65 Works

Data from: Habitat fragmentation alters the properties of a host-parasite network: rodents and their helminths in South-East Asia

Frédéric Bordes, Serge Morand, Shai Pilosof, Julien Claude, Jean-François Cosson, Yannick Chaval, Alexis Ribas, Kittipong Chaisiri, Kim Blasdell, Annelise Tran, Stéphane Dupuy & Boris R. Krasnov
1. While the effects of deforestation and habitat fragmentation on parasite prevalence or richness are well investigated, host–parasite networks are still understudied despite their importance in understanding the mechanisms of these major disturbances. Because fragmentation may negatively impact species occupancy, abundance and co-occurrence, we predict a link between spatiotemporal changes in habitat and the architecture of host–parasite networks. 2. For this, we used an extensive data set on 16 rodent species and 29 helminth species...

Data from: Copulation with immature females increases male fitness in cannibalistic widow spiders

M. Daniela Biaggio, Iara Sandomirsky, Yael Lubin, Ally R. Harari, Maydianne C.B. Andrade & Maydianne C. B. Andrade
Copulatory cannibalism of male ‘widow’ spiders (genus Latrodectus) is a model example of the extreme effects of sexual selection, particularly in L. hasselti and L. geometricus where males typically facilitate cannibalism by females and mate only once. We show that these males can increase their reproductive success by copulating with final-instar, immature females after piercing the female's exoskeleton to access her newly developed sperm storage organs. Females retain sperm through their final moult and have...

Experimental evidence of multiple ecosystem services and disservices provided by ecological intensification in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems

Hila Segre, Michal Segoli, Yohay Carmel & Assaf Shwartz
1. Intensifying agricultural production in sustainable ways is pivotal to increasing food production while reducing environmental impacts. Ecological intensification is based on managing organisms that provide services underlying crop production to simultaneously intensify agricultural production and increase biodiversity. However, few studies address the interactions and trade-offs between biodiversity, multiple ecosystem services and crop production. 2. We experimentally quantified the effect of uncultivated field margins, a prominent practice of ecological intensification, on agricultural production, biodiversity, as...

Predation on Vachellia trees in the Evrona Nature Reserve following an oil spill

Marco Ferrante, Daniella Möller, Gabriella Möller, Esteban Menares, Yael Lubin & Michal Segoli
The Evrona Nature Reserve (southern Israel; 29°40′N, 35°00′E) was affected by two large oil spills in 1975 and 2014, respectively. Between Nov 2019 to Oct 2019, we recorded invertebrate and vertebrate predation rates using the artificial caterpillar method (Howe et al. 2009, Entomol Exp App) in oil-polluted and unpolluted Vachellia trees.

Short-term prediction through ordinal patterns

Yair Neuman, Yair Neuman, Yohai Cohen & Boaz Tamir
Prediction in natural environments is a challenging task, and there is a lack of clarity around how a myopic organism can make short-term predictions given limited data availability and cognitive resources. In this context, we may ask what kind of resources are available to the organism to help it address the challenge of short-term prediction within its own cognitive limits. We point to one potentially important resource: ordinal patterns, which are extensively used in physics...

Did Government Benefits Help Israeli Households Avoid Hardship during COVID-19? Evidence from a National Survey

Olga Kondratjeva, Talia Schwartz-Tayri, Sam Bufe, Stephen Roll, John Gal & Michael Grinstein-Weiss

Data from: The global diversity and distribution of lizard clutch sizes

Shai Meiri, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, David Chapple, Indraneil Das, Tiffany Doan, Paul Doughty, Ryan Ellis, Lee Grismer, Fred Kraus, Mariana Morando, Paul Oliver, Daniel Pincheira-Donoso, Marco-Antonio Ribeiro-Junior, Glenn Shea, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Alex Slavenko & Uri Roll
Aim. Clutch size is a key life-history trait. In lizards, it ranges over two orders of magnitude. The global drivers of spatial and phylogenetic variation in clutch have been extensively studied in birds, but such tests in other organisms are lacking. To test the generality of latitudinal gradients in clutch size, and their putative drivers, we present the first global-scale analysis of clutch sizes across of lizard taxa. Location, Global Time period. Recent Major taxa...

Data from: Equivocal evidence for a change in balance between selfing and pollinator-mediated reproduction in annual Brassicaceae growing along a rainfall gradient

Merav Seifan, Eleanor V. J. Gibson-Forty & Katja Katja Tielbörger
Because many plants ensure their reproductive success using some level of self-fertilization, it is predicted that the balance between pollinator-mediated pollen transfer and autonomous selfing will be correlated with habitat harshness and pollinator activity. To study these correlations, we used three annual species that differ in their self-incompatibility and compared their reproductive success in the form of fruit production and seed viability, with and without pollinators, along a rainfall gradient and in relation to pollinator...

Data from: The effect of virus-blocking Wolbachia on male competitiveness of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti

Michal Segoli, Ary A. Hoffmann, Jane Lloyd, Gavin J. Omodei & Scott A. Ritchie
Background: The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia blocks the transmission of dengue virus by its vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, and is currently being evaluated for control of dengue outbreaks. Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) that results in the developmental failure of offspring in the cross between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. This increases the relative success of infected females in the population, thereby enhancing the spread of the beneficial bacterium. However, Wolbachia spread via CI will only...

