106 Works

Numerical optimization of the cantilever piezoelectric generator

A.N. Soloviev, V.A. Chebanenko, I.V. Zhilyaev, A.V. Cherpakov & I.A. Parinov
In this paper, we consider the adequacy of the use of the straight normal hypothesis in the applied theory for the calculation of a cantilever-type piezoelectric generator that takes into account the incomplete piezo-element coating of the substrate, which was obtained earlier, and a numerical optimization procedure for piezoelectric generator is given, taking into account critical failure stresses.

The dry grasslands (Festuco-Brometea) of the North Caucasus: first data on numerical classification and biodiversity patterns

Denys Vynokurov, Tatiana Lysenko, Zoya Dutova, Dmitriy Shylnikov, Galina Doroshina, Irina Urbanavichene, Gennadii Urbanavichus & Nelly Tsepkova
The North Caucasus is still one of the least studied regions in Europe regarding syntaxonomy. We investigated dry grasslands in the central part of the North Caucasus, namely in the Stavropol Kray region of Russia. We sampled 47 vegetation plots (relevés) of 10 m2 size (3.16 × 3.16 m) at elevations from 470 to 1150 m a.s.l. To determine the scale-dependent species richness patterns, we recorded five nested-plot series of 0.0001 to 100 m² in...

Катализаторы разложения однокомпонентных топлив и изделия на их основе, применяемые в технике

Тарас Петрович Гайдей, Вячеслав Алексеевич Дидык, Татьяна Федоровна Пименова & Татьяна Васильевна Здухова
На основе литературных данных приведены наименования и составы катализаторов разложения однокомпонентных топлив и изделия, разработанные на их основе, применяемые в настоящее время в ракетно-космической технике.

PROSPECTS OF APPLYING ELECTROTECHNOLOGY IN GARDENING

DMITRY S. STREBKOV, ASLANBEK KH. SHOGENOV & YURII KH. SHOGENOV
The paper presents some application fi elds and examples of applying electrotechnology in agricultural production as exemplifi ed by the use of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fi elds. The authors determined promising research areas concerning the application of electrotechnology in gardening: the use of magnetized water for watering tree crops and bushes; the use of a strong electric fi eld of high voltage to produce a fi ne electroaerosol in the form of fog or...

Apuleius’ Venus and Speech Characterization

Svetlana Dubova
The article explores the character of Venus in Apuleius’ story of Cupid and Psyche, as well as the lexical tools used for describing her actions and conveying her speech. Venus is one of the main characters; her speeches take prominent positions in the story and require special attention. Although the phenomenon of speech characterization in Latin literature is occasional, it may be assumed that the character of Venus is distinguished by archaic vocabulary. We see...

Ἰφιάνασσα: A Lost Homeric Reading in Lucian?

Maria N. Kazanskaya
The article examines Lucian’s source for the name of the Nereid in DMar. 14, Iphianassa (Ἰφιάνασσα). This name does not appear in the two classical lists of Nereids in Homer (Il. 18. 37–49) and in Hesiod (Th. 240–264), from which Lucian drew the names of all other Nereids of his Dialogi marini, and Lucian is the sole ancient source to mention a Nereid by that name. This led scholars to suspect that the name may...

PISMA DYPLOMATÓW ROSYJSKICH DO POSŁÓW POLSKO-LITEWSKICH Z LAT 1671–1672 JAKO FORMA NEGOCJACJI DYPLOMATYCZNYCH (NA PRZYKŁADZIE DOKUMENTÓW ZE ZBIORÓW BIBLIOTEKI KÓRNICKIEJ)

Koczegarow Kirył
During the Russian-Polish negotiations at the end of 1671 – the beginning of 1672, several Russian memorandums were handed over to Polish-Lithuanian diplomats. All these original documents are preserved in the Library of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kórnik, Poland, and are studied as some of the most important forms of diplomatic communications between the Muscovite State and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The memorandums clearly reveal the Muscovite diplomatic tactic against the Polish-Lithuanian side. They...

