156 Works

Data from: Body shape diversification along the benthic-pelagic axis in marine fishes

Sarah Friedman, Samantha Price, Katherine Corn, Olivier Larouche, Christopher Martinez & Peter Wainwright
Colonization of novel habitats can result in marked phenotypic responses to the new environment that include changes in body shape and opportunities for further morphological diversification. Fishes have repeatedly transitioned along the benthic-pelagic axis, with varying degrees of association with the substrate. Previous work focusing on individual lineages shows that these transitions are accompanied by highly predictable changes in body form. Here, we generalize expectations drawn from this literature to study the effects of habitat...

Transportation Network Company (TNC) taxes/fees by state/city in the United States

Sam Fuller & Austin Brown
Cities and states across the U.S. are assessing fees or taxes on transportation network company (TNC) platforms, such as Uber and Lyft. The goals of these policies include traffic and emissions mitigation, as well as revenue generation, among other objectives. Our research aims to assess the goals and effectiveness of these fees in achieving some of these policy objectives, primarily congestion and emissions mitigation. The analysis addresses a core difficulty in comparing TNC fees—some fees...

Wildfire alters the disturbance impacts of an emerging infectious disease via changes to host occurrence and demographic structure

Allison Simler-Williamson, Margaret Metz, Kerri Frangioso & David Rizzo
1. Anthropogenic activities have altered historical disturbance regimes, and understanding the mechanisms by which these shifting perturbations interact is essential to predicting where they may erode ecosystem resilience. Emerging infectious plant diseases, caused by human translocation of nonnative pathogens, can generate ecologically-damaging forms of novel biotic disturbance. Further, abiotic disturbances, such as wildfire, may influence the severity and extent of disease-related perturbations via their effects on the occurrence of hosts, pathogens, and microclimates; however, these...

Predator group composition indirectly influences food web dynamics through predator growth rates

Kate Laskowski, Marta Alirangues Nunez, Sabine Hilt, Mark Gessner & Thomas Mehner
Considerable theoretical work predicts that intraspecific trait variation can have profound ecological consequences by altering species interactions. Because of their high flexibility, behavioral traits may be especially relevant in mediating how species respond to one another, thus affecting food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning. However, empirical evidence supporting this idea is limited. Here we generated predator groups where we manipulated the composition of behavioral types within the groups to assess effects on predator growth rates,...

Implications of genetic heterogeneity for plant translocation during ecological restoration

Taylor Crow
Ecological restoration often requires translocating plant material from distant sites. Importing suitable plant material is important for successful establishment and persistence. Yet published guidelines for seed transfer are available for very few species. Accurately predicting how transferred plants will perform requires multi-year and multi-environment field trials and comprehensive follow-up work, and is therefore infeasible given the number of species used in restoration programs. Alternative methods to predict the outcomes of seed transfer are valuable for...

Species interactions across trophic levels mediate rainfall effects on dryland vegetation dynamics

Douglas Kelt, Julio Gutiérrez & Peter Meserve
Arid ecosystems are strongly limited by water availability, and precipitation plays a major role in the dynamics of all species in arid regions, as well as the ecosystem processes that occur there. However, understanding how biotic interactions mediate long-term responses of dryland ecosystems to rainfall remains very fragmented. We report on a unique large-scale field experiment spanning 25 years and three trophic levels (plants, small mammal herbivores, predators) in a dryland ecosystem in the northern...

Unraveling the complex hybrid ancestry and domestication history of cultivated strawberry

Michael Hardigan, Anne Lorant, Dominique Pincot, Mitchell Feldmann, Randi Famula, Charlotte Acharya, Seonghee Lee, Sujeet Verma, Vance Whitaker, Nahla Bassil, Jason Zurn, Glenn Cole, Kevin Bird, Patrick Edger & Steven Knapp
Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is one of our youngest domesticates, originating in early eighteenth-century Europe from spontaneous hybrids between wild allo-octoploid species (F. chiloensis and F. virginiana). The improvement of horticultural traits by 300 years of breeding has enabled the global expansion of strawberry production. Here, we describe the genomic history of strawberry domestication from the earliest hybrids to modern cultivars. We observed a significant increase in heterozygosity among interspecific hybrids and a decrease...

