly (MA ~ 50%; ME ~60%) and rarely together on the same plant at the same time (~10%) and then usually only...

Data from: Effects of management on aquatic tree-hole communities in temperate forests are mediated by detritus amount and water chemistry

Martin M. Gossner, Peggy Lade, Anja Rohland, Nora Sichardt, Tiemo Kahl, Jürgen Bauhus, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Jana S. Petermann
1. Arthropod communities in water-filled tree-holes may be sensitive to impacts of forest management, for example via changes in environmental conditions such as resource input. 2. We hypothesized that increasing forest management intensity negatively affects arthropod abundance and richness and shifts community composition and trophic structure of tree-hole communities. We predicted that this shift is caused by reduced habitat and resource availability at the forest stand scale as well as reduced tree-hole size, detritus amount...

Data from: Less is more: selective advantages can explain the prevalent loss of biosynthetic genes in bacteria

Glen D’Souza, Silvio Waschina, Samay Pande, Katrin Bohl, Christoph Kaleta, Christian Kost & Glen D'Souza
Bacteria that have adapted to nutrient-rich, stable environments are typically characterized by reduced genomes. The loss of biosynthetic genes frequently renders these lineages auxotroph, hinging their survival on an environmental uptake of certain metabolites. The evolutionary forces that drive this genome degradation, however, remain elusive. Our analysis of 949 metabolic networks revealed auxotrophies are likely highly prevalent in both symbiotic and free-living bacteria. To unravel whether selective advantages can account for the rampant loss of...

Data from: Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates

Malte Jochum, Andrew D. Barnes, Patrick Weigelt, David Ott, Katja Rembold, Achmad Farajallah & Ulrich Brose
1. The high biodiversity and biomass of soil communities is crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality, and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. 2. Using...

Data from: The impact of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on regional biodiversity of multiple taxa in European beech forests

Peter Schall, Martin M. Gossner, Steffi Heinrichs, Markus Fischer, Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Kirsten Jung, Vanessa Baumgartner, Stefan Blaser, Stefan Böhm, Francois Buscot, Rolf Daniel, Kezia Goldmann, Kirstin Kaiser, Tiemo Kahl, Markus Lange, Jörg Müller, Jörg Overmann, Swen C. Renner, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Johannes Sikorski, Marco Tschapka, Manfred Türke, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Bernd Wemheuer … & Kristin Kaiser
For managed temperate forests, conservationists and policymakers favour fine-grained uneven-aged management over more traditional coarse-grained even-aged management, based on the assumption that within-stand habitat heterogeneity enhances biodiversity. There is, however, little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We investigated for the first time how differently grained forest management systems affect the biodiversity of multiple above- and below-ground taxa across spatial scales. We sampled 15 taxa of animals, plants, fungi and bacteria within the largest contiguous...

Data from: Whole-genome patterns of linkage disequilibrium across flycatcher populations clarify the causes and consequences of fine-scale recombination rate variation in birds

Takeshi Kawakami, Carina F. Mugal, Alexander Suh, Alexander Nater, Reto Burri, Linnea Smeds & Hans Ellegren
Recombination rate is heterogeneous across the genome of various species, and so are genetic diversity and differentiation as a consequence of linked selection. However, we still lack a clear picture of the underlying mechanisms for regulating recombination. Here we estimated fine-scale population recombination rate based on the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genomes of multiple populations of two closely related flycatcher species (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca). This revealed an overall conservation of...

Data from: Morphological and colour morph clines along an altitudinal gradient in the meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus

Günter Köhler, Jörg Samietz & Holger Schielzeth
Many animals show altitudinal clines in size, shape and body colour. Increases in body size and reduction in the length of body appendices in colder habitats are usually attributed to improved heat conservation at lower surface-to-volume ratios (known as Bergmann's and Allen's rule, respectively). However, the patterns are more variable and sometimes reversed in small ectotherms that are affected by shortened growing seasons. Altitude can also affect colouration. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts darker colours...

Data from: Lack of evidence for selection favouring MHC haplotypes that combine high functional diversity

Arnaud Gaigher, Alexandre Roulin, Walid H. Gharib, Pierre Taberlet, Reto Burri & Luca Fumagalli
High rates of gene duplication and the highest levels of functional allelic diversity in vertebrate genomes are the main hallmarks of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a multigene family with a primordial role in pathogen recognition. The usual tight linkage among MHC gene duplicates may provide an opportunity for the evolution of haplotypes that associate functionally divergent alleles and thus grant the transmission of optimal levels of diversity to coming generations. Even though such associations...