Data from: Assessing the distribution of disease-bearing rodents in human-modified tropical landscapes

Serge Morand, Frédéric Bordes, Kim Blasdell, Shai Pilosof, Jean-François Cornu, Kittipong Chaisiri, Yannick Chaval, Jean-François Cosson, Julien Claude, Tristan Feyfant, Vincent Herbreteau, Stéphane Dupuy & Annelise Tran
1. We tested how habitat structure and fragmentation affect the spatial distribution of common murine rodents inhabiting human-dominated landscapes in southeast Asia. The spatial distribution patterns observed for each rodent species were then used to assess how changes in habitat structure may potentially affect the risk of several major rodent-borne diseases. 2. For this analysis, we used an extensive geo-referenced database containing details of rodents trapped from seven sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR....

Data from: Species richness and phylogenetic diversity of seed plants across vegetation zones of Mount Kenya, East Africa

Yadong Zhou, Sichong Chen, Guangwan Hu, Geoffrey Mwachala, Xue Yan, Qing-Feng Wang & Qingfeng Wang
Mount Kenya is of ecological importance in tropical east Africa due to the dramatic gradient in vegetation types that can be observed from low to high elevation zones. However, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of this mountain have not been well studied. Here, we surveyed distribution patterns for a total of 1,335 seed plants of this mountain and calculated species richness and phylogenetic diversity across seven vegetation zones. We also measured phylogenetic structure using the...

Data from: Fitness consequences of outcrossing in a social spider with an inbreeding mating system

Reut Berger-Tal, Cristina Tuni, Yael Lubin, Debroah Smith, Trine Bilde & Deborah Smith
Inbreeding mating systems are uncommon because of inbreeding depression. Mating among close relatives can evolve, however, when outcrossing is constrained. Social spiders show obligatory mating among siblings. In combination with a female-biased sex ratio, sib-mating results in small effective populations. In such a system high genetic homozygosity is expected, and drift may cause population divergence. We tested the effect of outcrossing in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Females were mated to sib-males, to a non-nestmate...

Data from: Positive associations with native shrubs are intense and important for an exotic invader but not the native annual community across an aridity gradient

Jacob Lucero, Merav Seifan, Ragan Callaway & Christopher Lortie
AIM AND LOCATION: Positive interactions influence the assembly of plant communities globally, particularly in stressful environments like deserts. However, few studies have measured the intensity and relative importance of positive interactions involving native and invasive species along aridity gradients. These measures are essential for predicting how dryland communities will respond to biological invasions and environmental change. Here, we measured the intensity and importance of positive associations formed between native shrubs and the annual plant community,...

Environmental variability as a predictor of behavioral flexibility in urban environments

Reut Vardi & Oded Berger-Tal
Global urbanization processes have highlighted the importance of understanding the effects of urban habitats on animal behavior. Behavioral changes are usually evaluated along an urbanization gradient, comparing urban and rural populations. However, this metric fails to consider heterogeneity between urban habitats that can differ significantly in their characteristics, such as their level of environmental variability. We suggest incorporating dimensions of environmental variability into the urbanization metric. We tested the importance of both level of urbanization...

Data from: The outcome of shared pollination services is affected by the density and spatial pattern of an attractive neighbour

Merav Seifan, Eva-Maria Hoch, Sven Hanoteaux & Katja Tielbörger
Interactions among neighbouring plants are often mediated by foraging choices of pollinators. For example, the presence of a conspicuous species may increase the number of pollinators attracted to its vicinity, indirectly increasing visitation rates also to neighbouring plants. Because pollinator choices are frequently density dependent, the presence of a conspicuous species at high densities may also increase competition for pollination services. Additionally, models predict that plant density will interact with spatial distribution in manipulating the...

Data from: The role of bacteriocins as selfish genetic elements

R. Fredrik Inglis, Bihter Bayramoglu, Osnat Gillor & Martin Ackermann
Bacteria produce a wide arsenal of toxic compounds in order to kill competing species. Bacteriocins, protein-based toxins produced by nearly all bacteria, have generally been considered a ubiquitous anti-competitor strategy, used to kill competing bacterial strains. Some of these bacteriocins are encoded on plasmids, which also code for closely linked immunity compounds (thereby rendering toxin producing cells immune to their own toxin). However, the production of bacteriocins can also be interpreted as a means to...

Data from: Acoustic stability in hyrax snorts: vocal tightrope-walkers or wrathful verbal assailants?

Yishai A. Weissman, Vlad Demartsev, Amiyaal Ilany, Adi Barocas, Einat Bar-Ziv, Inbar Shnitser, Eli Geffen, Lee Koren & Inbar Shnitzer
The source-filter theory proposes that information on caller properties is communicated through acoustic qualities, as physical state and performance ability are reflected in the voice. Vocal stability, manifested through harshness is especially intriguing, and has rarely been explored although harsh sounds are prevalent in nature. Male rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) produce loud complex calls that we term songs. Only the calls of older, socially dominant males, include a harsh sound termed snort. As snorts are...

