898 Works

Data from: Community trees: identifying codiversification in the páramo dipteran community

Bryan Charles Carstens, Michael Gruenstaeudl & Noah M. Reid
Groups of codistributed species that responded in a concerted manner to environmental events are expected to share patterns of evolutionary diversification. However, the identification of such groups has largely been based on qualitative, post hoc analyses. We develop here two methods (PPS, K-F ANOVA) for the analysis of codistributed species that, given a group of species with a shared pattern of diversification, allow empiricists to identify those taxa that do not codiversify (i.e., "outlier" species)....

Data from: Spontaneous hybrids between native and exotic Rubus in the Western United States produce offspring both by apomixis and by sexual recombination

Lindsay V. Clark & Marie Jasieniuk
Facultative asexual reproduction is a trait commonly found in invasive species. With a combination of sexual and asexual reproductive modes, such species may adapt to new environments via sexual recombination during range expansion, while at the same time having the benefits of asexuality such as the maintenance of fitness effects that depend upon heterozygosity. In the Western United States, native species of Rubus (Rosaceae) reproduce sexually whereas exotic naturalized Rubus species reproduce by pseudogamous apomixis....

Data from: Sequencing of seven haloarchaeal genomes reveals patterns of genomic flux

Erin A. Lynch, Morgan G. I. Langille, Aaron Darling, Elizabeth G. Wilbanks, Caitlin Haltiner, Katie S. Y. Shao, Michael O. Starr, Clotilde Teiling, Timothy T. Harkins, Robert A. Edwards, Jonathan A. Eisen & Marc T. Facciotti
We report the sequencing of seven genomes from two haloarchaeal genera, Haloferax and Haloarcula. Ease of cultivation and the existence of well-developed genetic and biochemical tools for several diverse haloarchaeal species make haloarchaea a model group for the study of archaeal biology. The unique physiological properties of these organisms also make them good candidates for novel enzyme discovery for biotechnological applications. Seven genomes were sequenced to ~20×coverage and assembled to an average of 50 contigs...

Data from: Sympatric, temporally isolated populations of the pine white butterfly Neophasia menapia, are morphologically and genetically differentiated

Katherine L. Bell, Christopher A. Hamm, Arthur M. Shapiro & Chris C. Nice
Temporal isolation remains an understudied, and potentially under-appreciated, mechanism of reproductive isolation. Phenological differences have been discovered in populations of the pine white butterfly (Neophasia menapia), a typically univoltine species found throughout western North America. At two locations in the Coast Range of California there are two periods of adult emergence per year, one in early summer (July) and one in late summer/autumn (September/October). Differences in flight time are accompanied by differences in wing shape...

Data from: Why close relatives make bad neighbors: phylogenetic conservatism in niche preferences and dispersal disproves Darwin’s Naturalization Hypothesis in the thistle tribe

Daniel S. Park & Daniel Potter
The number of exotic plant species that have been introduced into the United States far exceeds that of other groups of organisms, and many of these have become invasive. As in many regions of the globe, invasive members of the thistle tribe, Cardueae, are highly problematic in the California Floristic Province, an established biodiversity hotspot. While Darwin's naturalization hypothesis posits that plant invaders closely related to native species would be at a disadvantage, evidence has...

Data from: Functional and population genomic divergence within and between two species of killifish adapted to different osmotic niches

Genevieve M. Kozak, Reid S. Brennan, Emma L. Berdan, Rebecca C. Fuller & Andrew Whitehead
Adaptation to salinity affects species distributions, promotes speciation, and guides many evolutionary patterns in fishes. To uncover the basis of a complex trait like osmoregulation, genome-level analyses are sensible. We combine population genomic scans with genome expression profiling to discover candidate genes and pathways associated with divergence between osmotic environments. We compared transcriptome sequence divergence between multiple freshwater and saltwater populations of the rainwater killifish, Lucania parva. We also compared sequence divergence between L. parva...

Data from: Novel trophic niches drive variable progress toward ecological speciation within an adaptive radiation of pupfishes

Christopher H. Martin & Laura C. Feinstein
Adaptive radiation is recognized by a rapid burst of phenotypic, ecological, and species diversification. However, it is unknown whether different species within an adaptive radiation evolve reproductive isolation at different rates. We compared patterns of genetic differentiation among nascent species within an adaptive radiation of Cyprinodon pupfishes using genotyping by sequencing. Similar to classic adaptive radiations, this clade exhibits rapid morphological diversification rates and two species are novel trophic specialists, a scale-eater and hard-shelled prey...