Landscape simplification increases vineyard pest outbreaks and insecticide use

Daniel Paredes, Jay Rosenheim, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Silvia Winter & Daniel Karp
Diversifying agricultural landscapes may mitigate biodiversity declines and improve pest management. Yet landscapes are rarely managed to suppress pests, in part because researchers seldom measure key variables related to pest outbreaks and insecticides that drive management decisions. We used a 13-year government database to analyze landscape effects on European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) outbreaks and insecticides across ~400 Spanish vineyards. At harvest, we found pest outbreaks increased four-fold in simplified, vineyard-dominated landscapes compared to complex...

Coronavirus testing indicates transmission risk increases along wildlife supply chains for human consumption in Viet Nam, 2013-2014

Sarah H. Olson, Nguyen Quynh Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh Nga, Nguyen Van Long, Bach Duc Luu, Alice Latinne, Mathieu Pruvot, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Le Tin Vinh Quang, Vo Van Hung, Nguyen Thi Lan, Nguyen Thi Hoa, Phan Quang Minh, Nguyen Thi Diep, Nguyen Tung, Van Dang Ky, Scott I. Roberton, Hoang Bich Thuy, Martin Gilbert, Leanne Wicker, Jonna A. K. Mazet, Christine Kreuder Johnson, Tracey Goldstein, Alex Tremeau-Bravard, Victoria Ontiveros … & Nguyen Van Long
Outbreaks of emerging coronaviruses in the past two decades and the current pandemic of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in China highlight the importance of this viral family as a zoonotic public health threat. To gain a better understanding of coronavirus presence and diversity in wildlife at wildlife-human interfaces in three southern provinces in Viet Nam 2013-2014, we used consensus Polymerase Chain Reactions to detect coronavirus sequences. In comparison to previous studies, we observed...

Data from: Indirect genetic control of migration in a salmonid fish

Suzanne Kelson, Stephanie Carlson & Michael Miller
The paper titled "Indirect genetic control of migration in a salmonid fish" examines the genetic architecture of migration in a partially migratory salmonid fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss. We assess the shared genetic basis between early life growth and migration, and find a shared allelic basis on the Omy05 region of the genome. We then test if early life growth differs among resident/migratory genotype juvenile fish in streams in the South Fork Eel River watershed, in Northern...

Data from: Evolutionary trade-offs in the chemical defense of floral and fruit tissues across genus Cornus

Chase M. Mason, Danielle R. De La Pascua, Corrinne Smith-Winterscheidt, Jordan A. Dowell & Eric W. Goolsby
Premise of the study Defense investment in plant reproductive structures is relatively understudied compared to the defense of vegetative organs. Here the evolution of chemical defenses in reproductive structures is examined in light of the optimal defense, apparency, and resource availability hypotheses within the genus Cornus using a phylogenetic comparative approach in relation to phenology and native habitat environmental data. Methods Individuals representing 25 Cornus species were tracked for reproductive phenology over a full growing...

Effects of low-carbon energy adoption on airborne particulate matter concentrations with feedbacks to future climate over California

Anikender Kumar, Christina Zapata, Sonia Yeh, Chris Yang, Joan Ogden, Hsiang-He Lee, ShuHua Chen & Michael Kleeman
California plans to reduce emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) through adoption of new energy systems that will also lower concentrations of short-lived absorbing soot contained in airborne particulate matter (PM). Here we examine the direct and indirect effects of reduced PM concentrationsunder a low-carbon energy (GHG-Step) scenario on radiative forcing in California. Simulations were carried out using the source-oriented WRF/Chem (SOWC) model over California with 12 km spatial resolutionfor the year 2054. The avoided...

