26 Works

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Rischio, catastrofe e gestione dell’emergenza nel Mediterraneo occidentale e in Ispanoamerica in età moderna : omaggio a Jean-Philippe Luis

Armando Alberola Romá & Domenico Cecere
The volume includes a significant part of the findings of an interdisciplinary and international research project on disasters that occurred in the territories under the Bourbon monarchies between the 18th and early 19th centuries. It is composed of twelve essays that explore the strategies and practices by which institutions and societies sought to manage, mitigate and prevent the catastrophic effects of eruptions, earthquakes, floods, famine and epidemics. The articles address several territories, that are geographically...

Data from: The effects of male social environment on sperm phenotype and genome integrity

Willian T.A.F. Silva, Paula Saez-Espinosa, Stephanie Torijo Boix, Alejandro Romero, Caroline Devaux, Mathilde Durieux, Maria Jose Gomez Torres & Simone Immler
Sperm function and quality are primary determinants of male reproductive performance and hence fitness. The presence of rival males has been shown to affect ejaculate and sperm traits in a wide range of taxa. However, male physiological conditions may not only affect sperm phenotypic traits but also their genetic and epigenetic signatures, affecting the fitness of the resulting offspring. We investigated the effects of male-male competition on sperm quality using TUNEL assays and geometric morphometrics...

Timing is everything: Acoustic niche partitioning in two tropical wet forest bird communities

Patrick Hart, Thomas Ibanez, Kristina Paxton & Esthér Sebastián-González
When acoustic signals sent from individuals overlap in frequency and time, acoustic interference and signal masking may occur. Under the acoustic niche hypothesis (ANH), signaling behavior has evolved to partition acoustic space and minimize overlap with other calling individuals through selection on signal structure and/or the sender’s ability to adjust the timing of signals. Alternately, under the acoustic clustering hypothesis, there is potential benefit to convergence and synchronization of the structural or temporal characteristics of...

Decomposition disentangled: a test of the multiple mechanisms by which nitrogen enrichment alters litter decomposition

Eric Allan, Noémie Pichon, Seraina Cappelli, Santiago Soliveres, Norbert Hölzel, Valentin Klaus & Till Kleinebecker
Nitrogen (N) enrichment has direct effects on ecosystem functioning by altering soil abiotic conditions and indirect effects by reducing plant diversity and shifting plant functional composition from dominance by slow to fast growing species. Litter decomposition is a key ecosystem function and is affected by N enrichment either by a change in litter quality (the recalcitrance of the plant material) or through a change in soil quality (the abiotic and biotic components of the soil...

Fire recurrence and time since last fire interact to determine the supply of multiple ecosystem services by Mediterranean forests

Aymen Moghli, Victor M. Santana, M. Jaime Baeza, Estrella Pastor & Santiago Soliveres
Wildfires shape the composition and functioning of Mediterranean ecosystems, but we do not know how these ecosystems respond to both the higher fire recurrence and shorter recovery times expected for future climatic scenarios. We sampled 29 plots with different fire recurrences (from 0 to 4 fires over the past decades) and time since the last fire (up to 35 years; hereafter TSLF) in Southeast Spain, to assess the effect of fire recurrence and TSLF on...

Data from: Biogeographical scenarios modulate seagrass resistance to small-scale perturbations

Fernando Tuya, Yolanda Fernández‐Torquemada, Jesús Zarcero, Yoana Del Pilar-Ruso, Ina Csenteri, Fernando Espino, Pablo Manent, Leticia Curbelo, Adriá Antich, José A. De La Ossa, Laura Royo, Inés Castejon-Silvo, Gabriele Procaccini, Jorge Terrados & Fiona Tomas
1. Seagrasses constitute a key coastal habitat worldwide, but are are exposed to multiple perturbations. Understanding elements affecting seagrass resistance to disturbances is critical for conservation. Distinct biogeographical scenarios are intrinsically linked with varying ecological and evolution backgrounds shaped across millennia. 2. We addressed whether the resistance (change in shoot abundances) and performance (change in leaf morphology and growth) of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa to a local stressor, light reduction, varied across three regions (Southeast...

Data from: Species but not genotype diversity strongly impacts the establishment of rare colonisers

Christian Schöb, Sara Hortal, Alison J. Karley, Luna Morcillo, Adrian C. Newton, Robin J. Pakeman, Jeff R. Powell, Ian C. Anderson & Rob W. Brooker
1. Understanding species coexistence and regulation of biodiversity are major research challenges, yet there is no consensus on the effects of diversity on diversity, including their mediation through plant–plant interactions. 2. We examined how the diversity of recipient communities impacted on the establishment of colonising species. We ran a greenhouse-based community experiment, creating artificial arable crop communities with varying levels of barley genotype and weed species diversity, analysed with structural equation modelling of responses across...