Dataset for: Single-photon nonlinearity at room temperature

Anton Zasedatelev, Anton Baranikov, Denis A. Sannikov, Darius Urbonas, Fabio Scafirimuto, Vladislav Shishkov, Evgeny Andrianov, Yurii Lozovik, Ullrich Scherf, Thilo Stöferle, Rainer Mahrt & Pavlos Lagoudakis
The experimental dataset used to create the figures in the paper Zasedatelev A., Baranikov A., Sannikov D., Urbonas D., Scafirimuto F., Shishkov V., Andrianov E., Lozovik Yu., Scherf U., Stoferle T., Mahrt R., Lagoudakis P., Nature (2021). Single-photon nonlinearity at room temperature

Data from: Horizontal gene transfer and genome evolution in Methanosarcina

Sofya K. Garushyants, Marat D. Kazanov & Mikhail S. Gelfand
Background: Genomes of Methanosarcina spp. are among the largest archaeal genomes. One suggested reason for that is massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria. Genes of bacterial origin may be involved in the central metabolism and solute transport, in particular sugar synthesis, sulfur metabolism, phosphate metabolism, DNA repair, transport of small molecules etc. Horizontally transferred (HT) genes are considered to play the key role in the ability of Methanosarcina spp. to inhabit diverse environments. At...

Data from: The genus Gennadas (Benthesicymidae: Decapoda): morphology of copulatory characters, phylogeny and coevolution of genital structures

Alexander L. Vereshchaka, Anastasia A. Lunina & Jørgen Olesen
Species within Gennadas differ from each other largely only in male (petasma) and female (thelycum) copulatory characters, which were restudied in scanning electron microscopy and used as a basis for phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-six petasma characters and 49 thelycum characters were identified. All sixteen recognized species of Gennadas and Aristaeomorpha foliacea (outgroup) were included as terminals. Four robust monophyletic clades were retrieved, described and diagnosed as new species groups. The thelycum characters had greater impact on...

Data from: Winter coat color polymorphisms identify global hotspots for evolutionary rescue from climate change

L. Scott Mills, Eugenia V. Bragina, Alexander V. Kumar, Marketa Zimova, Diana J.R. Lafferty, Jennifer Feltner, Brandon M. Davis, Klaus Hacklander, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good, Jose Melo-Ferreira, Andreas Dietz, Alexei V. Abramov, Natalia Lopatina & Kairsten Fay
Maintenance of biodiversity in a rapidly changing climate will depend on the efficacy of evolutionary rescue, whereby population declines due to abrupt environmental change are reversed by shifts in genetically-driven adaptive traits. However, a lack of traits known to be under direct selection by anthropogenic climate change has limited the incorporation of evolutionary processes into global conservation efforts. In 22 vertebrate species, some individuals undergo a seasonal color molt from summer brown to winter white...

Data from: Cytoskeleton structure and total methylation of mouse cardiac and lung tissue during space flight

Irina V. Ogneva, Sergey S. Loktev & Vladimir N. Sychev
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the protein and mRNA expression levels of multiple cytoskeletal proteins in the cardiac and lung tissue of mice that were euthanized onboard the United States Orbital Segment of the International Space Station 37 days after the start of the SpaceX-4 mission (September 2014, USA). The results showed no changes in the cytoskeletal protein content in the cardiac and lung tissue of the mice, but there were significant...

Data from: A shortage of males causes female reproductive failure in yellow ground squirrels

Nina A. Vasilieva, Andrey V. Tchabovsky, Nina Vasilieva & Andrey Tchabovsky
Sexual conflict theory suggests that female breeding success is strongly influenced by individual life history and environmental conditions and is much less affected by mate availability. Female mating failure due to a shortage of males remains poorly studied and understood. We present data on the effects of male availability on female breeding success in a wild colony of yellow ground squirrels (Spermophilus fulvus). A female’s probability of breeding increased with the local density of males...

Data from: Systematics of snow voles (Chionomys, Arvicolinae) revisited

Glenn Yannic, Reto Burri, Vladimir G. Malikov & Peter Vogel
To elucidate the evolutionary history of snow voles, genus Chionomys, we studied the phylogeography of Chionomys nivalis across its range and investigated its relationships with two congeneric species, C. gud and C. roberti, using independent molecular markers. Analyses were based on mitochondrial (~940 bp cyt b) and Y-chromosomal (~2020 bp from three introns) genetic variation. Our data provide conclusive evidence for a Caucasian and Middle Eastern origin for the three species and a subsequent westward...

