24 Works

Data from: Transcriptome-based phylogeny of endemic Lake Baikal amphipod species flock: fast speciation accompanied by frequent episodes of positive selection

Sergey A. Naumenko, Maria D. Logacheva, Nina V. Popova, Anna V. Klepikova, Aleksey A. Penin, Georgii A. Bazykin, Anna E. Etingova, Nikolai S. Mugue, Alexey S. Kondrashov & Lev Y. Yampolsky
Endemic species flocks inhabiting ancient lakes, oceanic islands and other long-lived isolated habitats are often interpreted as adaptive radiations. Yet molecular evidence for directional selection during species flocks radiation is scarce. Using partial transcriptomes of 64 species of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) endemic amphipods and two non-endemic outgroups, we report a revised phylogeny of this species flock, and analyze evidence for positive selection within the endemic lineages. We confirm two independent invasions of amphipods into...

Data from: Rearing temperature and fatty acid supplementation jointly affect lipid fluorescence polarization and heat tolerance in Daphnia

Dominik Martin-Creuzburg, Bret L. Coggins, Dieter Ebert & Lev Yampolsky
The homeoviscous adaptation hypothesis states that the relative abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in membrane phospholipids of ectothermic organisms decreases with increasing temperatures to maintain vital membrane properties. We reared Daphnia magna at 15°, 20°, and 25°C and increasing dietary concentrations of the long-chain PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to test the hypothesis that the well-documented increase in heat tolerance of high-temperature-reared Daphnia is due to a reduction in body PUFA concentrations. Heat tolerance was...

Integrating floral trait and flowering time distribution patterns help reveal a more dynamic nature of co-flowering community assembly processes

Victor Parra-Tabla, Cristopher Albor-Pinto & Gerardo Arceo-Gómez
Species’ floral traits and flowering times are known to be the major drivers of pollinator-mediated plant-plant interactions in diverse co-flowering communities. However, their simultaneous role in mediating plant community assembly and plant-pollinator interactions is still poorly understood. Since not all species flower at the same time, inference of facilitative and competitive interactions based on floral trait distribution patterns should account for fine phenological structure (intensity of flowering overlap) within co-flowering communities. Such an approach may...

An Analysis of the Leadership, Student, and Moral Development Gains of NICFraternity Men Controlling for Sexuality and Institution Size

Shawn M. Dowiak

Changes in Adolescent Birth Rates within Appalachian Subregions and Non-Appalachian Counties in the United States, 2012–2018

Nathan Hale, Kathleen Tatro, Sylvester Olubolu Orimaye, Michael Smith, Michael Meit, Kate E. Beatty & Amal Khoury
Background: Adolescent births are associated with numerous challenges. While adolescent birth rates have declined across the U.S., disparities persist and little is known about the extent to which broader declines are seen within Appalachia. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which adolescent birth rates have declined across the subregions of Appalachia relative to non-Appalachia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of adolescent birth rates between 2012 and 2018 using...

Data from: Flowering overlap and floral trait similarity help explain the structure of pollination network

Víctor Parra-Tabla, Alexander Suárez-Mariño, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez & Cristopher Albor
Co-flowering communities are usually characterized by high plant generalization but knowledge of the underlying factors leading to high levels of generalization and pollinator sharing, and how these may contribute to network structure is still limited. Flowering phenology and floral trait similarity are considered among the most important factors determining plant generalization and pollinator sharing. However, these have been evaluated independently even though they can act in concert with each other. Moreover, the importance of flowering...

Data from: Spatial variation in bidirectional pollinator-mediated interactions between two co-flowering species in serpentine plant communities

Carlos Martel, Amber Stanley & Gerardo Arceo-Gómez
Pollinator-mediated competition and facilitation are two important mechanisms mediating co-flowering community assembly. Experimental studies, however, have mostly focused on evaluating outcomes for a single interacting partner at a single location. Studies that evaluate spatial variation in the bidirectional effects between co-flowering species are necessary if we aim to advance our understanding of the processes that mediate species coexistence in diverse co-flowering communities. Here, we examine geographic variation (i.e., at landscape level) in bidirectional pollinator-mediated effects...

False and true positives in arthropod thermal adaptation candidate gene lists

Lev Yampolsky & Maike Herrmann
Genome-wide studies are prone to false positives due to inherently low priors and statistical power. One approach to ameliorate this problem is to seek validation of reported candidate genes across independent studies: genes with repeatedly discovered effects are less likely to be false positives. Inversely, genes reported only as many times as expected by chance alone, while possibly representing novel discoveries, are also more likely to be false positives. We show that, across over 30...