Inferring competitive outcomes, ranks and intransitivity from empirical data: A comparison of different methods

Enrica De Luca, Bernhard Schmid, Yanhao Feng, Santiago Soliveres, Eric Allan, Benjamin Rosenbaum, Cameron Wagg, Andrea Tabi, Nico Eisenhauer, Alexandra Weigelt, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Christiane Roscher & Markus Fischer
The inference of pairwise competitive outcomes (PCO) and multispecies competitive ranks and intransitivity from empirical data is essential to evaluate how competition shapes plant communities. Three categories of methods, differing in theoretical background and data requirements, have been used: (a) theoretically sound coexistence theory‐based methods, (b) index‐based methods, and (c) ‘process‐from‐pattern’ methods. However, how they are related is largely unknown. In this study, we explored the relations between the three categories by explicitly comparing three...

Uncovering the vertebrate scavenger guild composition and functioning in the Cerrado biodiversity hotspot

Lara Naves-Alegre, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Carlos Javier Durá-Alemañ, Leilda Gonçalves Lima, Lourival Machado Lima & Esther Sebastián-González
Scavenging is widespread among vertebrates, being very important for maintaining certain ecosystem functions. Despite this, the scavenger communities remain poorly known in some biomes, especially in the Neotropics. Our main objective was to describe for the first time the scavenger community and identify the factors affecting scavenging efficiency in the Brazilian Cerrado. We analyzed the effects of vegetation cover, time of carcass placement and carcass weight, on scavenger species richness, individual abundances, carcass detection and...

Dataset: DNA barcodes and microsatellites: how they complement for species identification in the complex genus Tamarix (Tamaricaceae)

Alejandro Terrones, Michelle Van Der Bank, Joaquín Moreno & Ana Juan
DNA barcoding allows the identification of an organism by comparing the sequence of selected DNA regions (barcodes) with a previously compiled database, and it can be useful for taxonomic identification of species in complex genera, such as Tamarix. Many species of this genus show convergent morphology, which leads to frequent errors in their identification. Highly variable genetic markers, such as microsatellites or short sequence repeats (SSR), could be used to differentiate species where DNA barcodes...

Phylogeny of species, infraspecific taxa, and forms in subgenus Xiphium (Iris: Iridaceae) that have centers of diversity in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot

Carol Wilson, Zoe Boosalis, Michael Sandor, Manuel Crespo & Mario Martinez-Azorin
Iris subgenus Xiphium is a small group of taxa that mostly occur in the Mediterranean Basin, a long-recognized biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic relationships among these Iris were reconstructed based on sequence data from 110 nuclear markers and whole plastomes using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. Best trees based on plastome and combined datasets resolved subgenus Xiphium and I. xiphium as not monophyletic while nuclear data resolved the subgenus as monophyletic but I. xiphium as not...

In memoriam Géza Alföldy (1935-2011)

Armin U. Stylow
Madrider Mitteilungen, 54 (2013)

Data from: Modulation of plant-mediated interactions between herbivores of different feeding guilds: effects of parasitism and belowground interactions

Teresa Vaello, Sandeep J. Sarde, Mª Ángeles Marcos-García, Jetske G. De Boer & Ana Pineda
Herbivory affects subsequent herbivores, mainly regulated by the phytohormones jasmonic (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Additionally, organisms such as soil microbes belowground or parasitoids that develop inside their herbivorous hosts aboveground, can change plant responses to herbivory. However, it is not yet well known how organisms of trophic levels other than herbivores, below- and above-ground, alter the interactions between insect species sharing a host plant. Here, we investigated whether the parasitoid Aphidius colemani and different...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Protein-encoding ultraconserved elements provide a new phylogenomic perspective of Oestroidea flies (Diptera, Calyptratae)

Eliana Buenaventura, Michael W. Lloyd, Juan Manuel Perilla López, Vanessa L. González, Arianna Thomas-Cabianca & Torsten Dikow
The diverse superfamily Oestroidea with more than 15,000 known species includes among others, blow flies, flesh flies, bot flies, and the diverse tachinid flies. Oestroidea exhibit strikingly divergent morphological and ecological traits, but even with a variety of data sources and inferences there is no consensus on the relationships among major Oestroidea lineages. Phylogenomic inferences derived from targeted enrichment of ultraconserved elements or UCEs have emerged as a promising method for resolving difficult phylogenetic problems...

A novel mitochondrial Kv1.3-caveolin axis controls cell survival and apoptosis

Antonio Felipe, Jesusa Capera, Mireia Pérez-Verdaguer, Roberta Peruzzo, María Navarro-Pérez, Juan Martínez-Pinna, Armando Alberola-Die, Andrés Morales, Luigi Leanza & Ildiko Szabo
The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 plays an apparent dual physiological role by participating in activation and proliferation of leukocytes as well as promoting apoptosis in several types of tumor cells. Therefore, Kv1.3 is considered a potential pharmacological target for immunodeficiency and cancer. Different cellular locations of Kv1.3, at the plasma membrane or the mitochondria, could be responsible for such duality. While plasma membrane Kv1.3 facilitates proliferation, the mitochondrial channel modulates apoptotic signaling. Several molecular determinants...

