18 Works

Chinese overseas development financing of electric power generation: A comparative analysis

Xu Chen, Kevin P. Gallagher & Denise Mauzerall
Global power generation must rapidly decarbonize by mid-century to meet the goal of stabilizing global warming below 2 degree Celsius. To meet this objective, multilateral development banks (MDBs) have gradually reduced fossil fuel and increased renewable energy financing. Meanwhile, globally active national development finance institutions (DFIs) from Japan and South Korea have continued to finance overseas coal plants. Less is known about the increasingly active Chinese DFIs. Here we construct a new dataset of China’s...

Data from: Unraveling hierarchical genetic structure in a marine metapopulation: a comparison of three high-throughput genotyping approaches

Cassidy C. D'Aloia, Jose A. Andres, Steven M. Bogdanowicz, Amy R. McCune, Richard G. Harrison & Peter M. Buston
Marine metapopulations often exhibit subtle population structure that can be difficult to detect. Given recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, an emerging question is whether various genetic approaches, in concert with improved sampling designs, will substantially improve our understanding of genetic structure in the sea. To address this question, we explored hierarchical patterns of structure in the coral reef fish Elacatinus lori using a high-resolution approach with respect to both genetic and geographic sampling. Previously, we...

Transcriptomic data and analyses of shMeg3 muscle in vitro and in vivo

Francisco Naya, Tiffany Dill, Alina Carroll, Amanda Pinheiro & Jiachen Gao
Formation of skeletal muscle is among the most striking examples of cellular plasticity in animal tissue development, and while muscle progenitor cells are reprogrammed by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to migrate during embryonic development, regulation of EMT in postnatal myogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Meg3 regulates EMT in myoblast differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration. Chronic inhibition of Meg3 in C2C12 myoblasts induced EMT, and supressed cell state transitions...

Going with the flow: corals in high-flow environments can beat the heat

James Fifer, Bastian Bentlage, Sarah Lemer, Atsushi Fujimura, Michael Sweet & Laurie Raymundo
Coral reefs are experiencing unprecedented declines in health on a global scale leading to severe reductions in coral cover. One major cause of this decline is increasing sea surface temperature. However, conspecific colonies separated by even small spatial distances appear to show varying responses to this global stressor. One factor contributing to differential responses to heat stress is variability in the coral’s micro-environment, such as the amount of water flow a coral experiences. High flow...

Socioeconomic disparities in subway use and COVID-19 outcomes in New York City

Karla Therese L. Sy, Micaela E. Martinez, Benjamin Rader & Laura F. White
Using data from New York City, we found that there was an estimated 28-day lag between the onset of reduced subway use and the end of the exponential growth period of SARS-CoV-2 within New York City boroughs. We also conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the associations between human mobility (i.e., subway ridership), sociodemographic factors, and COVID-19 incidence as of April 26, 2020. Areas with lower median income, a greater percentage of individuals who identify as...

Data from: Natal philopatry increases relatedness within groups of coral reef cardinalfish

Theresa Rueger, Hugo Harrison, Peter Buston, Naomi Gardiner, Michael Berumen & Geoffrey Jones
A central issue in evolutionary ecology is how patterns of dispersal influence patterns of relatedness in populations. In terrestrial organisms, limited dispersal of offspring leads to groups of related individuals. In contrast, for most marine organisms, larval dispersal in open waters is thought to minimise kin associations within populations. However, recent molecular evidence and theoretical approaches have shown that limited dispersal, sibling cohesion, and/or differential reproductive success can lead to kin-association and elevated relatedness. Here,...

Multimodal mechanosensing enables treefrog embryos to escape egg-predators

Julie Jung, Shirley J. Serrano-Rojas & Karen M. Warkentin
Mechanosensory-cued hatching (MCH) is widespread, diverse, and improves survival in many animals. From flatworms and insects to frogs and turtles, embryos use mechanosensory cues and signals to inform hatching timing, yet mechanisms mediating mechanosensing in ovo are largely unknown. The arboreal embryos of red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas, hatch prematurely to escape predation, cued by physical disturbance in snake attacks. When otoconial organs in the developing vestibular system become functional, this response strengthens, but its earlier...

Data from: DG-CA3 circuitry mediates hippocampal representations of latent information

Alexandra T. Keinath, Andrés Nieto-Posadas, Jennifer C. Robinson & Mark P. Brandon
Survival in complex environments necessitates a flexible navigation system that incorporates memory of recent behavior and associations. Yet, how the hippocampal spatial circuit represents latent information independent of sensory inputs and future goals has not been determined. To address this, we imaged the activity of large ensembles in subregion CA1 via wide-field fluorescent microscopy during a novel behavioral paradigm. Our results demonstrated that latent information is represented through reliable firing rate changes during unconstrained navigation....

Ecological and social constraints combine to promote evolution of non-breeding strategies in clownfish

Rebecca Branconi, Tina Barbasch, Robin Francis, Maya Srinivasan, Geoffrey Jones & Peter Buston
Individuals that forgo their own reproduction in animal societies represent an evolutionary paradox because it is not immediately apparent how natural selection can preserve the genes that underlie non-breeding strategies. Cooperative breeding theory provides a solution to the paradox: non-breeders benefit by helping relatives and/or inheriting breeding positions; non-breeders do not disperse to breed elsewhere because of ecological constraints. However, the question of why non-breeders do not contest to breed within their group has rarely...

