122 Works

Data from: Governance, agricultural intensification and land sparing in tropical South America

Michele Graziano Ceddia, Nicholas Oliver Bardsley, Sergio Gomez Y Paloma & Sabine Sedlacek
In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South...

Data from: Using areas of known occupancy to identify sources of variation in detection probability of raptors: taking time lowers replication effort for surveys

Campbell Murn & Graham J. Holloway
Species occurring at low density can be difficult to detect and if not properly accounted for, imperfect detection will lead to inaccurate estimates of occupancy. Understanding sources of variation in detection probability and how they can be managed is a key part of monitoring. We used sightings data of a low-density and elusive raptor (white-headed vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis) in areas of known occupancy (breeding territories) in a likelihood-based modelling approach to calculate detection probability and...

Data from: Allelopathy prevents competitive exclusion and promotes phytoplankton biodiversity

Aldo Barreiro Felpeto, Shovonlal Roy & Vitor Manuel Vasconcelos
It has been hypothesized that allelopathy can prevent competitive exclusion and promote phytoplankton diversity in aquatic ecosystems, where numerous species coexist on a limited number of resources. However, experimental proof-of-principle is not available to support this hypothesis. Here we present the first experimental evidence to support this hypothesis by demonstrating that allelopathy promotes the coexistence of two phytoplankton species, Ankistrodesmus falcatus and Oscillatoria sp., that compete for a single limiting nutrient. By performing long-term competition...

Cover of Land Cover Map 2007 broad habitat classes in the upstream catchment of the 20 Wessex chalkstream sites, England, UK

J. Murphy & T. Oliver
The data consists of a matrix of 12 land cover classes by 20 stream sites with the area of each land cover class given in km2. The areal coverage (km2) of each of 12 land cover classes was recorded for each of 20 chalkstream catchments in southern England. The 20 discrete chalkstream catchments are distributed along the white chalk geology extending from Dorset in the south west, through Wiltshire, to Hampshire in the north east,...

Plant-pollinator interactions database for construction of potential networks

J.W. Redhead, C.F. Coombes, H.J. Dean, R. Dyer, T.H. Oliver, M.J.O. Pocock, S.L. Rorke, A.J. Vanbergen, B.A. Woodcock & R.F. Pywell
Plant-pollinator interactions database derived from biological recording data, unpublished experimental data and published interactions in books and papers. The database covers all recorded interactions for bees, hoverflies and butterflies in mainland GB. Interactions were inferred from biological recording metadata by algorithmically screening for text matching a valid scientific or vernacular plant name (or a widely used synonym or abbreviation of either), followed by manual data cleaning. These data were compiled for the construction of multiple...

Lepidoptera distribution and behaviour data from transects within the Stonehenge landscape, UK, between 2010 and 2011

G. Twiston-Davies, S. R. Mortimer & J. Mitchley
This dataset consists of behaviour and distribution data of Lepidoptera at the Stonehenge World Heritage Site in Wiltshire, UK, between 2010-2011. A long term landscape scale grassland restoration and re-creation project has been underway at the site since 2000. 200m long transects were located in the centre of different grassland re-creation fields of different ages, arable land, chalk grassland fragments on slopes and on ancient burial mounds, and semi-improved pasture. Transects were surveyed on three...

The future of African nowcasting

Lorraine Youds, Douglas Parker, Elijah A Adefisan, Leonard Kofitse Amekudzi, Jeffrey N. A. Aryee, Ifeoluwa Adebowale BALOGUN, Alan Blyth, Bernard Chanzu, Sylvester Danuor, Abdoulahat Diop, Jennifer Fletcher, Andre K Foamouhoue, Amadou T Gaye, Morne Gijben, Steven Goodman, Peter Hill, Ishiyaku Ibrahim, David Koros, Kamoru Abiodun Lawal, John Marsham, Bethwel Mutai K, Joseph Mutemi, Coumba Niang, Ousmane Ndiaye & Eniola Olaniyan
Nowcasting (weather forecasting predictions from zero to several hours) has enormous value and potential in Africa, where populations and economic activity are highly vulnerable to rapidly changing weather conditions. Timely issuing of warnings, a few hours before an event, can enable the public and decision-makers to take action. Rainfall radar estimates are not widely available in Africa, nor likely to be in the coming years, and numerical weather prediction (NWP) currently has low skill over...

GCRF African SWIFT White Paper Policy Brief: The future of African weather forecasting

Lorraine Youds, Douglas Parker, Elijah A Adefisan , Philip Antwi-Agyei, Caroline L Bain , Emily Black, Alan Blyth, Andrew Dougill, Linda C Hirons , Victor S Indasi, Benjamin L Lamptey, Fionne Marshall, John Marsham, Thorwald H M Stein, Christopher M Taylor , Martin C Todd, Emma L Visman & Steven Woolnough
There is a huge opportunity for the African continent to benefit from the ‘silent revolution’ in weather forecasting that has been realised in the mid-latitudes throughout the twentieth century. While there are tremendous societal and economic benefits from advancing the science behind weather forecasting in sub-Saharan Africa, there are also significant barriers to realising advances. This policy brief examines the value of investment in African weather forecasting science and the technical & communication challenges that...