Data from: Can matrix structure affect animal navigation between fragments? A dispersal experiment using release platforms

Vitor Sanches, Jorge Menezes, Jayme Prevedello, Almeida-Gomes Maurício & Luiz Gustavo Oliveira-Santos
The persistence of species in fragmented landscapes relies on landscape connectivity and individuals’ ability in dispersing among habitat patches. Accordingly, matrix structure can affect the orientation of dispersing individuals across the landscape. In this study, we measured the impact of matrix structure on the dispersal performance of the white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris). We released individuals in three types of matrix: bare field, corn crops and soybean crops, with distances of 30, 50 and 100 m...

GARD 1.7 - updated global distributions for all terrestrial reptiles

Uri Roll & Shai Meiri
This is the updated version of the Global Assessment of Reptile Distributions (GARD; http://www.gardinitiative.org/) global distributions of all (10914 species) of terrestrial reptiles. Ranges are given in a polygonal shapefile format collated from various sources and had expert validation and curation.

Data from: Contrasting global patterns of spatially periodic fairy circles and regular insect nests in drylands

Stephan Getzin, Hezi Yizhaq, Michael D. Cramer & Walter R. Tschinkel
Numerical analysis of spatial pattern is widely used in ecology to describe the characteristics of floral and faunal distributions. These methods allow attribution of pattern to causal mechanisms by uncovering the specific signatures of patterns and causal agents. For example, grassland‐gap patterns called fairy circles (FCs) in Namibia and Australia are characterized by highly regular and homogenous distributions across landscapes that show spatially periodic ordering. These FCs have been suggested to be caused by both...

FragSAD: A database of diversity and species abundance distributions from habitat fragments

Jonathan M. Chase, Mario Liebergesell, Alban Sagouis, Felix May, Shane A. Blowes, Åke Berg, Enrico Bernard, Berry J. Brosi, Marc W. Cadotte, Luis Cayuela, Adriano G. Chiarello, Jean-François Cosson, Will Cresswell, Filibus Danjuma Dami, Jens Dauber, Christopher R. Dickman, Raphael K. Didham, David P. Edwards, Fabio Z. Farneda, Yoni Gavish, Thiago Gonçalves-Souza, Demetrio Luis Guadagnin, Mickaël Henry, Adrià López-Baucells, Heike Kappes … & Yaron Ziv
Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non‐standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale‐dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation...

Data from: Palaeobiogeography and evolutionary patterns of the larger foraminifer Borelis de Montfort (Borelidae)

Davide Bassi, Juan Carlos Braga, Giovanni Di Domenico, Johannes Pignatti, Sigal Abramovich, Pamela Hallock, Janine Koenen, Zoltan Kovacs, Martin R. Langer, Giulio Pavia & Yasufumi Iryu
The palaeobiogeography of the alveolinoid Borelis species reveals the evolutionary patterns leading to the two extant representatives, which occur in shallow-water tropical carbonate, coral reef-related settings. Type material and new material of fossil Borelis species, along with Recent specimens were studied to assess their taxonomic status, species circumscriptions (based on proloculus size, occurrence of Y-shaped septula, and the index of elongation), palaeobiogeography and evolutionary dynamics. The species dealt with here are known from exclusively fossil...

Harrison’s rule scales up to entire parasite assemblages but is determined by environmental factors

Renan Maestri, Maico Fiedler, Georgy Shenbrot, Elena Surkova, Sergei Medvedev, Irina Khokhlova & Boris Krasnov
Harrison’s rule states that parasite body size and the body size of their hosts tend to be positively correlated. After it was proposed a century ago, a number of studies have investigated this trend, but the support level has varied greatly between parasite/host associations. Moreover, while the rule has been tested at the individual species level, we still lack knowledge on whether Harrison’s rule holds at the scale of parasite and host communities. Here, we...

Data from: Good reasons to leave home: proximate dispersal cues in a social spider

Reut Berger-Tal, Na'ama Berner Aharon, Shlomi Aharon, Cristina Tuni & Yael Lubin
Natal dispersal is a successful tactic under a range of conditions in spite of significant costs. Habitat quality is a frequent proximate cause of dispersal, and studies have shown that dispersal increases both when natal habitat quality is good or poor. In social species kin competition, favoring dispersal, may be balanced by the benefits of group living, favoring philopatry. We investigated the effect of changes in the local environment on natal dispersal of adult females...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of direct reciprocal and indirect effects in a host-parasite network

Shai Pilosof, Miguel A. Fortuna, Maxim V. Vinarski, Natalia P. Korallo-Vinarskaya & Boris R. Krasnov
1. Temporal variation in the direct and indirect influence that hosts and parasites exert on each other is still poorly understood. However, variation in species’ influence due to species and interactions turnover can have important consequences for host community dynamics and/or for parasite transmission dynamics, and eventually for the risk of zoonotic diseases. 2. We used data on a network of small mammals and their ectoparasites surveyed over six years to test hypotheses exploring (1)...

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