73 Works

Dispersal and life history of brown widow spiders in dated invasive populations on two continents

Monica Mowery, Maydianne Andrade, Yael Lubin, Ally Harari & Andrew Mason
Theory and empirical work suggest that behaviours such as dispersal and exploration are predictors of invasive success, and that behaviours may shift predictably after invasive populations have established and spread. However, there are limited data on temporal patterns in the distribution of behavioural traits linked to the timeline of establishment of invasive species. We examine dispersal and exploration, along with life history traits that may be linked to behaviour, across multiple invasive populations of the...

The effect of high-polyphenol Mediterranean diet on visceral adiposity: the DIRECT PLUS randomized controlled trial

Hila Zelicha, Nora Kloting, Alon Kaplan, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Ehud Rinott, Gal Tsaban, Yoash Chassidim, Matthias Bluher, Uta Ceglarek, Berend Isermann, Michael Stumvoll, Rita Nana Quayson, Martin von Bergen, Beatrice Engelmann, Ulrike E. Rolle-Kampczyk, Sven-Bastiaan Haange, Kieran M. Tuohy, Camilla Diotallevi, Ilan Shelef, Frank B. Hu, Meir J. Stampfer & Iris Shai
Abstract Background Mediterranean (MED) diet is a rich source of polyphenols, which benefit adiposity by several mechanisms. We explored the effect of the green-MED diet, twice fortified in dietary polyphenols and lower in red/processed meat, on visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Methods In the 18-month Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial PoLyphenols UnproceSsed (DIRECT-PLUS) weight-loss trial, 294 participants were randomized to (A) healthy dietary guidelines (HDG), (B) MED, or (C) green-MED diets, all combined with physical activity....

Data from: Early and late response of Nematostella vectensis transcriptome to heavy metals

Ron Elran, Maayan Raam, Roey Kraus, Vera Brekhman, Noa Sher, Inbar Plaschkes, Vered Chalifa-Caspi & Tamar Lotan
Environmental contamination from heavy metals poses a global concern for the marine environment, as heavy metals are passed up the food chain and persist in the environment long after the pollution source is contained. Cnidarians play an important role in shaping marine ecosystems, but environmental pollution profoundly affects their vitality. Among the cnidarians, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is an advantageous model for addressing questions in molecular ecology and toxicology as it tolerates extreme environments...

Data from: Ectoparasite fitness in auxiliary hosts: Phylogenetic distance from a principal host matters

Irina S. Khokhlova, Laura J. Fielden, Allan A. Degen & Boris R. Krasnov
We studied reproductive performance in two flea species (Parapulex chephrenis and Xenopsylla ramesis) exploiting either a principal or one of eight auxiliary host species. We predicted that fleas would produce more eggs and adult offspring when exploiting (a) a principal host than an auxiliary host and (b) an auxiliary host phylogenetically close to a principal host than an auxiliary host phylogenetically distant from a principal host. In both flea species, egg production per female after...

Data from: Phylogenetic signal in module composition and species connectivity in compartmentalized host-parasite networks

Boris R. Krasnov, Miguel A. Fortuna, David Mouillot, Irina S. Khokhlova, Georgy I. Shenbrot & Robert Poulin
Across different taxa, networks of mutualistic or antagonistic interactions show consistent architecture. Most networks are modular, with modules being distinct species subsets connected mainly with each other and having few connections to other modules. We investigate the phylogenetic relatedness of species within modules and whether a phylogenetic signal is detectable in the within- and among module connectivity of species using 27 mammal-flea networks from the Palaearctic. In the 24 networks that were modular, closely-related hosts...

Data from: The evolution of obligate sex: the roles of sexual selection and recombination

Maya Kleiman & Lilach Hadany
The evolution of sex is one of the greatest mysteries in evolutionary biology. An even greater mystery is the evolution of obligate sex, particularly when competing with facultative sex and not with complete asexuality. Here, we develop a stochastic simulation of an obligate allele invading a facultative population, where males are subject to sexual selection. We identify a range of parameters where sexual selection can contribute to the evolution of obligate sex: Especially when the...

Data from: The cutaneous lipid composition of bat wing and tail membranes: a case of convergent evolution with birds

Miriam Ben-Hamo, Agusti Muñoz-Garcia, Paloma Larrain, Berry Pinshow, Carmi Korine & Joseph Williams
The water vapour permeability barrier of mammals and birds resides in the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis. The molar ratio and molecular arrangement of lipid classes in the SC determine the integrity of this barrier. Increased chain length and polarity of ceramides, the most abundant lipid class in mammalian SC, contribute to tighter packing and thus to reduced cutaneous evaporative water loss (CEWL). However, tighter lipid packing also causes low SC...

Data from: Female mosquitoes disperse further when they develop under predation risk

Yehonatan Alcalay, Ido Tsurim & Ofer Ovadia
Predation is one of the strongest selective forces in nature. Organisms characterized by a complex life cycle, undergoing an ontogenetic niche shift, can reduce predation risk on natal stages by metamorphosing earlier. Yet, this anti-predatory response may incur numerous life-history-related costs. Interestingly, the consequence of larval predation risk on adult dispersal, a key trait dictating the persistence of spatially-structured populations, is largely understudied. Here, we explored the effect of larval predation risk on the life-history...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: February precipitation in the wintering grounds of the lesser whitethroat, Sylvia curruca: is it a cue for migration onset?