Data from: Climate outweighs native vs. non-native range-effects for genetics and common garden performance of a cosmopolitan weed

Christoph Rosche, Isabell Hensen, Adrian Schaar, Uzma Zehra, Marie Jasieniuk, Ragan M. Callaway, Damase P. Khasa, Mohammad M. Al-Gharaibeh, Ylva Lekberg, David U. Nagy, Robert W. Pal, Miki Okada, Karin Schrieber, Kathryn G. Turner, Susanne Lachmuth, Andrey Erst, Tomonori Tsunoda, Min Sheng, Robin Schmidt, Yanling Peng, Wenbo Luo, Yun Jäschke, Zafar A. Reshi & Manzoor A. Shah
Comparing genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and performance between native and non-native populations has advanced our knowledge of contemporary evolution and its ecological consequences. However, such between-range comparisons can be complicated by high among-population variation within native and non-native ranges. For example, native vs. non-native comparisons between small and non-representative subsets of populations for species with very large distributions have the potential to mislead because they may not sufficiently account for within-range adaptation to climatic conditions,...

Data from: Trophic interactions and abiotic factors drive functional and phylogenetic structure of vertebrate herbivore communities across the Arctic tundra biome

James D.M. Speed, Ina A. Skjelbred, Isabel C. Barrio, Michael D. Martin, Dominique Berteaux, C. Guillermo Bueno, Katie S. Christie, Bruce C. Forbes, Jennifer Forbey, Daniel Fortin, Jon-Arvid Grytnes, Katrine S. Hoset, Nicolas Lecomte, Bryndis Marteinsdottir, Jesper B. Mosbacher, Åshild O. Pedersen, Virve Ravolainen, Eileen C. Rees, Anna Skarin, Natalya Sokolova, Andrew H. Thornhill, Ingunn Tombre & Eeva M. Soininen
Communities are assembled from species that evolve or colonise a given geographic region, and persist in the face of abiotic conditions and interactions with other species. The evolutionary and colonisation histories of communities are characterised by phylogenetic diversity, while functional diversity is indicative of abiotic and biotic conditions. The relationship between functional and phylogenetic diversity infers whether species functional traits are divergent (differing between related species) or convergent (similar among distantly related species). Biotic interactions...

Data from: A new subfamily LIP of the major intrinsic proteins

Kirill Vladimirovich Khabudaev, Darya Petrovna Petrova, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Grachev & Yelena Valentinovna Likhoshway
Background: Proteins of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, or aquaporins, have been detected in almost all organisms. These proteins are important in cells and organisms because they allow for passive transmembrane transport of water and other small, uncharged polar molecules. Results: We compared the predicted amino acid sequences of 20 MIPs from several algae species of the phylum Heterokontophyta (Kingdom Chromista) with the sequences of MIPs from other organisms. Multiple sequence alignments revealed motifs...

Data from: The first pre-Quaternary fossil record of the clade Mabuyidae with a comment on the enclosure of the Meckelian canal in skinks

Andrej Čerňanský & Elena Syromyatnikova
We here describe the first Neogene record of the squamate clade Mabuyidae. Although this clade has a cosmopolitan distribution today, no pre-Quarternary fossil record of these reptiles has so far been documented. The material comes from the locality Solnechnodolsk (Russia) and is dated to the late Miocene (MN 13). Although it comprises only jaw elements, it constitutes the first evidence of the occurrence of fossil skinks around the area of the Black Sea. The material...

Data from: Fifty thousand years of arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet

Eske Willerslev, John Davison, Mari Moora, Martin Zobel, Eric Coissac, Mary E. Edwards, Eline D. Lorenzen, Mette Vestergård, Galina Gussarova, James Haile, Joseph Craine, Gaddy Bergmann, Ludovic Gielly, Sanne Boessenkool, Laura S. Epp, Peter B. Pearman, Rachid Cheddadi, David Murray, Karri Anne Bråthen, Nigel Yoccoz, Heather Binney, Corinne Cruaud, Patrick Wincker, Tomasz Goslar, Inger Greve Alsos … & Pierre Taberlet
Although it is generally agreed that the arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we additionally explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many...