Data from: Implementation of Option B and a fixed-dose combination antiretroviral regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in South Africa: a model of uptake and adherence to care

Mhairi Maskew, Lise Jamieson, Given Mohomi, Lawrence Long, Constance Mongwenyana, Dorah Bokaba, Matthew P Fox, Ian Sanne & Sydney Rosen
Introduction Initiating and retaining pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) remains a major challenge facing African HIV programs, particularly during the critical final months prior to delivery. In 2013, South Africa implemented its “Option B” PMTCT regimen (three-drug ART throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding, regardless of maternal CD4 count) and introduced once-daily fixed-dose combinations and lifelong ART. Currently, the uptake of Option B and its possible impact on adherence to...

Data from: Widespread dysregulation of long non-coding genes associated with fatty acid metabolism, cell division, and immune response gene networks in xenobiotic-exposed rat liver

Kritika Karri & David J. Waxman
Xenobiotic exposure dysregulates hundreds of protein-coding genes in mammalian liver, impacting many physiological processes and inducing diverse toxicological responses. Little is known about xenobiotic effects on long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), many of which have important regulatory functions. Here, we present a computational framework to discover liver-expressed, xenobiotic-responsive lncRNAs (xeno-lncs) with strong functional, gene regulatory potential and elucidate the impact of xenobiotic exposure on their gene regulatory networks. We assembled the long non-coding transcriptome of xenobiotic-exposed...

Power and punishment influence negotiations over parental care

Tina Barbasch, Suzanne Alonzo & Peter Buston
Asymmetries in power, the ability to influence the outcome of conflict, are ubiquitous in social interactions because interacting individuals are rarely identical. It is well-documented that asymmetries in power influence the outcome of reproductive conflict in social groups. Yet power asymmetries have received little attention in the context of negotiations between caring parents, which is surprising given that parents are often markedly different in size. Here we built on an existing negotiation model to examine...

Artificially selecting bacterial communities using propagule strategies

Chang-Yu Chang, Melisa L. Osborne, Djordje Bajic & Alvaro Sanchez
Artificial selection is a promising approach to manipulate microbial communities. Here, we report the outcome of two artificial selection experiments at the microbial community level. Both used “propagule” selection strategies, whereby the best-performing communities are used as the inocula to form a new generation of communities. Both experiments were contrasted to a random selection control. The first experiment used a defined set of strains as the starting inoculum, and the function under selection was the...

Data from: Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV at a Patient’s First Clinic Visit: The RapIT Randomized Controlled Trial

Mhairi Maskew, Sydney Rose, Matthew Fox, Cynthia Nyoni, Constance Mongwenyana, Given Malete, Ian Sanne, Dorah Bokaba, Celeste Sauls, Julia Rohr & Lawrence Long
Background: High rates of patient attrition from care between HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have been documented in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to persistently low CD4 cell counts at treatment initiation. One reason for this is that starting ART in many countries is a lengthy and burdensome process, imposing long waits and multiple clinic visits on patients. We estimated the effect on uptake of ART and viral suppression of an accelerated initiation algorithm that...

Eco-evolutionary significance of 'loners'

Corina Tarnita, Fernando Rossine, Ricardo Martinez-Garcia, Allyson Sgro & Thomas Gregor
Loners, individuals out-of-sync with a coordinated majority, occur frequently in nature. Are loners incidental byproducts of large-scale coordination attempts or are they part of a mosaic of life-history strategies? Here, we provide empirical evidence of naturally occurring heritable variation in loner behavior in the model social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We propose that Dictyostelium loners—cells that do not join the multicellular life-stage—arise from a dynamic population-partitioning process, the result of each cell making a stochastic, signal-based...

Implementation and adherence of routine pertussis vaccination (DTP) in a low-resource urban birth cohort

Christian Gunning, Lawrence Mwananyanda, William MacLeod, Magdalene Mwale, Donald Thea, Rachel Pieciak, Pejman Rohani & Christopher Gill
Introduction: Reliable information on rates of up-to-date coverage and timely administration of routine childhood immunizations is critical for guiding public health efforts worldwide, yet prospective observation of vaccination programs within individual communities is rare. Here we provide a longitudinal analysis of the directly-observed administration of a 3-dose primary vaccination series to infants in a low-resource community in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: Throughout 2015, we recruited a longitudinal birth cohort of mother/infant pairs (initial enrollment, 1,981 pairs;...

Negotiations over offspring care: a test of alternative hypotheses in the clown anemonefish

Tina Barbasch
In species with biparental care, conflict arises over how much each parent provides to their offspring because both benefit from shifting the burden of care to the other. Here, we tested alternative models for how parents negotiate offspring care using a wild population of clownfish (Amphiprion percula). Using 60 breeding groups, we experimentally handicapped parents by fin-clipping the female in 20 groups, the male in 20 groups, and neither parent in 20 groups and measured...

Data for: High-resolution land value maps reveal underestimation of conservation costs in the United States

Christoph Nolte
The justification and targeting of conservation policy rests on reliable measures of public and private benefits from competing land uses. Advances in Earth system observation and modeling permit the mapping of public ecosystem services at unprecedented scales and resolutions, prompting new proposals for land protection policies and priorities. Data on private benefits from land use are not available at similar scales and resolutions, resulting in a data mismatch with unknown consequences. Here I show that...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    18

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18

Affiliations

  • Boston University
    18
  • Princeton University
    2
  • University of the Witwatersrand
    2
  • James Cook University
    2
  • University of Guam
    1
  • Columbia University
    1
  • University of Georgia
    1
  • McGill University
    1
  • King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
    1
  • ARC Centre of Excellence For Coral Reef Studies
    1