Irith Aloni, Shai Markman & Yaron Ziv
Numerous studies report shifts in bird migration phenology, presumably owing to global warming. However, most studies focus on migration patterns in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we investigated associations between weather conditions in African wintering grounds of the lesser whitethroat, Sylvia curruca, and spring arrival time in Eilat, Israel. Using multivariate regression models, we analysed a 30-year dataset in order to examine correlations between median springtime arrival and 46 climate variables of the wintering...

Data from: Gene duplication and co-evolution of G1/S transcription factors specificity in fungi are essential for optimizing cell fitness

Adi Hendler, Edgar M. Medina, Anastasiya Kishkevich, Mehtap Abu-Qarn, Steffi Klier, Nicolas E. Buchler, Robertus A. M. De Bruin & Amir Aharoni
Transcriptional regulatory networks play a central role in optimizing cell survival. How DNA binding domains and cis-regulatory DNA binding sequences have co-evolved to allow the expansion of transcriptional networks and how this contributes to cellular fitness remains unclear. Here we experimentally explore how the complex G1/S transcriptional network evolved in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by examining different chimeric transcription factor (TF) complexes. Over 300 G1/S genes are regulated by either one of the two...

Data from: Crowding leads to fitness benefits and reduced dispersal in a colonial spider

Lior Ventura, Deborah Roan Smith & Yael Lubin
Density-dependent dispersal is a common dispersal strategy, mainly as a mechanism of escaping decreased fitness associated with high intra-specific competition. However, in group-living species, high density is expected to be beneficial for the individual, at least up to a certain threshold. A possible mechanism for maintaining an optimal density is negative density-dependent dispersal. In order to examine this hypothesis, we studied the effect of colony density on growth, dispersal and prey capture under different diets...

Phylogenomics of scorpions reveal a co-diversification of scorpion mammalian predators and mammal-specific sodium channel toxins

Carlos Santibanez, Shlomi Aharon, Jesús Ballesteros, Guilherme Gainett, Caitlin Baker, Edmundo González-Santillán, Mark Harvey, Mohamed Hassans, Ali Abu-Almaaty, Shorouk Aldeyarbi, Lionel Monod, Andrés Ojanguren-Affilastro, Robert Raven, Ricardo Pinto Da Rocha, Yoram Zvik, Efrat Gavish-Regev & Prashant Sharma
Scorpions constitute a charismatic lineage of arthropods and comprise more than 2,500 described species. Found throughout various tropical and temperate habitats, these predatory arachnids have a long evolutionary history, with a fossil record that began in the Silurian. While all scorpions are venomous, the asymmetrically diverse family Buthidae harbors nearly half the diversity of extant scorpions, and all but one of the 58 species that are medically significant to humans. Many aspects of scorpion evolutionary...

Ant foraging strategies vary along a natural resource gradient

Udi Segev, Katja Tielborger, Yael Lubin & Jaime Kigel
Food selection by foragers is sensitive to the availability of resources, which may vary along geographical gradients. Hence, selectivity of food types by foragers is expected to track these resource gradients. Here we addressed this hypothesis and asked if foraging decisions of seed-eating ants differ along a geographic gradient of habitat productivity. The study was carried out for two years at five sites along a natural climatic gradient, ranging from arid to Mediterranean, where plant...

Mechanics of walking and running up and downhill: A joint-level perspective to guide design of lower-limb exoskeletons

Richard Nuckols, Kota Takahashi, Dominic Farris, Sarai Mizrachi, Raziel Riemer & Gregory Sawicki
Lower-limb wearable robotic devices can improve clinical gait and reduce energetic demand in healthy populations. To help enable real-world use, we sought to examine how assistance should be applied in variable gait conditions and suggest an approach derived from knowledge of human locomotion mechanics to establish a ‘roadmap’ for wearable robot design. We characterized the changes in joint mechanics during walking and running across a range of incline/decline grades and then provide an analysis that...

Data from: Reduced dispersal at non-expanding range margins: a matter of dispersers' identity

Gilad Ben Zvi, Itamar Giladi & Merav Seifan
The evolution of dispersal at range margins received much attention recently; especially in the context of dynamic range shifts, such as those following climate change. However, much less attention has been devoted to study variation in and selection on dispersal at non-expanding range margins, where populations are often small and isolated, and empirical test is dearly missing. To fill this gap, we tested whether dispersal of an ant-dispersed perennial plant (Sternbergia clusiana), is quantitatively and/or...

GARD 1.5 range shapefiles used in: Global diversity patterns are explained by diversification rates at ancient, not shallow, timescales

Uri Roll, Shai Meiri, Maxwell Farrell, Jonathan Davies, John Gittleman, John Wiens & Patrick Stephens
Explaining global species richness patterns is a “Holy Grail” of ecology and evolution. These richness patterns are often attributed to spatial variation in diversification rates (speciation minus extinction). Surprisingly, prominent studies of birds, fish, and angiosperms reported higher diversification rates at higher latitudes (mismatched with richness). Yet these studies only examined diversification rates at relatively recent timescales. Here, we quantify global richness patterns among lizard and snake species (10,213; 94%) and explore their underlying causes....

