10 Works

Effects of large herbivores on fire regimes and wildfire mitigation

Julia Rouet-Leduc, Guy Pe'er, Francisco Moreira, Aletta Bonn, Wouter Helmer, S. Alain Aidan Shahsavan Zadeh, Alexander Zizka & Fons Van Der Plas
1. Abandonment of agricultural land is widespread in many parts of the world, leading to shrub and tree encroachment. The increase of flammable plant biomass, i.e. fuel load, increases the risk and intensity of wildfires. Fuel reduction by herbivores is a promising management strategy to avoid fuel build-up and mitigate wildfires. However, their effectiveness in mitigating wildfire damage may depend on a range of factors, including herbivore type, population density and feeding patterns. 2. Here...

Data from: Evidence for morph-specific substrate choice in a green-brown polymorphic grasshopper

Pauline Heinze, Petra Dieker, Hannah Rowland & Holger Schielzeth
Orthopteran insects are characterized by high variability in body coloration, in particular featuring a widespread green-brown color polymorphism. The mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of this apparently balanced polymorphism are not yet understood. To investigate whether morph-dependent microhabitat choice might contribute to the continued coexistence of multiple morphs, we studied substrate choice in the meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus. The meadow grasshopper occurs in multiple discrete, genetically determined color morphs that range from uniform brown...

Great tits (Parus major) flexibly learn that herbivore-induced plant volatiles indicate prey location – an experimental evidence with two tree species

Katerina Sam, Eliska Kovarova, Inga Freiberga, Henriette Uthe, Alexander Weinhold, Leonardo Jorge & Rachakonda Sreekar
1. When searching for food, great tits (Parus major) can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) as an indicator of arthropod presence. Their ability to detect HIPVs was shown to be learned, and not innate, yet the flexibility and generalization of learning remains unclear. 2. We studied if, and if so how, naïve and trained great tits (Parus major) discriminate between herbivore-induced and non-induced saplings of Scotch elm (Ulmus glabra) and cattley guava (Psidium cattleyanum). We...

Data from: Chimpanzees behave prosocially in a group-specific manner

Edwin J. C. Van Leeuwen, Sarah E. DeTroy, Stephan P. Kaufhold, Clara Dubois, Sebastian Schütte, Josep Call & Daniel B. M. Haun
Chimpanzees act cooperatively in the wild, but whether they afford benefits to others, and whether their tendency to act prosocially varies across communities is unclear. Here, we show that chimpanzees from neighboring communities provide valuable resources to group members at personal cost, and that the magnitude of their prosocial behavior is group specific. Provided with a resource-donation experiment allowing for free (partner) choice, we observed an increase in prosocial acts across the study period in...

Innovative Gründer:innen mit Migrationserfahrung in Deutschland

Susann Schäfer
Innovationen sind die Grundlage für wirtschaftlich-technologische Wettbewerbsfähigkeit – und zugleich ein wichtiger Schlüssel zu gesellschaftlichem Fortschritt. Folglich ist es im Sinne eines dynamischen und zukunftsorientierten Wirtschaftsstandorts, junge innovative Unternehmen zu fördern. Neben ihrem Beitrag zur Wertschöpfung beleben diese etablierte Märkte oder schaffen gar gänzlich neue. Zudem treiben sie Digitalisierung und strukturellen Wandel voran und gestalten beide mit. Allerdings ist die Innovationsdynamik hierzulande insgesamt zu gering. Das muss sich ändern.

Comparative analysis of a geometric and an adhesive righting strategy against toppling in inclined hexapedal locomotion

Toni Wöhrl, Adrian Richter, Shihui Guo, Lars Reinhardt, Manuela Nowotny & Reinhard Blickhan
Animals are known to exhibit different walking behaviors in hilly habitats. For instance, cats, rats, squirrels, tree frogs, desert iguana, stick insects and desert ants were observed to lower their body height in traversing slopes, whereas mound-dwelling iguanas and wood ants tend to maintain constant walking kinematics regardless of the slope. This paper aims to understand and classify these distinct behaviors into two different strategies against toppling for climbing animals by looking into two factors,...

Data from: Green‐brown polymorphism in alpine grasshoppers affects body temperature

Günter Köhler & Holger Schielzeth
1. Ectothermic animals depend on external heat sources for pursuing their daily activities. However, reaching sufficiently high temperature can be limiting at high altitudes, where nights are cold and seasons short. We focus on the role of a green-brown color polymorphism in grasshoppers from alpine habitats. The green-brown polymorphism is phylogenetically and spatially widespread among Orthopterans and the eco-evolutionary processes that contribute to its maintenance have not yet been identified. 2. We here test whether...

Estimating historic N- and S-deposition with publicly available data – An example from Central Germany

David Schellenberger Costa, Johanna Otto, Ines Chmara & Markus Bernhardt-Römermann
The deposition of reactive nitrogen and sulphur has profound effects on ecosystem functioning. In the last decades, monitoring networks providing high resolution spatio-temporal deposition estimates have been set up, but equivalent information on historic deposition is mostly missing. However, understanding vegetation change and mitigate future loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is only possible evaluating the effects of its strongest drivers, which includes deposition in many ecosystems. Here, we combine different data sources to provide...

Data from: Thermal differences between juveniles and adults increased over time in European forest trees

Maria Mercedes Caron, Florian Zellweger, Kris Verheyen, Lander Baeten, Radim Hédl, Bernhardt-Römermann Markus, Imre Berki, Jörg Brunet, Guillaume Decocq, Sandra Díaz, Thomas Dirnböck, Tomasz Durak, Thilo Heinken, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Martin Kopecký, Jonathan Lenoir, Martin Macek, Malicki Marek, František Máliš, Thomas Nagel, Michael Perring, Petr Petřík, Kamila Reczyńska, Remigiusz Pielech, Wolfgang Schmidt … & Pieter De Frenne
Woody species’ requirements and environmental sensitivity change from seedlings to adults, a process referred to as ontogenetic shift. Such shifts can be increased by climate change. To assess the changes in the difference of temperature experienced by seedlings and adults in the context of climate change, it is essential to have reliable climatic data over long periods that capture the thermal conditions experienced by the individuals throughout their life cycle. Here we used a unique...

Inheritance of color morphs in Chorthippus dorsatus

Gabe Winter, Mahendra Varma & Holger Schielzeth
The green-brown polymorphism of grasshoppers and bush-crickets represents one of the most penetrant polymorphisms in any group of organisms. This poses the question of why the polymorphism is shared across species and how it is maintained. There is mixed evidence for whether and in which species it is environmentally or genetically determined in Orthoptera. We report breeding experiments with the steppe grasshopper Chorthippus dorsatus, a polymorphic species for the presence and distribution of green body...

Registration Year

  • 2021

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  • Dataset
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  • Friedrich Schiller University Jena
  • University of Antwerp
  • Ghent University
  • Technical University of Zvolen
  • Xiamen University
  • University of Wrocław
  • University of Agriculture in Krakow
  • Environment Agency Austria
  • University of California, San Diego
  • University of Lisbon