135 Works

Chinese overseas development financing of electric power generation: A comparative analysis

Xu Chen, Kevin P. Gallagher & Denise Mauzerall
Global power generation must rapidly decarbonize by mid-century to meet the goal of stabilizing global warming below 2 degree Celsius. To meet this objective, multilateral development banks (MDBs) have gradually reduced fossil fuel and increased renewable energy financing. Meanwhile, globally active national development finance institutions (DFIs) from Japan and South Korea have continued to finance overseas coal plants. Less is known about the increasingly active Chinese DFIs. Here we construct a new dataset of China’s...

Reproductive control via the threat of eviction in the clown anemonefish

Theresa Rueger, Tina Barbasch, Marian Wong, Maya Scrinivasan, Geoffrey Jones & Peter Buston
In social groups, high reproductive skew is predicted to arise when the reproductive output of a group is limited, and dominant individuals can suppress subordinate reproductive efforts. Reproductive suppression is often assumed to occur via overt aggression or the threat of eviction. It is unclear, however, whether the threat of eviction alone is sufficient to induce reproductive restraint by subordinates.Here,we test two assumptions of the restraint model of reproductive skew by investigating whether resource limitation...

Data from: Coalescent and biophysical models of stepping-stone gene flow in Neritid snails

Eric D. Crandall, Eric A. Treml & Paul H. Barber
Marine species in the Indo-Pacific have ranges that can span thousands of kilometers, yet studies increasingly suggest that mean larval dispersal distances are less than historically assumed. Gene flow across these ranges must therefore rely to some extent on larval dispersal among intermediate “stepping-stone” populations in combination with long-distance dispersal far beyond the mean of the dispersal kernel. We evaluate the strength of stepping-stone dynamics by employing a spatially explicit biophysical model of larval dispersal...

Data from: Dynamics of coral reef benthic assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, eastern Brazil: inferences on natural and anthropogenic drivers

Ronaldo B. Francini-Filho, Ericka O. C. Coni, Pedro M. Meirelles, Gilberto M. Amado-Filho, Fabiano L. Thompson, Guilherme H. Pereira-Filho, Alex C. Bastos, Douglas P. Abrantes, Camilo M. Ferreira, Fernando Z. Gibran, Arthur Z. Güth, Paulo Y. G. Sumida, Nara L. Oliveira, Les Kaufman, Carolina V. Minte-Vera & Rodrigo L. Moura
The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles’ tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3-10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic...

Data from: Big data analysis of genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders in an Alzheimer's disease animal model

Suji Ham, Tae Kyoo Kim, Heeok Hong, Yong Sik Kim, Ya-Ping Tang & Heh-In Im
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the impairment of cognitive function and loss of memory, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. With the dramatic increase in the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease, it is expected to impose extensive public health and economic burden. However, this burden is particularly heavy on the caregivers of Alzheimer’s disease patients eliciting neuropsychiatric symptoms that include mood swings, hallucinations, and depression. Interestingly, these neuropsychiatric symptoms are shared across symptoms of...

Data from: Sex-biased lncRNAs inversely correlate with sex-opposite gene co-expression networks in diversity outbred mouse liver

Tisha Melia & David J. Waxman
Sex differences in liver gene expression are determined by pituitary growth hormone secretion patterns, which regulate sex-dependent liver transcription factors and establish sex-specific chromatin states. Hypophysectomy (hypox) identifies two major classes of liver sex-biased genes, defined by their sex-dependent positive or negative responses to pituitary hormone ablation; however, the mechanisms that underlie each hypox-response class are unknown. Here, we sought to discover candidate regulatory long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) controlling responsiveness to hypophysectomy. We characterized gene...

Data from: Unraveling hierarchical genetic structure in a marine metapopulation: a comparison of three high-throughput genotyping approaches

Cassidy C. D'Aloia, Jose A. Andres, Steven M. Bogdanowicz, Amy R. McCune, Richard G. Harrison & Peter M. Buston
Marine metapopulations often exhibit subtle population structure that can be difficult to detect. Given recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, an emerging question is whether various genetic approaches, in concert with improved sampling designs, will substantially improve our understanding of genetic structure in the sea. To address this question, we explored hierarchical patterns of structure in the coral reef fish Elacatinus lori using a high-resolution approach with respect to both genetic and geographic sampling. Previously, we...

WaveMAP analysis of extracellular waveforms from monkey premotor cortex during decision-making

Eric Lee, Hymavathy Balasubramanian, Alexandra Tsolias, Stephanie Anakwe, Maria Medalla, Krishna Shenoy & Chandramouli Chandrasekaran
Cortical circuits are thought to contain a large number of cell types that coordinate to produce behavior. Current in vivo methods rely on clustering of specified features of extracellular waveforms to identify putative cell types, but these capture only a small amount of variation. Here, we develop a new method (WaveMAP) that combines non-linear dimensionality reduction with graph clustering to identify putative cell types. We apply WaveMAP to extracellular waveforms recorded from dorsal premotor cortex...

