69 Works

Data from: Good reasons to leave home: proximate dispersal cues in a social spider

Reut Berger-Tal, Na'ama Berner Aharon, Shlomi Aharon, Cristina Tuni & Yael Lubin
Natal dispersal is a successful tactic under a range of conditions in spite of significant costs. Habitat quality is a frequent proximate cause of dispersal, and studies have shown that dispersal increases both when natal habitat quality is good or poor. In social species kin competition, favoring dispersal, may be balanced by the benefits of group living, favoring philopatry. We investigated the effect of changes in the local environment on natal dispersal of adult females...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of direct reciprocal and indirect effects in a host-parasite network

Shai Pilosof, Miguel A. Fortuna, Maxim V. Vinarski, Natalia P. Korallo-Vinarskaya & Boris R. Krasnov
1. Temporal variation in the direct and indirect influence that hosts and parasites exert on each other is still poorly understood. However, variation in species’ influence due to species and interactions turnover can have important consequences for host community dynamics and/or for parasite transmission dynamics, and eventually for the risk of zoonotic diseases. 2. We used data on a network of small mammals and their ectoparasites surveyed over six years to test hypotheses exploring (1)...

Data from: Alternative paths to success in a parasite community: within-host competition can favor higher virulence or direct interference

Farrah Bashey-Visser, Hadas Hawlena & Curtis M. Lively
Selection imposed by coinfection may vary with the mechanism of within-host competition between parasites. Exploitative competition is predicted to favor more virulent parasites, while interference competition may result in lower virulence. Here, we examine whether exploitative or interference competition determines the outcome of competition between two nematode species (Steinernema spp.), which in combination with their bacterial symbionts (Xenorhabdus spp.), infect and kill insect hosts. Multiple isolates of each nematode species, carrying their naturally associated bacteria,...

Data from: Energy exchanges at contact events guide sensorimotor integration across intermodal delays

Ali Farshchian, Alessandra Sciutti, Assaf Pressman, Ilana Nisky & Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi
The brain must consider the arm's inertia to predict the arm's movements elicited by commands impressed upon the muscles. Here, we present evidence suggesting that the integration of sensory information leading to the representation of the arm's inertia does not take place continuously in time but only at discrete transient events, in which kinetic energy is exchanged between the arm and the environment. We used a visuomotor delay to induce cross-modal variations in state feedback...

Data from: Various competitive interactions explain niche separation in crop-dwelling web spiders

Itai Opatovsky, Efrat Gavish-Regev, Phyllis G. Weintraub & Yael Lubin
Competition for resources is a major organizing principle in communities of organisms that share similar ecological niches. Niche separation by means of exploitation or interference competition was investigated in two taxa of crop-inhabiting spiders that overlap in microhabitat use and have similar web design. Competition for prey and web sites was tested in microcosm experiments with the most common species that build sheet-webs: Enoplognatha gemina (Theridiidae) and Alioranus pastoralis (Linyphiidae). A field survey over the...

Data from: Structure and extent of DNA methylation-based epigenetic variation in wild emmer wheat (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) populations

Anna Venetsky, Adva Levy-Zamir, Vadim Khasdan, Katherine Domb & Khalil Kashkush
Background: The genetic structure and differentiation of wild emmer wheat suggests that genetic diversity is eco-geographically structured. However, very little is known about the structure and extent of the heritable epigenetic variation and its influence on local adaptation in natural populations. Results: The structure and extent of the heritable methylation-based epigenetic variation were assessed within and among natural populations of Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. We used methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and transposon methylation display...

Data from: Stable isotopes in the different trophic levels reveal regional divergence in dietary habits among Tibetan pastoralists

Zhanhuan Shang, Shanshan Li, Yinfeng Li, Wenyin Wang, Jianxin Jiao, Allan Degen, Tao Zhang, Yanfu Bai, Jingxue Zhao & Michael Kreuzer
Understanding geographical variation and driving mechanisms of the dietary habits of Tibetan pastoralists is a key to improving their health status under climate change and globalization. Characterization of diet via isotopic signatures along the length of the local food chain could provide this information. We analyzed δ13C and δ15N of soil, plants, animals and pastoralists at different geographical sites ranging in a gradient of easily accessible to remote areas. The high δ15N values in soil...

Proceedings of the EAA Spatial Audio Signal Processing Symposium

Proceedings of the EAA Spatial Audio Signal Processing Symposium (SASP), Paris, 2019

Data from: The enemy within: how does a bacterium inhibit the foraging aptitude and risk management behavior of Allenby’s gerbils?

Douglas Ferguson Makin, Burt P. Kotler, Joel S. Brown, Mario Garrido & Jorge F. S. Menezes
Microbes inhabiting multi-cellular organisms have complex, often subtle effects on their hosts. Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi are commonly infected with the Mycoplasma haemomuris-like bacteria, which may cause mild nutrient (choline, arginine) deficiencies. However, are there more serious ecological consequences of infection such as effects on foraging aptitudes and risk management? We tested alternatives: 1) nutrient compensation hypothesis, does nutrient deficiency induce infected gerbils to make up for the shortfall by foraging more and taking greater risks?...