Data from: Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America

Kieren J. Mitchell, Sarah C. Bray, Pere Bover, Leopoldo Soibelzon, Blaine W. Schubert, Francisco Prevosti, Alfredo Prieto, Fabiana Martin, Jeremy J. Austin & Alan Cooper
The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos...

Rural Appalachia Battling the Intersection of Two Crises

Margaret Miller, Rebekah Rollston, Kate E. Beatty & Michael Meit
During the COVID-19 pandemic, rural Appalachia is at great risk of unforeseen side effects including increased mortality from substance use disorders (SUDs). People living with SUDs are at increased risk for both exposure to and poor outcomes from COVID infection. The economic impacts of COVID-19 must also be considered. As rural Appalachia combats the substance use crisis amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, the geographic economic, health and social inequities within our region must be considered. As...

They Built My Soul

Bethesda OConnell, Ada Sloop, Nicole Intagliata, Melisa Miller & Megan Quinn
Background: Housing is an important social determinant of health and substandard housing is linked to physical, mental, and social health problems. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to qualitatively assess the impacts of repairs to substandard housing in rural East Tennessee through twenty-eight interviews. Methods: Zoom was utilized for recording phone interviews in January– February 2021 and NVivo software was used for thematic analysis in May–July 2021. Results: Themes that emerged included environmental risk...

3D models of Artibeus jamaicensis and Rhinolophus pusillus hyoid apparatus and tympanic bones

Richard Carter & Chelsie Snipes
The morphology of the stylohyal-tympanic bone articulation found in laryngeally echolocating 7 bats is highly indicative of a function associated with signal production. One untested hypothesis is that 8 this morphology allows the transfer of a sound signal from the larynx to the tympanic bones (auditory 9 bulla) via the hyoid apparatus during signal production by the larynx. We used µCT data and finite 10 element analysis (FEA) to model the propagation of sound through...

Data from: Avoided heat-related mortality through climate adaptation in three US cities

, Jason Vargo, Peng Liu, Dana Habeeb, Anthony DeLucia, Marcus Trail, Yongtao Hu, Armistead Russell & Brian Stone
Heat-related mortality in US cities is expected to more than double by the mid-to-late 21st century. Rising heat exposure in cities is projected to result from: 1) climate forcings from changing global atmospheric composition; and 2) local land surface characteristics responsible for the urban heat island effect. The extent to which heat management strategies designed to lessen the urban heat island effect could offset future heat-related mortality remains unexplored in the literature. Using coupled global...

Caught in a bottleneck: Habitat loss for woolly mammoths in central North America and the ice-free corridor during the last deglaciation

Yue Wang, Chris Widga, Russell Graham, Jenny McGuire, Warren Porter, David Wårlind & John Williams
The dataset is to describe the habitat structure and bioenergetic characteristics of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) in North America during the last deglaciation between 15 and 10 ka. The habitat structure includes fractional woody cover (FWC) and net primary productivity (NPP) for 20 plant functional types (PFTs). NPP is based on the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (LPJG). FWC is based on LPJ-GUESS and fossil pollen records in the Neotoma Paleoecology Database. The bioenergetic characteristics of...

Inverse Lansing effect: Maternal age and provisioning affecting daughters’ longevity and male offspring production

Lev Yampolsky
Maternal age effects on offspring life history are known in a variety of organisms, with offspring of older mothers typically having lower life expectancy (Lansing Effect). However there is no consensus on generality and mechanisms of this pattern. We tested predictions of Lansing Effect in several Daphnia magna clones and observed clone-specific magnitude and even direction of the maternal age effect on offspring longevity. We also report ambidirectional, genotype-specific effects of maternal age on daughters'...

Emergence of COVID-19 and Patterns of Early Transmission in an Appalachian Sub-Region

Abbey K. Mann, Timothy A. Joyner, Ingrid E. Luffman, Megan Quinn, William Tollefson & Ashley Frazier
Background: In mid-March 2020, very few cases of COVID-19 had been confirmed in the Central Blue Ridge Region, an area in Appalachia that includes 47 jurisdictions across northeast Tennessee, western North Carolina, and southwest Virginia. Authors described the emergence of cases and outbreaks in the region between March 18 and June 11, 2020. Methods: Data were collected from the health department websites of Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia beginning in mid-March for an ongoing set...

Tracking the Impact of Diseases of Despair in Appalachia—2015 to 2018

Megan Heffernan, Michael Meit, Margaret Cherney & Victoria A. Hallman
Introduction: This study provides an update on mortality due to diseases of despair within the Appalachian Region, comparing 2015 to 2018. Methods: Diseases of despair include: alcohol, prescription drug and illegal drug overdose, suicide, and alcoholic liver disease/cirrhosis of the liver. Analyses are based on National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) mortality data for individuals aged 15-64. Results: Between 2015 and 2017, the diseases of despair mortality rate increased in both Appalachia and the non-Appalachian U.S.,...