Data from: Cooperation can promote rescue or lead to evolutionary suicide during environmental change

Gil Henriques & Matthew Osmond
The adaptation of populations to changing conditions may be affected by interactions between individuals. For example, when cooperative interactions increase fecundity, they may allow populations to maintain high densities and thus keep track of moving environmental optima. Simultaneously, changes in population density alter the marginal benefits of cooperative investments, creating a feedback loop between population dynamics and the evolution of cooperation. Here we model how the evolution of cooperation interacts with adaptation to changing environments....

Data from: Addressing incomplete lineage sorting and paralogy in the inference of uncertain salmonid phylogenetic relationships

Matthew Campbell, Thaddaeus Buser, Michael Alfaro & J. Andres Lopez
Recent and continued progress in the scale and sophistication of phylogenetic research has yielded substantial advances in knowledge of the tree of life; however, segments of that tree remain unresolved and continue to produce contradicting or unstable results. These poorly resolved relationships may be the product of methodological shortcomings or of an evolutionary history that did not generate the signal traits needed for its eventual reconstruction. Relationships within the euteleost fish family Salmonidae have proven...

Interpreting morphological adaptations associated with viviparity in the Tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans) by three-dimensional analysis

Geoffrey Attardo
Tsetse flies (genus Glossina), the sole vectors of African trypanosomiasis, are distinct from other disease vectors, and most other insects, due to dramatic evolutionary adaptations required to support their unique life history. These morphological and physiological adaptations are driven by demands associated with their strict dietary and reproductive requirements. Tsetse reproduce by obligate viviparity which entails obligate intrauterine larval development and provisioning of nutrients for the developing larvae. Viviparous reproduction reduces reproductive capacity/rate which also...

Patterns of annual and seasonal immune investment in a temporal reproductive opportunist

Elizabeth Schultz, Christian Gunning, Jamie Cornelius, Dustin Reichard, Kirk Klasing & Thomas Hahn
Historically, investigations of how organismal investments in immunity fluctuate in response to environmental and physiological changes have focused on seasonally breeding organisms that confine reproduction to seasons with relatively unchallenging environmental conditions and abundant resources. The red crossbill, Loxia curvirostra, is a songbird that can breed opportunistically if conifer seeds are abundant, on both short, cold, and long, warm days, providing an ideal system to investigate environmental and reproductive effects on immunity. In this study,...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Analytical Modeling Framework to Assess the Economic and Environmental Impacts of Residential Deliveries, and Evaluate Sustainable City Logistics Strategies

Anmol Pahwa & Miguel Jaller
In the last decade, e‐commerce has grown substantially, increasing business‐to‐business, business‐to‐consumer, and consumer‐to‐consumer transactions. As a result, there has been a continuous growth in last mile operations, especially deliveries to residential areas, bringing along externalities such as congestion, air and noise pollution, and energy consumption. This project aims to develop an analytical framework to model last mile operations based on continuous approximation techniques. The model will help estimate the economic and environmental impacts of residential...

Early maternal separation is not associated with changes in telomere length in domestic kittens (Felis catus)

Mikel Delgado, C.A.T. Tony Buffington, Melissa Bain & Karen Vernau
Objective The objective of this study was to determine if premature separation from the mother affected telomere length in domestic kittens (Felis catus) at one and eight weeks of life. Subjects were 42 orphaned kittens and 10 mother-reared kittens from local animal rescue groups and shelters. Blood (200 µl) was collected from kittens at 1 and 8 weeks of age via jugular venipuncture. Telomere length was assessed by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) from 86...

Equate SENAS and IVD cognitive measure: Summary of methods and results

Dan Mungas, Ji Won Han, Pauline Maillard, Danielle Harvey, Evan Fletcher, Oliver Martinez, David Johnson, John Olichney, Sarah Farias, Sylvia Villeneuve, William Jagust & Charles DeCarli
Conceptually similar measures of episodic memory and executive function have been derived from different tests that compose the SENAS (Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scale) and IVD-PPG (ischemic vascular contributions to cognitive decline and dementia) neuropsychological test batteries. The purpose of this project was to create equated episodic memory and executive scores from these two batteries that are on the same measurement metric and can be combined in analyses using data from both projects. This...

