106 Works

Data from: A new Cretaceous genus of xyelydid sawfly illuminating nygmata evolution in Hymenoptera

Wang Mei, Alexandr P. Rasnitsyn, Chungkun Shih & Dong Ren
Background: Nygmata are prominent glandular structures on the wings of insects. They have been documented in some extant insects, including several families of Neuroptera and Mecoptera, the majority of Trichoptera, and a few of the hymenopteran Symphyta. However, because nygmata are rarely preserved in compression fossils, their early development and evolution are still enigmatic. For example, the only documented nygmata in the Hymenoptera are on the forewings of the Triassic xyelids Asioxyela paurura and Madygenius...

Data from: Conquest of the deep, old and cold: an exceptional limpet radiation in Lake Baikal

Björn Stelbrink, Alena A. Shirokaya, Catharina Clewing, Tatyana Y. Sitnikova, Larisa A. Prozorova, Christian Albrecht & Tatiana Y. Sitnikova
Lake Baikal is the deepest, oldest and most speciose ancient lake in the world. The lake is characterized by high levels of molluscan species richness and endemicity, including the limpet family Acroloxidae with 25 endemic species. Members of this group generally inhabit the littoral zone, but have been recently found in the abyssal zone at hydrothermal vents and oil-seeps. Here, we use mitochondrial and nuclear data to provide a first molecular phylogeny of the Lake...

Data from: Nature of the optical band shapes in polymethine dyes and H-aggregates: dozy chaos and excitons. Comparison with dimers, H*- and J-aggregates

Vladimir V. Egorov
Results on the theoretical explanation of the shape of optical bands in polymethine dyes, their dimers and aggregates are summarized. The theoretical dependence of the shape of optical bands for the dye monomers in the vinylogous series in line with a change in the solvent polarity is considered. A simple physical (analytical) model of the shape of optical absorption bands in H-aggregates of polymethine dyes is developed based on taking the dozy-chaos dynamics of the...

Data from: On polyphyly of the former section Ochlopoa Asch. et Graebn. and hybridogenic section Acroleucae Tzvelev et Prob. (Poa L., Poaceae): insights from the molecular phylogenetic analysis

Nikolai N. Nosov, Valery N. Tikhomirov, Eduard M. Machs & Alexander V. Rodionov
In this study, sequence data of the nuclear region ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 and the chloroplast region trnL-F as well as few morphological characters were examined trying to elucidate the relationships among known annual bluegrasses. It was shown that all taxa from the aggregate P. annua distinguished by lemma characters and growth form are identical according to ITS and trnL-trnF data wherein all ITS sequences of P. annua aggr. are the same as P. supina and all...

Red Book of vascular plants along oil pipelines in Yaroslavl Region

L.P. Kapelkina & T.E. Teplyakova
Oil-pipe line exploiting is connected inevitably with an influence upon natural biotopes. The route of our investigation of technogenic biotopes passed along 30 km of oil-pipeline protection zone. There were found 11 vascular plant species from 173 of Yaroslavl Region Red Book: Carex sylvatica Huds., Dactylorhiza baltica (Klinge) Orlova, Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce) Soó, D. incarnata (L.) Soó, D. maculata (L.) Soó, Glyceria lithuanica (Gorski) Gorski, Listera ovata (L.) R.Br., Neottia nidus-avis (L.) Rich., Ophioglossum vulgatum...

Digital core simulator - a promising method for developming hard-to-recover oil reserves technology

V.B. Betelin, V.A. Galkin, A.V. Shpilman & N.N. Smirnova
Territory of Russia, which occupies 12.8% of the Earth's territory, contains 12-13% of the forecast resources, and about 12% of the discovered oil reserves. Russia's proven oil reserves amount to approximately 13.9 billion tons of oil as of January 1, 2017 (~101 billion barrels). Oil recovery factor for proved reserves is ~17%. The increase of oil recovery factor represents a huge stockpile for raising the level of oil production in the country at low costs....

Technology as a new Language of Communication between the Human Being and the World

Andrey Pavlenko
This essay for the inaugural issue of Technology and Language is based on an analysis of the ‚epistemological turn‘ in modern cosmology and modern science, more generally. In view of another epistemological turn towards technology and a combinatorial approach to the creation of artefacts, the question regarding the languages of science and technology suggests itself. - When human beings relate to the world, they effectively address the world or talk to it, and the world...

Deformation instability in crystalline alloys: Luders bands

G.F. Sarafanov & Yu.G. Shondin
A mechanism of localization of plastic deformation at high temperatures is investigated in the framework of the autowave model. A model of the formation and propagation of Luders bands is proposed. It is established that a Luders band is a wavefront of the plastic deformation rate. From this article's point of view, the conditions for the formation of a Luders band are decisive for the interpretation of the fluidity serration. The critical value of the...

Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge

Alisa Vershinina, Peter Heintzman, Duane Froese, Grant Zazula, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Love Dalén, Clio Der Sarkissian, Shelby Dunn, Luca Ermini, Cristina Gamba, Pamela Groves, Joshua Kapp, Daniel Mann, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, John Southon, Mathias Stiller, Matthew Wooller, Gennady Baryshnikov, Dmitry Gimranov, Eric Scott, Elizabeth Hall, Susan Hewitson, Irina Kirillova, Pavel Kosintsev, Fedor Shidlovsky … & Beth Shapiro
The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) last connected Eurasia and North America during the Pleistocene. Although the BLB would have enabled transfers of terrestrial biota in both directions, it also acted as an ecological filter whose permeability varied considerably over time. Here we explore the possible impacts of this ecological corridor on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of a once wide-ranging group, the caballine horses (Equus spp.). Using a panel of 187 mitochondrial and...

Data from: The first flea with fully distended abdomen from the Early Cretaceous of China

Taiping Gao, Chungkun Shih, Alexandr P. Rasnitsyn, Xing Xu, Shuo Wang & Dong Ren
Background: Fleas, the most notorious insect ectoparasites of human, dogs, cats, birds, etc., have recently been traced to its basal and primitive ancestors during the Middle Jurassic. Compared with extant fleas, these large basal fleas have many different features. Although several fossil species with transitional morphologies filled the evolutionary blank, the early evolution of these ectoparasites is still poorly known. Results: Here we report a new flea with transitional morphology, Pseudopulex tanlan sp. nov., assigned...

Data from: Complete mitochondrial genome of the poorly known Amur sculpin Mesocottus haitej (Cottoidei: Cottidae)

Sergei V. Shedko, Irina L. Miroshnichenko & Galina A. Nemkova
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Mesocottus haitej has been obtained by the next generation sequencing, which contained 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and non-coding control region with the total length of 16,527 bp. The gene content, arrangement, codon usage and base composition of M. haitej mitogenome have no unusual features that distinguish it from most other teleost fishes. According to the result of a pilot phylogenetic analysis, the freshwater Mesocottus...

Data from: Geographic variation of life-history traits in the sand lizard, Lacerta agilis: testing Darwin's fecundity-advantage hypothesis

Evgeny S. Roitberg, Galina V. Eplanova, Tatiana I. Kotenko, Fèlix Amat, Miguel A. Carretero, Valentina N. Kuranova, Nina A. Bulakhova, Oleksandr I. Zinenko & Vladimir A. Yakovlev
The fecundity-advantage-hypothesis (FAH) explains larger female size relative to male size as a correlated response to fecundity selection. We explored FAH by investigating geographic variation in female reproductive output and its relation to sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in Lacerta agilis, an oviparous lizard occupying a major part of temperate Eurasia. We analysed how sex-specific body size and SSD are associated with two putative indicators of fecundity selection intensity (clutch size and the slope of the...

Data from: A parapatric propensity for breeding precludes the completion of speciation in common teal (Anas crecca, sensu lato)

Jeffrey L. Peters, Kevin G. McCracken, Christin L. Pruett, Sievert Rohwer, Sergei V. Drovetski, Yuri N. Zhuravlev, Irina Kulikova, Daniel D. Gibson & Kevin Winker
Speciation is a process in which genetic drift and selection cause divergence over tSpeciation is a process in which genetic drift and selection cause divergence over time. However, there is no rule dictating the time required for speciation, and even low levels of gene flow hinder divergence, so that taxa may be poised at the threshold of speciation for long periods of evolutionary time. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and eight nuclear introns (nuDNA) to...

Original CT image stacks of five fossil petrosal bones from Siberia, 3D PDF files of reconstructed endocasts, blood vessels and innervation patterns, 3D PDF instruction file, STL files of the petrosals

Julia A. Schultz, Irina Ruf, Alexander O. Averianov, Rico Schellhorn, Alexey V. Lopatin & Thomas Martin
Five partially preserved mammaliaform petrosals recovered from Middle Jurassic sediments of the Berezovsk coal mine (Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia) show similarities to other early mammaliaforms like the morganucodontan Morganucodon and the docodontan Haldanodon in having an inflated promontorium, and a curved and apically inflated cochlear canal. But they are distinct from dryolestoid and derived mammalian petrosals by the weak coiling of the cochlear duct and the presence of a perilymphatic foramen with an open perilymphatic sulcus....

Complex post-breeding moult strategies in a songbird migrating along the East Asian flyway, the Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler Locustella certhiola

Wieland Heim, Hans-Jürgen Eilts, Philip D. Round, Oleg Bourski, Batmunkh Davaasuren, Tuvshinjargal Erdenechimeg & Jong-Gil Park
Moult strategies have received relatively little attention in current ornithology, and knowledge concerning the evolution, variability and extent of moult is sparse in many bird species. This is especially true for East Asian Locustella species where assumptions on moult patterns are based on incomplete information. We provide evidence indicating a complex post-breeding moult strategy and variable moult extent among Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler Locustella certhiola, based on data from six ringing sites situated along its flyway...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

Data from: Parallel Miocene dispersal events explain the cosmopolitan distribution of the Hypogymnioid lichens

Pradeep K. Divakar, Xin-Li Wei, Bruce McCune, Paloma Cubas, Carlos D. Boluda, Steven G. Leavitt, H. Ana Crespo, Svetlana Tchabanenko & H. Thorsten Lumbsch
Aim: Contemporary species’ distributions are shaped by both geography and historical events, such as extinction, diversification in specific areas and long-distance dispersals. In the most diverse family of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae, the Hypogymnioid clade, is an example of an evolutionary lineage comprised of species occurring in temperate to subpolar regions in both hemispheres. Here, we elucidate the timing of diversification events and the impact of historical events on the species distribution in this lineage. Location:...