Data from: Trait means, trait plasticity and trait differences to other species jointly explain species performances in grasslands of varying diversity

Christiane Roscher, Marlén Gubsch, Annett Lipowsky, Jens Schumacher, Alexandra Weigelt, Nina Buchmann, Ernst-Detlef Schulze & Bernhard Schmid
Functional traits may help to explain the great variety of species performances in plant communities, but it is not clear whether the magnitude of trait values of a focal species or trait differences to co-occurring species are key for trait-based predictions. In addition, trait expression within species is often plastic, but this variation has been widely neglected in trait-based analyses. We studied functional traits and plant biomass of 59 species in 66 experimental grassland mixtures...

Ordnung ins Chaos. Digitale Netzwerkanalyse am Beispiel von Galberts von Brügge De multro, traditione, et occisione gloriosi Karoli, comitis Flandriarum

Clemens Beck & Markus Krumm
Gesammelte Beiträge von Masterstudierenden der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München aus der Übung „Ordnung ins Chaos – Digitale Netzwerkanalyse am Beispiel mittelalterlicher Geschichtsschreibung“, zusammengestellt und betreut von den Übungsleitern Clemens Beck und Dr. Markus Krumm.

Mineralogical responses to 9-years of interaction of a CO2-charged brine with a sandstone aquifer: Observations from the Ketzin CO2-storage pilot site (Germany)

Hans-Jürgen Förster, Franziska Wilke, Susanne Bock, Darleen Eisner & Andrea Förster
This report compiles observations made within a time frame of two months on 24 representative thin-section samples representing the periods before and after 4- and 9-years of injection of CO2 into the reservoir. Given this short period of time until completion of this report, some observations and conclusions drawn have to be judged preliminary. Further analytical work and in-depth interpretation of the results are underway. Information provided for the period 0–4 years after CO2 injection...

Data from: An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola)

Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Bernhard Misof, Karen Meusemann, Doria Lieberz, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Böhm, Shanlin Liu, Paschalia Kapli, Carola Greve, James E. Jepson, Xingyue Liu, Xin Zhou, Horst Aspöck & Ulrike Aspöck
Background The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has been extensively studied, but no strong consensus exists concerning the phylogenetic relationships within the order Neuroptera, and the timeline of diversification of thelineages of Neuropterida. Here, we assembled a novel transcriptomic dataset to address previously unresolved issues in the phylogeny of Neuropterida and to...

The timing of leaf senescence relates to flowering phenology and functional traits in 17 herbaceous species along elevational gradients

Solveig Franziska Bucher & Christine Römermann
1. Leaf senescence is a major event in a plant’s life history as autumn marks the end of the growing season. The optimal timing of leaf senescence is crucial to both, minimize risks of low temperature events and maximize carbon gain during the growing season. As abiotic conditions are currently changing at unprecedented rates, it is important to study how leaf senescence of different species is responding to these changes in order to forecast future...

Long-term (1901-2017) phenology data of 20 forest understory herbs in Europe, collected from herbaria and GBIF, used in: \"Forest wildflowers bloom earlier as Europe warms: Lessons from herbaria and spatial modeling\", New Phytologist

Franziska Merle Willems
Today plants often flower earlier due to climate warming, and the collection dates of herbarium specimens can provide proof of this.
To test for such fingerprints of climate change in Europe, we compiled a long-term (1901-2017) dataset from 6131 herbarium specimens of 20 early-flowering European forest understory herbs. The data were collected in the herbaria of Jena (JE), Stuttgart (STU) and Tübingen (TUB), and were complemented with herbarium data from the database GBIF.
The final data file...

Eco-evolutionary dynamics modulate plant responses to global change depending on plant diversity and species identity

Peter Dietrich, Jens Schumacher, Nico Eisenhauer & Christiane Roscher
Global change has dramatic impacts on grassland diversity. However, little is known about how fast species can adapt to these changes and how this affects their responses to global change. To close this gap, we performed a common garden experiment testing whether plant responses to global change are influenced by the selection history of the plants and the conditioning history of soil at different levels of plant diversity. Therefore, we collected seeds and took soil...

Zwischen dem Recht, der Analyse und dem Kampf : Über die Polyvalenz des Privilegs

Tobias Braun
Um die wissenschaftliche Nützlichkeit des Konzeptes der Privilegien taxieren zu können, bietet sich die Distinktion in die Kategorien des Rechts, der Analyse und des Kampfs an. Wie die Verwendung des Begriffs im Sinne eines kodifizierten Rechtsinstituts zwischen einem semantischen Fundus und einer genuinen Funktion politischer Ordnung alterniert, so vermischen sich in der Analyse der Formen sozialer Privilegierung und Diskriminierung Referenzen von Normativität und Faktizität. Als Kampfbegriff kann das Privileg indes als diskursive Figur öffentlicher Debatten...