Data from: Dogs accompanied humans during the Neolithic expansion into Europe

Morgane Ollivier, Anne Tresset, Laurent A. F. Frantz, Stéphanie Brehard, Adrian Bălășescu, Marjan Mashkour, Adina Boroneant, Maud Pionnier-Capitan, Ophelie Lebrasseur, Rose-Marie Arbogast, László Bartosiewicz, Karyne Debue, Rivka Rabinovich, Mikhail V. Sablin, Greger Larson, Catherine Hänni, Christophe Hitte & Jean-Denis Vigne
Near Eastern Neolithic farmers introduced several species of domestic plants and animals as they dispersed into Europe. Dogs were the only domestic species present in both Europe and the Near East prior to the Neolithic. Here, we assessed whether early Near Eastern dogs possessed a unique mitochondrial lineage that differentiated them from Mesolithic European populations. We then analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences from 99 ancient European and Near-Eastern dogs spanning the Upper Palaeolithic to the Bronze...

Genotypes of Swan Geese Anser cygnoides using 17 nuclear microsatellite loci at 14 locations.

Qin Zhu, Iderbat Damaba, Qingshan Zhao, Kunpeng Yi, Nyambayar Batbayar, Tseveenmyadag Natsagdorj, Davaasuren Batmunkh, Xin Wang, Sonia Rozenfeld, Sachiko Moriguchi, Aibin Zhan, Lei Cao & Anthony David Fox
Dispersal affects the spatial distribution and population structure of species.Dispersal is often male-biased in mammals while female-biased in birds, with the notable exception of the Anatidae. In this study, we tested genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal (SBD) in the Swan Goose Anser cygnoides, an Asian endemic and IUCN vulnerable species, which has been increasingly restricted to breeding on Mongolian steppe wetlands. We analyzed the genotypes of 278 Swan Geese samples from 14 locations at 14...

Data from: Decipher soil organic carbon dynamics and driving forces across China using machine learning

Huiwen Li, Yiping Wu, Shuguang Liu, Jingfeng Xiao, Wenzhi Zhao, Ji Chen, Georgii Alexandrov & Yue Cao
The dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) play a critical role in modulating global warming. However, the long-term spatiotemporal changes of SOC at large scale and the impacts of driving forces remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of SOC in different soil layers across China through the 1980s to 2010s using a machine learning approach and quantified the impacts of the key factors based on factorial simulation experiments. Our results showed that...

Circum-Arctic distribution of chemical anti-herbivore compounds arctic shrubs

Elin Lindén, Mariska Te Beest, Ilka Abreu, Thomas Moritz, Maja Sundqvist, Isabel C Barrio, Julia Boike, John Bryant, Kari Anne Bråthen, Agata Buchwal, Guillermo Bueno, Alain Cuerrier, Dagmar Egelkraut, Bruce Forbes, Martin Hallinger, Monique Heijmans, Luise Hermanutz, David S Hik, Annika Hofgaard, Milena Holmgren, Diane C Huebner, Toke Hoye, Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Emilie Kissler … & Johan Olofsson
Spatial variation in plant chemical defence towards herbivores can help us understand variation in herbivore top-down control of shrubs in the Arctic and possibly also shrub responses to global warming. Less defended, non-resinous shrubs could be more influenced by herbivores than more defended, resinous shrubs. However, sparse field measurements limit our current understanding of how much of the circum-Arctic variation in defence compounds is explained by taxa or defence functional groups (resinous/non-resinous). We measured circum-Arctic...

Microbial transformation of organic matter of sod-podzolic soils in the Pre-Urals under conditions of different use and application of mineral fertilizers

N.E. Zavyalova, I.G. Shirokikh, A.I. Kosolapova & A.A. Shirokikh
Microbiological parameters and character of transformation of humic substances of sod-podzolic soil at the end of five rotations of eight-full crop rotation in long-term stationary field experiment (1978–2017) are investigated. The direction of microbiological processes due to the effect of long-term application of mineral fertilizers in increasing doses – 30 to 150 kg/ha of NPK was determined. A comparison of the arable soil with its virgin analogs (mixed forest and natural meadow) as well as...

Ethnoecology of the Slavic World: application significance on the Eurasian space

I.Yu. Trushkova, T.Ya. Ashikhmina & L.V. Kondakova
Ecology is a science dealing with relations of living organisms with the environment and the ways of sustaining the harmonious balance in the world. Ecological approach determines the attitude of the people to the environment, it is the basis of their worldview, their behavior and culture. Ecologically oriented economy management and human behavior mean tendency of the mankind to nature preserving and keeping their environment healthy. Using ethnocultural experience helps to save financial, human, and...

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