Seed re-dispersal experiments

Itamar Giladi
These data files hold the results from a redispersal experiment where seeds of the Perennial plant, Sternbergia clusiana, were presented to three species of desert ants and seed fate was followed after the seeds were taken into the nest. The other data set includes information regarding the distribution of this plant, at three life stages, with respect to the distribution of shurbs. These data were used to test indirectly whether the shrub's environment may be...

Differential parasitism of native and invasive widow spider egg sacs

Monica Mowery, Valeria Arabesky, Yael Lubin & Michal Segoli
During colonization, invasive species establish and spread to new locations, where they may have an advantage over native species. One such advantage may be avoidance of predators or parasites by means of better defences or due to lower suitability as a host. We conducted field surveys and lab behavioural experiments to investigate the differential susceptibility of two widow spider species—one native to Israel, the white widow spider Latrodectus pallidus, and one invasive species, the brown...

Dispersal and life history of brown widow spiders in dated invasive populations on two continents

Monica Mowery, Maydianne Andrade, Yael Lubin, Ally Harari & Andrew Mason
Theory and empirical work suggest that behaviours such as dispersal and exploration are predictors of invasive success, and that behaviours may shift predictably after invasive populations have established and spread. However, there are limited data on temporal patterns in the distribution of behavioural traits linked to the timeline of establishment of invasive species. We examine dispersal and exploration, along with life history traits that may be linked to behaviour, across multiple invasive populations of the...

Data from: Associations between changes in city and address specific temperature and QT interval - the VA Normative Aging Study

Amar J. Mehta, Itai Kloog, Antonella Zanobetti, Brent A. Coull, David Sparrow, Pantel Vokonas & Joel Schwartz
Background: The underlying mechanisms of the association between ambient temperature and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well understood, particularly for daily temperature variability. We evaluated if daily mean temperature and standard deviation of temperature was associated with heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) duration, a marker of ventricular repolarization in a prospective cohort of older men. Methods: This longitudinal analysis included 487 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with up to three...

Data from: Novel evidence suggests that a \"Rickettsia felis-like\" organism is an endosymbiont of the desert flea, Xenopsylla ramesis

Sabine Rzotkiewicz, Ricardo Gutiérrez, Boris R. Krasnov, Danny Morick, Irina S. Khokhlova, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Gad Baneth & Shimon Harrus
Fleas are acknowledged vectors and reservoirs of various bacteria that present a wide range of pathogenicity. In this study, fleas collected from wild rodents from the Negev desert in southern Israel were tested for RickettsiaDNA by targeting the 16S rRNA (rrs) gene. Thirty-eight Xenopsylla ramesis, 91 Synosternus cleopatrae and 15 Leptopsylla flea pools (a total of 568 fleas) were screened. RickettsiaDNA was detected in 100% of the X. ramesis and in one S. cleopatrae flea...

Data from: Predicting the maximum earthquake magnitude from seismic data in Israel and its neighboring countries

Mark Last, Nitzan Rabinowitz & Gideon Leonard
This paper explores several data mining and time series analysis methods for predicting the magnitude of the largest seismic event in the next year based on the previously recorded seismic events in the same region. The methods are evaluated on a catalog of 9,042 earthquake events, which took place between 01/01/1983 and 31/12/2010 in the area of Israel and its neighboring countries. The data was obtained from the Geophysical Institute of Israel. Each earthquake record...

Data from: Effects of plant and pollinator traits on the maintenance of a food deceptive species within a plant community

Hungchun Qu, Tal Seifan, Merav Seifan & Hongchun Qu
Model-mimic plant systems are well known. However, the conditions promoting the existence of such systems are still an enigma. We suggest that by focusing on floral similarity between model and mimic, reward levels offered by models, and pollinators' ability to adjust foraging accordingly, the conditions can be better understood. Using spatially-explicit modelling, we examined trait combinations that lead to the survival of deceptive species under a large range of mimic strategies, from Batesian mimicry to...

Data from: Use it or lose it: reproductive implications of ecological specialization in a haematophagous ectoparasite

Adi Arbiv, Irina S. Khokhlova, Ofer Ovadia, Ariel Novoplansky & Boris R. Krasnov
Using experimentally induced disruptive selection, we tested two hypotheses regarding the evolution of specialization in parasites. The ‘trade-off’ hypothesis suggests that adaptation to a specific host may come at the expense of a reduced performance when exploiting another host. The alternative ‘relaxed selection’ hypothesis suggests that the ability to exploit a given host would deteriorate when becoming obsolete. Three replicate populations of a flea Xenopsylla ramesis were maintained on each of two rodent hosts, Meriones...

Data from: House sparrows offset the physiological trade-off between immune response and feather growth by adjusting foraging behavior

Miriam Ben-Hamo, Cynthia Downs, Darren Burns, Berry Pinshow, Cynthia J. Downs & Darren J. Burns
Growing feathers and mounting immune responses are both energetically costly for birds. According to the life history trade-off hypothesis, it has been posited that the costs of feather growth lead to temporal isolation between molt and other expensive activities, reproduction for example. In contrast to life cycle events, the need to mount an immune response can occur at any time, including during feather growth. Thus, we hypothesized that mounting an immune response during feather growth...