Soil fungal (ITS) communities from 10 grassland plots in Germany (2015-2018; Illumina MiSeq) - OTU abundances (subset of dataset 25026)

Anna Abrahão & Ali Nawaz
Cooperation between the BE projects SADE, Scalemic, Microorganisms (core): Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) underlying grassland plant richness and productivity are typically coupled with nutrient availability; however, we lack understanding of how restoration measures to increase plant diversity might affect PSFs. We examined the roles of sward disturbance, seed addition and land-use intensity (LUI) on PSFs. We conducted a disturbance and seed addition experiment in ten grasslands along a LUI gradient and characterized plant biomass and richness,...

The Zagros Mountain Front Flexure in Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Structural style and Late Pleistocene-Holocene Fault Slip Rates Derived from Structural Modeling and Luminescence Dating of River Terraces

Mjahid Zebari , Frank Preusser , Christoph Grützner , Payman Navabpour & Kamil Ustaszewski
The Zagros Mountain Front Flexure (MFF) makes a prominent topographic and structural step along the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt that accommodates a significant amount of shortening between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. Here, the structural style below the MFF in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq was reconstructed using balanced cross-sections and forward modeling, and Late Pleistocene-Holocene fault-slip rates were calculated across several structures using luminescence dating of river terraces along the Greater Zab River. A balanced...

Exposition gegenüber SARS-CoV-2 bei medizinischem Fachpersonal in der ambulanten Versorgung

Jörg Bätzing, Joachim Heuer, Urs Dieter Kuhn, Anke Möckel, Manas K. Akmatov, Florian Wolf, Jutta Bleidorn, André Scherag & Thomas Schröter
Schlüsselwörter: Antikörpertest, Arztpraxen, COVID-19, COVID-PraxImmun, ELISA, Exposition, Kohortenstudie, medizinisches Fachpersonal, SARS-CoV-2, Schnelltest, Serologie, Serostatus, Thüringen, Vertragsarztpraxen

Data and code from: Functional rarity of plants in German hay meadows - patterns on the species level and mismatches with community species richness

Gabriel Walther, Ute Jandt, Jens Kattge & Christine Römermann
Functional rarity (FR) - a feature combining a species’ rarity with the distinctiveness of its traits - represents a promising tool to better understand the ecological importance of rare species and consequently to protect functional diversity more efficiently. Yet, we lack a systematic understanding of FR on both the species level (which species are functionally rare and why) and the community level (how is FR associated with biodiversity and environmental conditions). Here, we quantify FR...

Data from: Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs

Vivian Allen, Karl T. Bates, Zhiheng Li & John R. Hutchinson
Locomotion in living birds (Neornithes) has two remarkable features: feather-assisted flight, and the use of unusually crouched hindlimbs for bipedal support and movement. When and how these defining functional traits evolved remains controversial. However, the advent of computer modelling approaches and the discoveries of exceptionally preserved key specimens now make it possible to use quantitative data on whole-body morphology to address the biomechanics underlying this issue. Here we use digital body reconstructions to quantify evolutionary...

Data from: Plasticity and epistasis strongly affect bacterial fitness after losing multiple metabolic genes

Glen D’Souza, Silvio Waschina, Christoph Kaleta, Christian Kost & Glen D'Souza
Many bacterial lineages lack seemingly essential metabolic genes. Previous work suggested selective benefits could drive the loss of biosynthetic functions from bacterial genomes when the corresponding metabolites are sufficiently available in the environment. However, the factors that govern this ‘genome streamlining’ remain poorly understood. Here we determine the effect of plasticity and epistasis on the fitness of Escherichia coli genotypes from whose genome biosynthetic genes for one, two, or three different amino acids have been...

Data from: Individual behaviour mediates effects of warming on movement across a fragmented landscape

Andrew D. Barnes, Ina-Kathrin Spey, Lena Rohde, Ulrich Brose & Anthony I. Dell
Global warming and habitat fragmentation impose dramatic and potentially interactive impacts on ecosystems. Warming induces shifts in species' distributions as they track temperature changes, but this can be hindered in fragmented landscapes. Corridors connecting habitat patches might ameliorate the combined effects of fragmentation and global warming. Using novel automated tracking methods, the movement of woodlice (Oniscus asellus) ranging in body size from 15·3 to 108·6 mg was quantified across a temperature range from 15 to...

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