Background: Nygmata are prominent glandular structures on the wings of insects. They have been documented in some extant insects, including several families of Neuroptera and Mecoptera, the majority of Trichoptera, and a few of the hymenopteran Symphyta. However, because nygmata are rarely preserved in compression fossils, their early development and evolution are still enigmatic. For example, the only documented nygmata in the Hymenoptera are on the forewings of the Triassic xyelids Asioxyela paurura and Madygenius...
Background: Fleas, the most notorious insect ectoparasites of human, dogs, cats, birds, etc., have recently been traced to its basal and primitive ancestors during the Middle Jurassic. Compared with extant fleas, these large basal fleas have many different features. Although several fossil species with transitional morphologies filled the evolutionary blank, the early evolution of these ectoparasites is still poorly known. Results: Here we report a new flea with transitional morphology, Pseudopulex tanlan sp. nov., assigned...
Background: Proteins of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, or aquaporins, have been detected in almost all organisms. These proteins are important in cells and organisms because they allow for passive transmembrane transport of water and other small, uncharged polar molecules. Results: We compared the predicted amino acid sequences of 20 MIPs from several algae species of the phylum Heterokontophyta (Kingdom Chromista) with the sequences of MIPs from other organisms. Multiple sequence alignments revealed motifs...
Two female woolly mammoth neonates from permafrost in the Siberian Arctic are the most complete mammoth specimens known. Lyuba, found on the Yamal Peninsula, and Khroma, from northernmost Yakutia, died at ages of approximately one and two months, respectively. Both specimens were CT-scanned, yielding detailed information on the stage of development of their dentition and skeleton and insight into conditions associated with death. Both mammoths died after aspirating mud. Khroma's body was frozen soon after...
Data from: Intercontinental genetic structure and gene flow in Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a potential vector of avian influenzaMark P. Miller, Susan M. Haig, Thomas D. Mullins, Luzhang Ruan, Bruce Casler, Alexei Dondua, H. River Gates, J. Matthew Johnson, Steve Kendall, Pavel S. Tomkovich, Diane Tracy, Olga P. Valchuk & Richard B. Lanctot
Waterfowl (Anseriformes) and shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are the most common wild vectors of influenza A viruses. Due to their migratory behavior, some may transmit disease over long distances. Migratory connectivity studies can link breeding and nonbreeding grounds while illustrating potential interactions among populations that may spread diseases. We investigated Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a shorebird with a subspecies (C. a. arcticola) that migrates from nonbreeding areas endemic to avian influenza in eastern Asia to breeding grounds in...
Data from: Evolutionary neutrality of mtDNA introgression: evidence from complete mitogenome analysis in roe deerMaciej Matosiuk, Irina N. Sheremetyeva, Ilya S. Sheremetyev, Alexander P. Saveljev & Anetta Borkowska
Introgressive hybridization offers a unique platform for studying the molecular basis of natural selection acting on mitogenomes. Most of the mtDNA protein-coding genes are extremely conserved; however, some of the observed variations have potentially adaptive significance. Here, we evaluated whether the evolution of mtDNA in closely related roe deer species affected by widespread mtDNA introgression is neutral or adaptive. We characterized and compared 16 complete mitogenomes of European (Capreolus capreolus) and Siberian (C. pygargus) roe...
Many species have Holarctic distributions that extend across Europe, Asia, and North America. Most genetics research on these species has examined only mitochondrial (mt) DNA, which has revealed wide variance in divergence between Old World (OW) and New World (NW) populations, ranging from shallow, unstructured genealogies to deeply divergent lineages. In this study, we sequenced 20 nuclear introns to test for concordant patterns of OW-NW differentiation between mtDNA and nuclear (nu) DNA for six lineages...
Data from: Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in RussiaRena Nadjafova
The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetic and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding) made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until...
Russian Academy of Sciences8
Capital Normal University2
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor1
Moscow State University1
University of Alaska System1
Bialystok University of Technology1
University of Miami1
North-Eastern Federal University1
Chinese Academy of Sciences1
United States Geological Survey1