Observations of flowering phenology in Concord, Massachusetts, USA, 1963-1993

Abraham Miller-Rushing, Richard Primack & Elizabeth Ellwood
Phenology plays a vital role in understanding the impacts of climate change on plants. Observing and recording the dates that plants are in flower, over periods of years and decades, can elucidate patterns in how plants respond to warming temperatures, shifting precipitation regimes, and other effects of a changing climate. Long-term records of plant phenology are difficult to find. It is often the case that these records do not originate from scientific research studies but...

Negotiations Over Parental Care: A Test of Alternative Hypotheses in the Clown Anemonefish

Tina Barbasch, Rebecca Branconi, Robin Francis, Madison Pacaro, Maya Srinivasan, Geoff Jones & Peter Buston
In species with biparental care, conflict arises over how much each parent provides to their offspring because both parents benefit from shifting the burden of care to the other. Here, we tested alternative hypotheses for how parents will negotiate offspring care using a wild population of clownfish (Amphiprion percula). We experimentally handicapped parents by fin-clipping the female in 23 groups, the male in 23 groups, and neither parent in 23 groups and measured changes in...

Testing assumptions of nitrogen cycling between a temperate, model coral host and its facultative symbiont: symbiotic contributions to dissolved inorganic nitrogen assimilation

Laura DiRoberts, Alexa Dudek, Nicholas Ray, Robinson Fulweiler & Randi Rotjan
Coral symbioses are predicated on the need for mutual nutrient acquisition and translocation between partners. Carbon translocation is well-studied in this classic mutualism, while nitrogen (N) has received comparatively less attention. Quantifying the mechanisms and dynamics of N assimilation is critical to understanding the functional ecology of coral organisms. Given the importance of symbiosis to the coral holobiont, it is important to determine what role photosynthetic symbionts play in N acquisition. We used the facultatively...

Transcriptomic data and analyses of shMeg3 muscle in vitro and in vivo

Francisco Naya, Tiffany Dill, Alina Carroll, Amanda Pinheiro & Jiachen Gao
Formation of skeletal muscle is among the most striking examples of cellular plasticity in animal tissue development, and while muscle progenitor cells are reprogrammed by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to migrate during embryonic development, regulation of EMT in postnatal myogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Meg3 regulates EMT in myoblast differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration. Chronic inhibition of Meg3 in C2C12 myoblasts induced EMT, and supressed cell state transitions...

Going with the flow: corals in high-flow environments can beat the heat

James Fifer, Bastian Bentlage, Sarah Lemer, Atsushi Fujimura, Michael Sweet & Laurie Raymundo
Coral reefs are experiencing unprecedented declines in health on a global scale leading to severe reductions in coral cover. One major cause of this decline is increasing sea surface temperature. However, conspecific colonies separated by even small spatial distances appear to show varying responses to this global stressor. One factor contributing to differential responses to heat stress is variability in the coral’s micro-environment, such as the amount of water flow a coral experiences. High flow...

Data from: Hippocampal replay of experience at real-world speeds

Eric Denovellis, Anna Gillespie, Michael Coulter, Marielena Sosa, Jason Chung, Uri Eden & Loren Frank
Representations related to past experiences play a critical role in memory and decision-making processes. The rat hippocampus expresses these types of representations during sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events, and previous work identified a minority of SWRs that contain “replay” of spatial trajectories at ~20x the movement speed of the animal. Efforts to understand replay typically make multiple assumptions about which events to examine and what sorts of representations constitute replay. We therefore lack a clear understanding...

Data from: Comparing radiomic classifiers and classifier ensembles for detection of peripheral zone prostate tumors on T2-weighted MRI: a multi-site study

Satish E. Viswanath, Prathyush V. Chirra, Michael C. Yim, Neil M. Rofsky, Andrei S. Purysko, Mark A. Rosen, Nicolas B. Bloch & Anant Madabhushi
Background: For most computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) problems involving prostate cancer detection via medical imaging data, the choice of classifier has been largely ad hoc, or been motivated by classifier comparison studies that have involved larger synthetic datasets. More significantly, it is currently unknown how classifier choices and trends generalize across multiple institutions, due to heterogeneous acquisition and intensity characteristics (especially when considering MR imaging data). In this work, we empirically evaluate and compare a number...