Data from: The Achilles' heel hypothesis: misinformed keystone individuals impair collective learning and reduce group success

Jonathan Pruitt, Colin Wright, Carl Keiser, Alexander DeMarco, Matt Grobis, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Matthew M. Grobis, Alex E. DeMarco, Carl N. Keiser, Jonathan N. Pruitt & Colin M. Wright
Many animal societies rely on highly influential keystone individuals for proper functioning. When information quality is important for group success, such keystone individuals have the potential to diminish group performance if they possess inaccurate information. Here we test whether information quality (accurate or inaccurate) influences collective outcomes when keystone individuals are the first to acquire it. We trained keystone or generic individuals to attack or avoid novel stimuli and implanted these seed individuals within groups...

Data from: Assessing niche conservatism using a multiproxy approach: dietary ecology of extinct and extant spotted hyenas

Larisa R. G. DeSantis, Zhijie Jack Tseng, Jinyi Liu, Aaron Hurst, Blaine Schubert & Qigao Jiangzuo
A central premise of bioclimatic envelope modeling is the assumption of niche conservatism. Whereas such assumptions are testable in modern populations, it is unclear if niche conservatism holds over deeper time spans and over very large geographic ranges. Hyaenids occupied a diversity of ecological niches over time and space, and until the end-Pleistocene they occurred in Europe and most of Asia, with Asian populations of Crocuta suggested as being genetically distinct from their closest living...

Data from: Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation for temperature tolerance in freshwater zooplankton

Lev Y. Yampolsky, Tobias M. M. Schaer & Dieter Ebert
Many organisms have geographical distributions extending from the tropics to near polar regions or can experience up to 30°C temperature variation within the lifespan of an individual. Two forms of evolutionary adaptation to such wide ranges in ambient temperatures are frequently discussed: local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna, whose range extends from South Africa to near arctic sites, shows strong phenotypic and genotypic variation in response to temperature. In this...

Pollen transport networks reveal highly diverse and temporally stable plant-pollinator interactions in an Appalachian floral community

Daniel Barker & Gerardo Arceo-Gomez
Floral visitation alone has been typically used to characterize plant-pollinator interaction networks even though it ignores differences in the quality of floral visits (e.g. transport of pollen) and thus may overestimate the number and functional importance of pollinating interactions. However, how network structural properties differ between floral visitation and pollen transport networks is not well understood. Furthermore, the strength and frequency of plant-pollinator interactions may vary across fine temporal scales (within a single season) further...

Pollen transfer networks reveal alien species as main heterospecific pollen donors with fitness consequences for natives

Victor Parra-Tabla, Conchita Alonso, Tia-Lynn Ashman, Robert Raguso, Cristopher Albor, Paula Sosenski, Diego Carmona & Gerardo Arceo-Gómez
The ecological dynamics of co-flowering communities are largely mediated by pollinators. However, current understanding of pollinator-mediated interactions primarily relies on how co-flowering plants influence attraction of shared pollinators, and much less is known about plan-plant interactions that occur via heterospecific pollen (HP) transfer. Invaded communities in particular can be highly affected by the transfer of alien pollen, but the strength, drivers, and fitness consequences of these interactions at a community scale are not well understood....

Floral spectral reflectance data for: Floral color properties of serpentine seep assemblages depend on community size and species richness

Kathryn LeCroy, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Matthew Koski, Nathan Morehouse & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Functional traits, particularly those that impact fitness, can shape the ecological and evolutionary relationships among coexisting species of the same trophic level. Thus, examining these traits and properties of their distributions (underdispersion, overdispersion) within communities can provide insights into key ecological interactions (e.g., competition, facilitation) involved in community assembly. For instance, the distribution of floral colors in a community may reflect pollinator-mediated interactions between sympatric plant species, and the phylogenetic distribution of color can inform...

Breaking Free from Thermodynamic Constraints: Thermal Acclimation and Metabolic Compensation in a freshwater zooplankton species

Lev Yampolsky, Bret Coggins, Cora E. Anderson, A. Catherine Pearson, Rajib Hasan, Millicent N. Ekwudo & Joseph R Bidwell
Ectothermic organisms' respiration rates are largely controlled by environment temperatures and the ability to meet metabolic demands at high temperatures sometimes sets their upper thermal limit. Organisms are hypothesized to exhibit acclimatory effects, adjusting their metabolism and physiology by deceleration of metabolic processes including respiration below Arrhenius expectations based in temperature alone. Such deceleration is termed metabolic compensation. We test the hypothesis that either heritable (among genotypes) or plastic (between acclimation regimes) heat tolerance differences...

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