Variation in plant carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents across the drylands of China

Junlan Xiong, Longwei Dong, Jingli Lu, Weigang Hu, Haiyang Gong, Shubin Xie, Dongmin Zhao, Yahui Zhang, Xiaoting Wang, Yan Deng, Jinzhi Ran, Karl Niklas, Allan Degen & Jianming Deng
Determining large-scale patterns of plant elemental concentrations and stoichiometry along environmental gradients is critical for understanding plant adaptive strategies and predicting ecosystem biogeochemistry processes. However, it remains unclear as to how plant carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations and their stoichiometry in different organs (leaves, stems, and roots) respond to large-scale environmental gradients in drylands. We determined C, N, and P concentrations and their ratios in leaves, stems, and roots of plants growing...

Optimal Stopover Model: a state dependent habitat selection model for staging passerines during migration

Adi Domer
1. During their seasonal migration, birds stage in areas comprising stopover sites of varying quality. Given that migrating birds have a limited information about their environments, they may land at a low-quality stopover site in which their fuel deposition rate (FDR) is low. Birds landing at such sites, should decide either to extend their stopover duration or to quickly depart in search for a better site. These decisions, however, strongly depend on their body condition...

Invasive brown widow spiders disperse aerially under a broad range of environmental conditions

Monica Mowery
Spiders commonly disperse on silk lines as juveniles by means of rappelling or ballooning. These modes of dispersal, especially long-distance dispersal via ballooning, can greatly increase the distance an individual can move, and at the population level, the speed of range expansion and likelihood of gene flow. Nevertheless, few studies have examined how spiders disperse under field conditions, and which environmental and meteorological conditions may affect their decision to disperse. We tested dispersal by spiderlings...

Additional file 1 of The effect of high-polyphenol Mediterranean diet on visceral adiposity: the DIRECT PLUS randomized controlled trial

Hila Zelicha, Nora Kloting, Alon Kaplan, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Ehud Rinott, Gal Tsaban, Yoash Chassidim, Matthias Bluher, Uta Ceglarek, Berend Isermann, Michael Stumvoll, Rita Nana Quayson, Martin von Bergen, Beatrice Engelmann, Ulrike E. Rolle-Kampczyk, Sven-Bastiaan Haange, Kieran M. Tuohy, Camilla Diotallevi, Ilan Shelef, Frank B. Hu, Meir J. Stampfer & Iris Shai
Additional file 1: S1. Adherence to the intervention. S2. Sensitivity analysis. S3. Inclusion and Exclusion criteria. S4. Physical activity recommendations protocol. S5. Polyphenol-rich foods, provided at no cost to participants. S6. Magnetic resonance imaging. S7. Clinical parameters, laboratory methodology, and blood and urine polyphenols assessments. S8. Sample size and power calculations. Fig. S1. DIRECT PLUS flow chart. Fig. S2. Heatmap of abdominal adipose depots and metabolic and cardiovascular parameters at baseline. Fig. S3. The effect...

Colorectal cancer incidences in Lynch syndrome: a comparison of results from the prospective lynch syndrome database and the international mismatch repair consortium

Pål Møller, Toni Seppälä, James G. Dowty, Saskia Haupt, Mev Dominguez-Valentin, Lone Sunde, Inge Bernstein, Christoph Engel, Stefan Aretz, Maartje Nielsen, Gabriel Capella, Dafydd Gareth Evans, John Burn, Elke Holinski-Feder, Lucio Bertario, Bernardo Bonanni, Annika Lindblom, Zohar Levi, Finlay Macrae, Ingrid Winship, John-Paul Plazzer, Rolf Sijmons, Luigi Laghi, Adriana Della Valle, Karl Heinimann … & Mark A. Jenkins
Abstract Objective To compare colorectal cancer (CRC) incidences in carriers of pathogenic variants of the MMR genes in the PLSD and IMRC cohorts, of which only the former included mandatory colonoscopy surveillance for all participants. Methods CRC incidences were calculated in an intervention group comprising a cohort of confirmed carriers of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in mismatch repair genes (path_MMR) followed prospectively by the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD). All had colonoscopy surveillance, with...

Data from: Phylogenetic signal in module composition and species connectivity in compartmentalized host-parasite networks

Boris R. Krasnov, Miguel A. Fortuna, David Mouillot, Irina S. Khokhlova, Georgy I. Shenbrot & Robert Poulin
Across different taxa, networks of mutualistic or antagonistic interactions show consistent architecture. Most networks are modular, with modules being distinct species subsets connected mainly with each other and having few connections to other modules. We investigate the phylogenetic relatedness of species within modules and whether a phylogenetic signal is detectable in the within- and among module connectivity of species using 27 mammal-flea networks from the Palaearctic. In the 24 networks that were modular, closely-related hosts...

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