Data from: Alien species spreading via biofouling on recreational vessels in the Mediterranean Sea

Aylin Ulman, Jasmine Ferrario, Aitor Forcada, Hanno Seebens, Christos Arvanitidis, Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi & Agnese Marchini
1. Despite the Mediterranean being both a hotspot for recreational boating and for non-indigenous species (NIS), no data currently exists on the recreational boating sector’s contribution to the spread of NIS in this Sea. 2. To improve the basis for management decisions, a wide-scale sampling study on the biofouling communities of recreational vessels and marinas was undertaken. Specifically, we surveyed over 600 boat owners and sampled the same boat hulls for NIS in 25 marinas...

Surface indicators are correlated with soil multifunctionality in global drylands

David Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, José Luis Quero, Victoria Ochoa, Beatriz Gonzalo, Pablo García-Palacios, Cristina Escolar, Miguel Garcia-Gomez, Laura Beinticinco, Matthew Bowker, Donaldo Bran, Ignacio Castro, Alex Cea, Mchich Derak, Carlos Ivan Espinosa, Adriana Fronertino, Juan Gaitán, Gabriel Gatica, Susana Gómez-González, Wahida Ghiloufi, Julio Gutierrez, Elizabeth Gusmán-M., Rosa Hernandez, Frederic Hughes, Walter Muiño … & Fernando Maestre
1. Multiple ecosystem functions need to be considered simultaneously to manage and protect the many ecosystem services that are essential to people and their environments. Despite this, cost effective, tangible, relatively simple, and globally-relevant methodologies to monitor in situ soil multifunctionality, i.e. the provision of multiple ecosystem functions by soils, have not been tested at the global scale. 2. We combined correlation analysis and structural equation modelling to explore whether we could find easily measured,...

Subspecies variation of Daucus carota coastal (“gummifer”) morphotypes (Apiaceae) using genotyping-by-sequencing

Fernando Martínez-Flores, Manuel B. Crespo, Philipp W. Simon, Holly Ruess, Kathleen Reitsma, Emmanuel Geoffriau, Charlotte Allender, Najla Mezghani & David M. Spooner
The genus Daucus is widely distributed worldwide, but with a concentration of diversity in the Mediterranean Region. The D. carota complex presents the greatest taxonomic problems in the genus. We focus on a distinctive phenotypic group of coastal morphotypes of D. carota, strictly confined to the margins to within about 0.5 km of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, which we here refer to as coastal morphotypes or D. carota subsp. “gummifer” complex, the...

Diurnal timing of nonmigratory movement by birds: the importance of foraging spatial scales

Julie Mallon, Marlee Tucker, Annalea Beard, , Keith Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, John Brzorad, Evan Buechley, Javier Bustamante, Carlos Carrapato, José Castillo-Guerrero, Elizabeth Clingham, Mark Desholm, Christopher DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Hayley Douglas, Olivier Duriez, Peter Enggist, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Anna Gagliardo, Clara García-Ripollés, Juan Antonio Gil, Morgan Gilmour, Roi Harel … & Bill Fagan
Timing of activity can reveal an organism’s efforts to optimize foraging either by minimizing energy loss through passive movement or by maximizing energetic gain through foraging. Here, we assess whether signals of either of these strategies are detectable in the timing of activity of daily, local movements by birds. We compare the similarities of timing of movement activity among species using six temporal variables: start of activity relative to sunrise, end of activity relative to...

Nitrogen availability and plant functional composition modify biodiversity-multifunctionality relationships

Eric Allan, Noémie Pichon, Seraina Cappelli, Santiago Soliveres, Tosca Mannall, Thu Zar Nwe, Norbert Hölzel, Valentin Klaus, Till Kleinebecker & Hugo Vincent
The ability of an ecosystem to deliver multiple functions at high levels (multifunctionality) typically increases with biodiversity but there is substantial variation in the strength and direction of biodiversity effects, suggesting context-dependency. A better understanding of the drivers of this context dependency is essential to predict effects of global change on ecosystems. To determine how different factors modulate the effect of diversity on multifunctionality, we established a large grassland experiment with 216 communities, crossing a...

The last representatives of the Superfamily Wellerelloidea (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonellida) in the westernmost Tethys (Iberian paleomargins) prior to their demise in the Early Toarcian Mass Extinction Event

José Francisco Baeza Carratalá & Fernando García Joral
The last clade-level extinction episode affecting the Phylum Brachiopoda has been long-established in the Early Toarcian Mass Extinction Event (ETMEE) around the Pliensbachian-Toarcian transition, when several rhynchonellide groups became extinct and others underwent a notable renewal in the western Tethys. Among them, Wellerelloidea is a long-range superfamily severely affected by this environmental crisis, embodying the subfamily Cirpinae as the last wellerelloids worldwide, prior to their global extinction in the Pb-To transition. The profuse record of...

Data from: Mollusc-shell debris can mitigate the deleterious effects of organic pollution on marine sediments

Nuria Casado-Coy, Elena Martinez-Garcia, Pablo Sanchez-Jerez & Carlos Sanz-Lazaro
Organic pollution is widespread in coastal areas and can have profound impacts on the seabed. Coastal sediments play an important role at a global scale in the recycling of organic matter, and this process is influenced by the habitat complexity of the sediments, among other factors. Mollusc shells are produced as a waste product from a range of anthropogenic activities, but we demonstrate that they can be used to increase the habitat complexity of sediments....

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

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