Data from: The ancient Britons: groundwater fauna survived extreme climate changes over tens of millions of years across NW Europe

Caitríona E. McInerney, Louise Maurice, Anne L. Robertson, Lee R. F. D. Knight, Jörg Arnscheidt, Chris Venditti, James S. G. Dooley, Thomas Mathers, Severine Matthijs, Karin Eriksson, Graham S. Proudlove & Bernd Hänfling
Global climate changes during the Cenozoic (65.5 - 0 Ma) caused major biological range shifts and extinctions. In Northern Europe, for example, a pattern of few endemics and the dominance of wide-ranging species is thought to have been determined by the Pleistocene (2.59 – 0.01 Ma) glaciations. This study, in contrast, reveals an ancient subsurface fauna endemic to Britain and Ireland. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic approach we found that two species of stygobitic invertebrates (genus...

Data from: Climate change impacts on bumblebees converge across continents

Jeremy T. Kerr, Alana Pindar, Paul Galpern, Laurence Packer, Stuart M. Roberts, Pierre Rasmont, Oliver Schweiger, Sheila R. Colla, Leif L. Richardson, David L. Wagner, Lawrence F. Gall, Derek S. Sikes & Alberto Pantoja
For many species, geographical ranges are expanding toward the poles in response to climate change, while remaining stable along range edges nearest the equator. Using long-term observations across Europe and North America over 110 years, we tested for climate change–related range shifts in bumblebee species across the full extents of their latitudinal and thermal limits and movements along elevation gradients. We found cross-continentally consistent trends in failures to track warming through time at species’ northern...

Data from: Extreme and rapid bursts of functional adaptations shape bite force in amniotes

Manabu Sakamoto, Marcello Ruta & Chris Venditti
Adaptation is the fundamental driver of functional and biomechanical evolution. Accordingly, the states of biomechanical traits (absolute or relative trait values) have long been used as proxies of adaptations in response to direct selection. However, ignoring evolutionary history, in particular ancestry, passage of time and the rate of evolution, can be misleading. Here, we apply a recently developed phylogenetic statistical approach using significant rate shifts to detect instances of exceptional rates of adaptive changes in...

Reliably predicting pollinator abundance: challenges of calibrating process-based ecological models

Emma Gardner, Tom Breeze, Yann Clough, Henrik Smith, Katherine Baldock, Alistair Campbell, Michael Garratt, Mark Gillespie, William Kunin, Megan McKerchar, Jane Memmott, Simon Potts, Deepa Senapathi, Graham Stone, Felix Wäckers, Duncan Westbury, Andrew Wilby & Thomas Oliver
1. Pollination is a key ecosystem service for global agriculture but evidence of pollinator population declines is growing. Reliable spatial modelling of pollinator abundance is essential if we are to identify areas at risk of pollination service deficit and effectively target resources to support pollinator populations. Many models exist which predict pollinator abundance but few have been calibrated against observational data from multiple habitats to ensure their predictions are accurate. 2. We selected the most...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Data from: Geography of roadkills within the Tropical Andes biodiversity hotspot: poorly known vertebrates are part of the toll

Pablo Medrano-Vizcaíno & Santiago Espinosa
We explore the effect of roads in animal mortality within the Biodiversity Hotspot with the highest number of endemic species of vertebrates on Earth, the Tropical Andes. Our objectives were to know which species are killed on roads in this particularly biodiversity-rich area and how landscape composition and configuration influences roadkills. We systematically looked for roadkills along roads that border three protected areas in the Ecuadorian Andes. To evaluate our hypotheses, we used correlation, logistic...

Feed and water intake

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Björn Kuhla, David Humphries, Martin Weisbjerg, Peter Lund, Emer Kennedy, Michael O'Donovan, Michelle Liddane, Norann Galvin, Jan Dijkstra & René Baumont
Knowledge about dry matter intake (DMI) is a very important element in cattle management. Modern, high producing dairy cows require great amount of feed in order to meet the nutrient and energy requirements for maintenance and milk production, particularly during early lactation. In beef animals, current breeding strategies aim to select animals with low residual feed intake. Therefore, individual feed intake evaluation helps to identify the productivity and efficiency of each animal, in relation to...