Data from: Seasonal cycles, phylogenetic assembly, and functional diversity of orchid bee communities

Santiago R. Ramírez, Carlos Hernández, Andres Link & Margarita M. López-Uribe
Neotropical rainforests sustain some of the most diverse terrestrial communities on Earth. Euglossine (or orchid) bees are a diverse lineage of insect pollinators distributed throughout the American tropics, where they provide pollination services to a staggering diversity of flowering plant taxa. Elucidating the seasonal patterns of phylogenetic assembly and functional trait diversity of bee communities can shed new light into the mechanisms that govern the assembly of bee pollinator communities and the potential effects of...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Behavioral types of predator and prey jointly determine prey survival: potential implications for the maintenance of within species behavioral variation

Jonathan N. Pruitt, John J. Stachowicz & Andrew Sih
Recent studies in animal behavior have emphasized the ecological importance of individual variation in behavioral types (e.g. boldness, activity). Such studies have emphasized how variation in one species affects its interaction with other species. But few (if any) studies simultaneously examine variation in multiple interacting species, despite the potential for coevolutionary responses to work to either maintain or eliminate variation in interacting populations. Here, we investigate how individual differences in behavioral types of both predators...

Data from: Forest disturbance accelerates thermophilization of understory plant communities

Jens T. Stevens, Hugh D. Safford, Susan Harrison & Andrew M. Latimer
1. Climate change is likely to shift plant communities towards species from warmer regions, a process termed “thermophilization.” In forests, canopy disturbances such as fire may hasten this process by increasing temperature and moisture stress in the understory, yet little is known about the mechanisms that might drive such shifts, or the consequences of these processes for plant diversity. 2. We sampled understory vegetation across a gradient of disturbance severity from a large-scale natural experiment...

Data from: Gene flow improves fitness at a range edge under climate change

Megan Bontrager & Amy L. Angert
Populations at the margins of a species' geographic range are often thought to be poorly adapted to their environment. According to theoretical predictions, gene flow can inhibit these range edge populations if it disrupts adaptation to local conditions. Alternatively, if range edge populations are small or isolated, gene flow can provide beneficial genetic variation, and may facilitate adaptation to environmental change. We tested these competing predictions in the annual wildflower Clarkia pulchella using greenhouse crosses...

Data from: Genetic footprints of Iberian cattle in America 500 years after the arrival of Columbus

Amparo M. Martínez, Luis T. Gama, Javier Cañón, Catarina Ginja, Juan V. Delgado, Susana Dunner, Vincenzo Landi, Inmaculada Martín-Burriel, M. Cecilia T. Penedo, Clementina Rodellar, Jose Luis Vega-Pla, Atzel Acosta, Luz Ángela Álvarez, Esperanza Camacho, Óscar Cortés, José Ribamar Marques, Óscar Roberto Martínez, Rubén Darío Martínez, Lilia Melucci, Guillermo Martínez-Velázquez, Jose Ernesto Muñoz, Alicia Postiglioni, Jorge Quiroz, Philip Sponenberg, Odalys Uffo … & Ruben D. Martínez
BACKGROUND: American Creole cattle presumably descend from animals imported from the Iberian Peninsula during the period of colonization and settlement, through different migration routes, and may have also suffered the influence of cattle directly imported from Africa. The introduction of European cattle, which began in the 18th century, and later of Zebu from India, has threatened the survival of Creole populations, some of which have nearly disappeared or were admixed with exotic breeds. Assessment of...

Data from: The spectre of too many species

Adam D. Leache, Tianqi Zhu, Bruce Rannala & Ziheng Yang
Recent simulation studies examining the performance of Bayesian species delimitation as implemented in the BPP program have suggested that BPP may detect population splits but not species divergences and that it tends to over-split when data of many loci are analyzed. Here we confirm these results and provide the mathematical justifications. We point out that the distinction between population and species splits made in the protracted speciation model has no influence on the generation of...

Data from: Sex-dependent effects of 2,2′,3,5′,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) on dendritic arborization of primary mouse neurons

Kimberly P. Keil, Sunjay Sethi & Pamela J. Lein
Early life exposures to environmental contaminants are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). These disorders often display sex biases, but whether environmental neurotoxicants act in a sex-dependent manner to modify neurodevelopment is largely unknown. Since altered dendritic morphology is associated with many NDDs, we tested the hypothesis that male and female primary mouse neurons are differentially susceptible to the dendrite promoting activity of 2,2′,3,5′,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95). Hippocampal and cortical neuron-glia co-cultures were...

Data from: Impacts of worker density in colony-level aggression, expansion, and survival of the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae

Juan Carlos Ruiz Guajardo, Dena L. Grossenbacher, Richard K. Grosberg, Todd M. Palmer, Maureen L. Stanton & Juan Carlos Ruiz-Guajardo
Experimental studies assessing the impact of demographic changes on aggression and inter-group competitive outcomes in communities of social species are rare. This gap in our knowledge is important, not only because social species are foundational elements of many terrestrial ecosystems, but because interference competition among social groups often involves decision-like processes influenced by demographic and environmental contexts. In East Africa, the symbiotic ant Crematogaster mimosae is a co-dominant competitor that engages in high-mortality, intra- and...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in plant chemical defences drives latitudinal patterns of leaf herbivory

Xoaquón Moreira, Bastien Castagneyrol, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Jorge C. Berny-Mier Y Terán, Bart G. H. Timmermans, Hans Henrik Kehlet Bruun, Felisa Covelo, Gaétan Glauser, Sergio Rasmann, Ayco J. M. Tack & Hans Henrik Bruun
A long-standing paradigm in ecology holds that herbivore pressure and thus plant defences increase towards lower latitudes. However, recent work has challenged this prediction where studies have found no relationship or opposite trends where herbivory or plant defences increase at higher latitudes. Here we tested for latitudinal variation in herbivory, chemical defences (phenolic compounds), and nutritional traits (phosphorus and nitrogen) in leaves of a long-lived tree species, the English oak Quercus robur. We further investigated...