Data from: Patterns of annual and seasonal immune investment in a temporal reproductive opportunist

Elizabeth Schultz, Christian Gunning, Jamie Cornelius, Dustin Reichard, Kirk Klasing & Thomas Hahn
Historically, investigations of how organismal investments in immunity fluctuate in response to environmental and physiological changes have focused on seasonally breeding organisms that confine reproduction to seasons with mild environmental conditions and abundant resources. The red crossbill, Loxia curvirostra, is a songbird that can breed opportunistically if conifer seeds are abundant, on both short, cold, and long, warm days, providing an ideal system to investigate interactions between immunity, reproduction, and environmental fluctuations. In this study,...

Data from: Distinct association between APOE ε2 and Aβ in Alzheimer- and vascular-type cognitive impairment

Jin San Lee, Hyejoo Lee, Seongbeom Park, Yeongsim Choe, Yu Hyun Park, Bo Kyoung Cheon, Alice Hahn, Rik Ossenkoppele, Hee Jin Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Heejin Yoo, Hyemin Jang, Soo Hyun Cho, Seung Joo Kim, Jun Pyo Kim, Young Hee Jung, Key-Chung Park, Charles DeCarli, Michael Weiner, Duk L. Na & Sang Won Seo
Objective: To investigate the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and amyloid-β (Aβ) burden, as measured by PET in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) and those with Alzheimer’s disease-related cognitive impairment (ADCI). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 310 patients with SVCI and 999 with ADCI. To evaluate the effects of APOE genotype or diagnostic group on Aβ-positivity, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses. Further distinctive underlying features of latent subgroups were...

A Peacock Bass (Cichla) functional novelty relaxes a constraint imposed by the classic cichlid pharyngeal jaw innovation

Edward Burress & Peter Wainwright
Innovations may provide access to new resources but often result in significant trade-offs. Pharyngognathy is a classic pharyngeal jaw innovation in which the left and right lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) bones are united into a single structure, producing a strong bite but reduced gape. Throughout cichlids, pharyngeal suturing occurs along the entire medial border between LPJ bones, except in Peacock bass (Cichla), where these bones are connected by ligaments only in their anterior region. We...

Data from: Zooming in on mechanistic predator-prey ecology: integrating camera traps with experimental methods to reveal the drivers of ecological interactions

Justine Smith, Justin Suraci, Jennifer Hunter, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Carson Keller, Meredith Palmer, Justine Atkins, Irene Castañeda, Michael Cherry, Patrick Garvey, Sarah Huebner, Dana Morin, Lisa Teckentrup, Martijn Weterings & Lydia Beaudrot
1. Camera trap technology has galvanized the study of predator-prey ecology in wild animal communities by expanding the scale and diversity of predator-prey interactions that can be analyzed. While observational data from systematic camera arrays have informed inferences on the spatiotemporal outcomes of predator-prey interactions, the capacity for observational studies to identify mechanistic drivers of species interactions is limited. 2. Experimental study designs that utilize camera traps uniquely allow for testing hypothesized mechanisms that drive...

Healthy lifestyle and the risk of Alzheimer's dementia: Findings from two longitudinal studies

Klodian Dhana, Denis Evans, Kumar Rajan, David Bennett & Martha Morris
Objective To quantify the impact of a healthy lifestyle on the risk of Alzheimer's dementia. Methods Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP n=1,845) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP n=920), we defined a healthy lifestyle score on the basis of non-smoking, >=150 min/week moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption, high-quality MIND diet (upper 40%), and engagement in late-life cognitive activities (upper 40%), giving an overall score ranging from...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    156

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    150
  • Text
    4
  • Output Management Plan
    2

Affiliations

  • University of California, Davis
    156
  • University of California, Berkeley
    13
  • Oregon State University
    6
  • Stanford University
    5
  • University of Georgia
    5
  • University of Minnesota
    5
  • University of British Columbia
    4
  • Michigan State University
    4
  • University of California, Merced
    3
  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
    3