The Use of Non-Linear Dynamics to Help Facilitate Understanding of Learning and Development Within Groups

Andrew JT George

Nectar values from: Quantifying nectar production by flowering plants in urban and rural landscapes

Nicholas Tew, Jane Memmott, Ian Vaughan, Stephanie Bird, Graham Stone, Simon Potts & Katherine Baldock
Floral resources (nectar and pollen) provide food for insect pollinators but have declined in the countryside due to land use change. Given widespread pollinator loss, it is important that we quantify their food supply to help develop conservation actions. While nectar resources have been measured in rural landscapes, equivalent data are lacking for urban areas, an important knowledge gap as towns and cities often host diverse pollinator populations. We quantified the nectar supply of urban...

WFDE5 over land merged with ERA5 over the ocean (W5E5 v2.0)

Stefan Lange, Christoph Menz, Stephanie Gleixner, Marco Cucchi, Graham P. Weedon, Alessandro Amici, Nicolas Bellouin, Hannes Müller Schmied, Hans Hersbach, Carlo Buontempo & Chiara Cagnazzo
The W5E5 dataset was compiled to support the bias adjustment of climate input data for the impact assessments carried out in phase 3b of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP3b).
Version 2.0 of the W5E5 dataset covers the entire globe at 0.5° horizontal and daily temporal resolution from 1979 to 2019. Data sources of W5E5 are version 2.0 of WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA5 data (WFDE5; Weedon et al., 2014; Cucchi et al.,...

Career, capitals and consumption: an analysis of the impacts of narrowly-defined occupational membership on household consumption, from a human capital and occupational field perspective

Karina Pavlisa
This thesis explores the relationship between distinctive, narrowly-defined, occupational groups and their consumption priorities, in relation to goods that represent strategic investments to underpin capitals.

Is mere exposure enough? the effects of bilingual environments on infant cognitive development

Dean D'Souza, Daniel Brady, Jennifer Haensel & Hana D'Souza
Bilinguals purportedly outperform monolinguals in nonverbal tasks of cognitive control (the ‘bilingual advantage’). The most common explanation is that managing two languages during language production constantly draws upon, and thus strengthens, domain general inhibitory mechanisms (Green, 1998). However, this theory cannot explain why a bilingual advantage has been found in preverbal infants (Kovacs & Mehler, 2009). An alternative explanation is needed. We propose that exposure to more varied, less predictable (language) environments drive infants to...

Female-driven intersexual coevolution in beetle genitalia

Bruno Genevcius, Joanna Baker, Filipe Bianchi & Adriana Marvaldi
Genital coevolution is a pervasive phenomenon as changes in one sex tend to impose fitness consequences on the other generating sexual conflict. Sexual conflict is often thought to cause stronger selection on males due to the Darwin-Bateman’s anisogamy paradigm. However, recent studies have demonstrated that female genitalia may be equally elaborated and perform diverse extra-copulatory functions. These characteristics suggest that female genitals can also be primary targets of selection, especially where natural selection acts on...

The global critical frequency foEs data derived from the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC S4max for the period 2006 to 2014

Bingkun Yu, Christopher Scott, Xianghui Xue, Xinan Yue & Xiankang Dou
The ionospheric sporadic E (Es) layer has a significant impact on the Global Positioning System (GPS)/Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. These influences on the GPS/GNSS signals can also be used to study the occurrence and characteristics of the Es layer on a global scale. In this paper, 5.8 million radio occultation (RO) profiles from the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellite mission and ground-based observations of Es layers recorded by 25 ionospheric monitoring stations and held at the...

Removing understory vegetation in oil palm agroforestry reduces ground-foraging ant abundance but not species richness

Amelia S.C. Hood, Andreas D. Advento, Jake Stone, Tom M. Fayle, Alice L.M. Fairnie, Helen S. Waters, William A. Foster, Jake L. Snaddon, Sudharto Ps, Jean-Pierre Caliman, Mohammad Naim & Edgar C. Turner
Ants are known to provide valuable ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, including oil palm plantations. Their communities are less diverse and more uneven in oil palm compared with forest, and this may increase their vulnerability to disturbance. This study quantifies ant communities in oil palm agroforestry and experimentally tests their robustness to a common-practice high-disturbance management intervention: removing understory vegetation. Fieldwork was based at the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in Tropical Agriculture (BEFTA) Understory Vegetation...

Data from: Quantifying nectar production by flowering plants in urban and rural landscapes

Nicholas Tew, Jane Memmott, Ian Vaughan, Stephanie Bird, Graham Stone, Simon Potts & Katherine Baldock
Floral resources (nectar and pollen) provide food for insect pollinators but have declined in the countryside due to land use change. Given widespread pollinator loss, it is important that we quantify their food supply to help develop conservation actions. While nectar resources have been measured in rural landscapes, equivalent data are lacking for urban areas, an important knowledge gap as towns and cities often host diverse pollinator populations. We quantified the nectar supply of urban...

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