Data from: Population dynamics of an Arctiid caterpillar-tachinid parasitoid system using state-space models

Richard Karban & Perry De Valpine
1. Population dynamics of insect host–parasitoid systems are important in many natural and managed ecosystems and have inspired much ecological theory. However, ecologists have a limited knowledge about the relative strengths of species interactions, abiotic effects and density dependence in natural host–parasitoid dynamics. Statistical time-series analyses would be more informative by incorporating multiple factors, measurement error and noisy dynamics. 2. We use a novel maximum likelihood and model-selection analysis of a state-space model for host–parasitoid...

Data from: Context-dependent effects of large wildlife declines on small mammal communities in central Kenya

Hillary S. Young, Douglas J. McCauley, Rodolfo Dirzo, Jacob R. Goheen, Bernard Agwanda, Cara Brook, Erik O. Castillo, Adam W. Ferguson, Stephen N. Kinyua, Molly M. McDonough, Todd M. Palmer, Robert M. Pringle, Truman P. Young & Kristofer M. Helgen
Many species of large wildlife have declined drastically worldwide. These reductions often lead to profound shifts in the ecology of entire communities and ecosystems. However, the effects of these large wildlife declines on other taxa likely hinge upon both underlying abiotic properties of these systems and on the types of secondary anthropogenic changes associated with wildlife loss, making impacts difficult to predict. To better understand how these important contextual factors determine the consequences of large-wildlife...

Data from: Experimental tests of the function and flexibility of song consistency in a wild bird

Conor C. Taff & Corey R. Freeman-Gallant
Measures of bird song that capture aspects of motor performance, such as consistency, have become a major focus in understanding sexual selection on song. Despite accumulating evidence that consistency is related to reproductive success in many species, the relative importance of male–male interactions and female–male interactions is still unclear. We studied the function and flexibility of song consistency and song rate in common yellowthroat warblers (Geothlypis trichas). A previous study of this population found that...

Data from: Behavioural hypervolumes of spider communities predict community performance and disbandment

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Daniel I. Bolnick, Andrew Sih, Nicholas DiRienzo & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Trait-based ecology argues that an understanding of the traits of interactors can enhance the predictability of ecological outcomes. We examine here whether the multidimensional behavioural-trait diversity of communities influences community performance and stability in situ. We created experimental communities of web-building spiders, each with an identical species composition. Communities contained one individual of each of five different species. Prior to establishing these communities in the field, we examined three behavioural traits for each individual spider....

Data from: Impact of nutrition and salinity changes on biological performances of green and white sturgeon

Pedro G. Vaz, Ermias Kebreab, Silas S.O. Hung, James G. Fadel, Seunghyung Lee, Nann A. Fangue & Silas S. O. Hung
Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon...

Data from: Influence of damming on anuran species richness in riparian areas: a test of the serial discontinuity concept

Jacquelyn C. Guzy, Evan A. Eskew, Brian J. Halstead & Steven J. Price
1. Almost all large rivers worldwide are fragmented by dams, and their impacts have been modelled using the serial discontinuity concept (SDC), a series of predictions regarding responses of key biotic and abiotic variables. 2. We evaluated the effects of damming on anuran communities along a 245-km river corridor by conducting repeated, time-constrained anuran calling surveys at 42 locations along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers in South Carolina, USA. 3. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis,...

Data from: Historical baselines and the future of shell calcification for a foundation species in a changing ocean

Catherine A. Pfister, Kaustuv Roy, J. Timothy Wootton, Sophie J. McCoy, Robert T. Paine, Thomas H. Suchanek & Eric Sanford
Seawater pH and the availability of carbonate ions is decreasing due to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, posing challenges for calcifying marine species. Marine mussels are of particular concern given their role as foundation species worldwide. Here, we document shell growth and calcification patterns in Mytilus californianus, the California mussel, over millennial and decadal scales. By comparing shell thickness across the largest modern shells, the largest mussels collected in the 1960s-1970s and shells from two Native...

Data from: Soil microbial communities alter conspecific and congeneric competition consistent with patterns of field coexistence in three Trifolium congeners

Andrew Siefert, Kenneth W. Zillig, Maren L. Friesen & Sharon Y. Strauss
1. Coexistence and diversity in plant communities depend upon outcomes of plant competition. Competition and coexistence can be mediated by abiotic soil nutrient differences as well as by soil microbial communities. The latter effects occur through various mechanisms including negative plant-soil feedbacks, when plants foster the build-up of specialized pathogenic microbes, which ultimately reduce conspecific, but not heterospecific, densities. Microbial mutualists can have generalized associations with host plants, and by associating with multiple species might...

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