Data from: Early predictors of outcomes of hospitalization for cirrhosis and assessment of the impact of race and ethnicity at safety-net hospitals

, Samuel Akinyeye, Zachary Fricker, Moinuddin Syed, Eric Orman, Lauren Nephew, Eduardo Vilar Gomez, James Slaven, Naga Chalasani, Maya Balakrishnan, Michelle Long, Bashar Attar & Marwan Ghabril
Background. Safety-net hospitals provide care for racially/ethnically diverse and disadvantaged urban populations. Their hospitalized patients with cirrhosis are relatively understudied and may be vulnerable to poor outcomes and racial/ethnic disparities. Aims. To examine the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis hospitalized at regionally diverse safety-net hospitals and the impact of race/ethnicity. Methods. A study of patients with cirrhosis hospitalized at 4 safety-net hospitals in 2012 was conducted. Demographic, clinical factors, and outcomes were compared between centers...

Data from: Patterns of parental care in Neotropical glassfrogs: fieldwork alters hypotheses of sex-role evolution

Jesse Delia, Laura Bravo-Valencia & Karen M. Warkentin
Many animals provide parental care to offspring. Parental sex-roles vary extensively across taxa, and such patterns are considered well documented. However, information on amphibians is lacking relative to other vertebrate groups. We combine natural history observations with functional and historical analyses to examine the evolution of egg care in glassfrogs (Centrolenidae). Parental care was considered rare and predominately provided by males. Our field observations of 40 species revealed that care occurs throughout the family, and...

Data from: Competitive growth in a social fish

Cymone Reed, Rebecca Branconi, John Majoris, Cara Johnson & Peter Buston
Many animal societies have dominance hierarchies in which social rank is correlated with size. In such societies, the growth and size of individuals can be a strategic response to their social environment: in fishes, individuals may decrease their growth rate to remain small and retain a subordinate position; in mammals, individuals may increase their growth rate to become large and attain a dominant position — a strategy called competitive growth. Here, we investigate whether the...

Data from: Frequency-dependence shapes the adaptive landscape of imperfect Batesian mimicry

Susan D. Finkbeiner, Patricio A. Salazar, Sofia Nogales, Cassidi E. Rush, Adriana D. Briscoe, Ryan I. Hill, Marcus R. Kronforst, Keith R. Willmott & Sean P. Mullen
Despite more than a century of biological research on the evolution and maintenance of mimetic signals, the relative frequencies of models and mimics necessary to establish and maintain Batesian mimicry in natural populations remains understudied. Here we investigate the frequency-dependent dynamics of imperfect Batesian mimicry, using predation experiments involving artificial butterfly models. We use two geographically distinct populations of Adelpha butterflies that vary in their relative frequencies of a putatively defended model (Adelpha iphiclus) and...

Data from: Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome

Kate E. Langwig, Winifred F. Frick, Rick Reynolds, Katy L. Parise, Kevin P. Drees, Joseph R. Hoyt, Tina L. Cheng, Thomas H. Kunz, Jeffrey T. Foster & A. Marm Kilpatrick
Seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread. Increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences. White-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across North America and threatens several bat species with extinction. We examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmission of P. destructans by measuring...

Harbor of the Pharaohs to the Land of Punt II: Archaeological Investigations at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis, Egypt, 2006-2011

Kathryn A. Bard, Rodolfo Fattovich & Andrea Manzo
Mersa/Wadi Gawasis è il porto del Medio Regno (ca. 2055-1650 a.Cr.) da cui partivano le navigazioni egiziane verso la terra di Punt. Il sito è localizzato sulla costa egiziana del Mar Rosso tra Safaga e Qosseir. Dal 2001, il sito è stato indagato da una Missione archeologica italo-americana dell’Università “L’Orientale” e della Boston University, diretta da Kathryn A. Bard e Rodolfo Fattovich. Il libro è la pubblicazione dei risultati delle campagne condotte dalla Missione tra...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Testing the adaptive hypothesis of Batesian mimicry among hybridizing North American admiral butterflies

Evan Breaux Kristiansen, Susan D. Finkbeiner, Ryan Isaac Hill, Louis Prusa & Sean Patrick Mullen
Batesian mimicry is characterized by phenotypic convergence between an unpalatable model and a palatable mimic. However, because convergent evolution may arise via alternative evolutionary mechanisms, putative examples of Batesian mimicry must be rigorously tested. Here we used artificial butterfly facsimiles (N=4000) to test the prediction that 1) palatable Limenitis lorquini butterflies should experience reduced predation when in sympatry with their putative model, Adelpha californica, 2) protection from predation on L. lorquini should erode outside of...

Data from: Complex dynamics underlie the evolution of imperfect wing pattern convergence in butterflies

Susan D. Finkbeiner, Adriana D. Briscoe & Sean Patrick Mullen
Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid diversification that is strongly associated with ecological specialization. However, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms fueling adaptive diversification requires a detailed knowledge of how natural selection acts at multiple life-history stages. Butterflies within the genus Adelpha represent one of the largest and most diverse butterfly lineages in the Neotropics. Although Adelpha species feed on an extraordinary diversity of larval hosts, convergent evolution is widespread in this group suggesting that selection for...

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