Data from: Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml … & László G. Nagy
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree...

Data from: Global lack of flyway structure in a cosmopolitan bird revealed by a genome wide survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms

Robert H. S. Kraus, Pim Van Hooft, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Arseny Tsvey, Sergei Y. Fokin, Ronald C. Ydenberg & Herbert H. T. Prins
Knowledge about population structure and connectivity of waterfowl species, especially mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), is a priority due to recent outbreaks of Avian Influenza. Ringing studies that trace large-scale movement patterns have to date been unable to detect clearly delineated mallard populations. We employed 363 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in combination with population genetics and phylogeographic approaches to conduct a population genomic test of panmixia in 801 mallards from 45 locations world-wide. Basic population genetic...

Data from: Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski’s horses

Charleen Gaunitz, Antoine Fages, Kristian Hanghøj, Anders Albrechtsen, Naveed Khan, Mikkel Schubert, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Ivy J. Owens, Sabine Felkel, Olivier Bignon-Lau, Peter De Barros Damgaard, Alissa Mittnik, Azadeh F. Mohaseb, Hossein Davoudi, Saleh Alquraishi, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid, Eric Crubézy, Norbert Benecke, Sandra Olsen, Dorcas Brown, David Anthony, Ken Massy, Vladimir Pitulko, Aleksei Kasparov … & Ludovic Orlando
The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski’s horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago...

Data from: Dispersal of Amur tiger from spatial distribution and genetics within the eastern Changbai mountains of China

Yao Ning, Aleksey V. Kostyria, Jianzhang Ma, Marina I. Chayka, Valentin Yu Guskov, Jinzhe Qi, Irina N. Sheremetyeva, Wang Meng & Guangshun Jiang
Population dispersal and migration often indicate an expanded habitat and reduced inbreeding probability, and to some extend reflects improvement in the condition of the population. The Amur tiger population in the northern region of the Changbai mountains in China mostly distributes along the Sino-Russian border, next to the population in southwest Primorye in Russia. The successful dispersal westward and trans-boundary movement are crucial for the persistence of the Amur tiger in this area. This study...

Data from: Divergence within and among seaweed siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea

Angelica Ardehed, Daniel Johansson, Lisa Sundqvist, Ellen Schagerström, Zuzanna Zagrodzka, Nikolaj A. Kovaltchouk, Lena Bergström, Lena Kautsky, Marina Rafajlovic, Ricardo T. Pereyra & Kerstin Johannesson
Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals...

Data from: On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia

Małgorzata Pilot, Tadeusz Malewski, Andre E. Moura, Tomasz Grzybowski, Kamil Oleński, Anna Ruść, Stanisław Kamiński, Fernanda Fadel, Daniel S. Mills, Abdulaziz N. Alagaili, Osama B. Mohammed, Grzegorz Kłys, Innokentiy M. Okhlopkov, Ewa Suchecka, Wieslaw Bogdanowicz & Fernanda Ruiz Fadel
Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our...

Data from: Comparative multi-locus phylogeography of two Palaearctic spruce bark beetles: influence of contrasting ecological strategies on genetic variation

François Mayer, Frédéric B. Piel, Anna Cassel-Lundhagen, Natalia Kirichenko, Laurent Grumiau, Bjørn Økland, Coralie Bertheau, Jean-Claude Grégoire & Patrick Mardulyn
While phylogeographic patterns of organisms are often interpreted through past environmental disturbances, mediated by climate changes, and geographic barriers, they may also be strongly influenced by species-specific traits. To investigate the impact of such traits, we focused on two Eurasian spruce bark beetles that share a similar geographic distribution, but differ in their ecology and reproduction. Ips typographus is an aggressive tree-killing species characterized by strong dispersal, whereas Dendroctonus micans is a discrete inbreeding species...

Data from: Reproduction as a bottleneck to treeline advance across the circumarctic forest tundra ecotone

Carissa D. Brown, Geneviève Dufour-Tremblay, Ryan G. Jameson, Steven D. Mamet, Andrew J. Trant, Xanthe J. Walker, Stéphane Boudraeu, Karen A. Harper, Greg H.R. Henry, Luise Hermanutz, Annika Hofgaard, Ludmila Isaeva, G. Peter Kershaw, Jill F. Johnstone & Gregory H. R. Henry
The fundamental niche of many species is shifting with climate change, especially in sub-arctic ecosystems with pronounced recent warming. Ongoing warming in sub-arctic regions should lessen environmental constraints on tree growth and reproduction, leading to increased success of trees colonising tundra. Nevertheless, variable responses of treeline ecotones have been documented in association with warming temperatures. One explanation for time lags between increasingly favourable environmental conditions and treeline ecotone movement is reproductive limitations caused by low...

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