Data from: Host-parasite network structure is associated with community-level immunogenetic diversity

Shai Pilosof, Miguel A. Fortuna, Jean-François Cosson, Maxime Galan, Chaisiri Kittipong, Alexis Ribas, Eran Segal, Boris R. Krasnov, Serge Morand & Jordi Bascompte
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode proteins that recognize foreign antigens and are thus crucial for immune response. In a population of a single host species, parasite-mediated selection drives MHC allelic diversity. However, in a community-wide context, species interactions may modulate selection regimes because the prevalence of a given parasite in a given host may depend on its prevalence in other hosts. By combining network analysis with immunogenetics, we show that host species...

Data from: The role of climate, water and biotic interactions in shaping biodiversity patterns in arid environments across spatial scales

Orly Razgour, Mike Persey, Uzi Shamir & Carmi Korine
Aim: Desert ecosystems, with their harsh environmental conditions, hold the key to understanding the responses of biodiversity to climate change. As desert community structure is influenced by processes acting at different spatial scales, studies combining multiple scales are essential for understanding the conservation requirements of desert biota. We investigated the role of environmental variables and biotic interactions in shaping broad and fine-scale patterns of diversity and distribution of bats in arid environments to understand how...

Data from: Fruit consumption in migratory passerines is limited by water ingestion rather than by body water balance

Adi Domer, Eyal Shochat, Ofer Ovadia & Nir Sapir
Many insectivorous passerines become frugivorous during migration. Because water may facilitate the digestion of dry fruits, some passerines may benefit from staging in stopover sites that offer access to drinking water. In autumn, water consumption by Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) staging in Israel was found to induce a shift from insectivory to frugivory. We tested two alternative hypotheses concerning the mechanism facilitating consumption of the relatively dry fruits which are common in this region: (1) Water...

The desert exploiter: an overabundant crow species exhibits a neighborhood diffusion pattern into the southern region of Israel

Amit Salomon & Ofer Ovadia
Overabundant species are considered drivers and passengers of profound anthropogenic disturbance in ecosystems, resulting in uneven communities. Understanding the causes of spread and establishment of such species may help decipher invasion mechanisms, while providing managers targeted management tools. The objective of this research was to quantify the spread of Corvus C. cornix in Israel, while attempting to elucidate the causes of its spread. Long-term occurrence data of crow sightings was used to analyze the species...

AI3SD Video: Statistics Are a Girl's best Friend: Expanding the mechanistic Study Toolbox with Data Science

anat milo
The value of amassing and standardizing chemical data for improving the efficiency of chemical discovery is becoming increasingly clear. Machine learning analyses of these data are focused on finding correlations, trends and patterns to uncover needles of knowledge in the haystack of chemical reactions. However, in many cases, especially in academic settings, we do not have the means to produce large data sets, so by necessity we remain in the Small Data regime. In this...

The effect of high-polyphenol Mediterranean diet on visceral adiposity: the DIRECT PLUS randomized controlled trial

Hila Zelicha, Nora Kloting, Alon Kaplan, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Ehud Rinott, Gal Tsaban, Yoash Chassidim, Matthias Bluher, Uta Ceglarek, Berend Isermann, Michael Stumvoll, Rita Nana Quayson, Martin von Bergen, Beatrice Engelmann, Ulrike E. Rolle-Kampczyk, Sven-Bastiaan Haange, Kieran M. Tuohy, Camilla Diotallevi, Ilan Shelef, Frank B. Hu, Meir J. Stampfer & Iris Shai
Abstract Background Mediterranean (MED) diet is a rich source of polyphenols, which benefit adiposity by several mechanisms. We explored the effect of the green-MED diet, twice fortified in dietary polyphenols and lower in red/processed meat, on visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Methods In the 18-month Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial PoLyphenols UnproceSsed (DIRECT-PLUS) weight-loss trial, 294 participants were randomized to (A) healthy dietary guidelines (HDG), (B) MED, or (C) green-MED diets, all combined with physical activity....

Phylogenomics of scorpions reveal a co-diversification of scorpion mammalian predators and mammal-specific sodium channel toxins

Carlos Santibanez, Shlomi Aharon, Jesús Ballesteros, Guilherme Gainett, Caitlin Baker, Edmundo González-Santillán, Mark Harvey, Mohamed Hassans, Ali Abu-Almaaty, Shorouk Aldeyarbi, Lionel Monod, Andrés Ojanguren-Affilastro, Robert Raven, Ricardo Pinto Da Rocha, Yoram Zvik, Efrat Gavish-Regev & Prashant Sharma
Scorpions constitute a charismatic lineage of arthropods and comprise more than 2,500 described species. Found throughout various tropical and temperate habitats, these predatory arachnids have a long evolutionary history, with a fossil record that began in the Silurian. While all scorpions are venomous, the asymmetrically diverse family Buthidae harbors nearly half the diversity of extant scorpions, and all but one of the 58 species that are medically significant to humans. Many aspects of scorpion evolutionary...

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