117 Works

Building open lab hardware to tackle antimicrobial resistance

Stephanie Bull, Sarah Needs & Al Edwards
Microbiological imaging can be lengthy and labour-intensive without expensive lab-automation. Using Open Source hardware and software, Dr Al Edwards’ Biomedical Technology Lab designed a robot to take high-resolution images of experiments capturing changes in colour and fluorescence due to bacterial growth. This affordable solution has increased the Lab’s capability to image and screen samples with higher throughput, accuracy, and more kinetic data. The system is fully customisable to suit any imaging experiment and costs only...

The gas recovery test of respiratory chambers

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Marcel Heetkamp, Gemma Miller, David Humphries, Frederic Anglard, Yvanne Rochette, Cécile Martin, Tom Gardiner & Marc Coleman
Respiratory Chambers (RCs) were originally constructed with the purpose to study heat production from animals by quantifying oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production (initially detailed in the 18th century by Lavoisier and Leplace. Enteric methane (CH4) is measured in calorimetry studies, as CH4 is an energy loss. The RC can therefore be used to quantify the CH4 production from animals, and many new RC units have been constructed during the last decades with...

HadCM3 and HadGEM3 LIG model outputs: A sea ice-free Arctic

Maria Vittoria Guarino & Louise Sime
The HadGEM3 (HadGEM3-GC3.1 or HadGEM3-GC3.1-N96ORCA1) PI simulation was initialized using the standard CMIP6 protocol using constant 1850 GHGs, ozone, solar, tropospheric aerosol, stratospheric volcanic aerosol and land-use forcing. The PI spin-up was 700 model-years, which allowed the land and oceanic masses to attain approximate steady state. The HadGEM3 LIG (Last Interglacial) simulation was initialized from the end of the spin-up phase of the equivalent pre-industrial (PI) simulation. After initialization, the LIG was run for 350...

Data describing pollen identified from honey samples originating from the UKCEH National Honey Monitoring Scheme for 2019

B.A. Woodcock, A.E. Oliver, L.K. Newbold, H.S. Gweon, D.B. Roy & R.F. Pywell
The following data set describes regional and temporal occurrence of plants foraged upon by managed honey bees (Apis mellifera). This data was derived from DNA meta-barcoding of pollen extracted from honey samples provided by bee keepers archived as part of the UK National Honey Monitoring Scheme (https://honey-monitoring.ac.uk/). All data provided is from the first full year of the scheme in 2019. Working in partnership with UK beekeepers, the National Honey Monitoring Scheme aims to use...

Energy and carbon dioxide fluxes, meteorology and soil physics observed at INCOMPASS land surface stations in India, 2016 to 2017

R. Morrison, S.S. Angadi, H.M. Cooper, J.G. Evans, G. Rees, M. Sekhar, C. Taylor, S.N. Tripathi & A.G. Turner
Eddy covariance (EC) observations of surface-atmosphere exchanges of sensible heat and latent heat, momentum and net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange were measured at thirty minute resolution at three Land Surface Stations in India. The dataset includes ancillary weather and soil physics observations, as well as variables describing atmospheric turbulence and the quality of the turbulent flux observations. Meteorological observations include: the net radiation and its incoming and outgoing short- and long-wave components, air temperature, barometric...

Estimated species richness data used in study of UK Ecological status

R. Dyer & T. Oliver
Estimated species richness data for valuation of biodiversity across the UK, based on species occurrence records for 11 taxonomic groups (Bees, Birds, Bryophytes, Butterflies, Carabidae, Hoverflies, Isopoda, Ladybirds, Moths, Orthoptera and Vascular plants). UK species occurrence data were collated from the Biological Records Centre (BRC) and the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO). Estimated species richness was calculated across all taxonomic groups for two time periods: 1970-1990 and 2000-2013. The dataset was used to create the...

Lepidoptera distribution and behaviour data from chalk grassland fragment boundaries within the Stonehenge landscape, UK, in 2011

G. Twiston-Davies, S. R. Mortimer & J. Mitchley
This dataset consists of behaviour and distribution data of Lepidoptera from chalk grassland fragments at the Stonehenge World Heritage Site in Wiltshire, UK, in 2011. The landscape consists of small fragments of ancient chalk grassland on slopes and groups of burial mounds (barrows) which have retained many of the characteristic chalk grassland plant and butterfly species. Surveys were located at four of these chalk grassland fragments. At each chalk grassland fragment, four 20 m long...

CMIP5 GCM-based monthly patterns of local meteorological change, per degree of mean land warming, for driving the IMOGEN impacts model

E. Comyn-Platt, G. Hayman, C. Huntingford, S. Chadburn, E. Burke, A. Harper, W. Collins, C. Webber, T. Powell, P. Cox, N. Gedney & S. Sitch
This dataset consists of monthly spatial patterns of meteorological change for 34 Global Circulation Models (GCMs). The patterns are a set of regression coefficients, each representing the change per degree of mean global warming over land, for the corresponding meteorological variable. The meteorological variables analysed for each GCM include: surface temperature change per degree global warming (K K-1); surface relative humidity change per degree global warming (percentage of K-1); wind change per degree global warming...

Data from: Wolbachia infection and dramatic intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergence in a fig wasp

Jin-Hua Xiao, Ning-Xin Wang, Robert W. Murphy, James M. Cook, Ling-Yi Jia & Da-Wei Huang
Mitochondria and Wolbachia are maternally inherited genomes that exhibit strong linkage disequilibrium in many organisms. We surveyed Wolbachia infections in 187 specimens of the fig wasp species, Ceratosolen solmsi, and found an infection prevalence of 89.3%. DNA Sequencing of 20 individuals each from Wolbachia-infected and uninfected sub-populations revealed extreme mtDNA divergence (up to 9.2% and 15.3% in CO1 and cytochrome b, respectively) between infected and uninfected wasps. Further, mtDNA diversity was significantly reduced within the...

Data from: The role of life history traits in mammalian invasion success

Isabella Capellini, Joanna Baker, William L. Allen, Sally E. Street & Chris Venditti
Why some organisms become invasive when introduced into novel regions while others fail to even establish is a fundamental question in ecology. Barriers to success are expected to filter species at each stage along the invasion pathway. No study to date, however, has investigated how species traits associate with success from introduction to spread at a large spatial scale in any group. Using the largest data set of mammalian introductions at the global scale and...

Data from: Patterns of size variation in bees at a continental scale: does Bergmann’s rule apply?

Maxence Gérard, Maryse Vanderplanck, Markus Franzen, Michael Kuhlmann, Simon G. Potts, Pierre Rasmont, Oliver Schweiger & Denis Michez
Body size latitudinal clines have been widley explained by the Bergmann’s rule in homeothermic vertebrates. However, there is no general consensus in poikilotherms organisms in particular in insects that represent the large majority of wildlife. Among them, bees are a highly diverse pollinators group with high economic and ecological value. Nevertheless, no comprehensive studies of species assemblages at a phylogenetically larger scale have been carried out even if they could identify the traits and the...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Evaluating a trait-based approach to compare natural enemy and pest communities in agroforestry versus arable systems

Tom Staton, Richard Walters, Jo Smith, Tom Breeze & Robbie Girling
Diversified farming systems, for example those that incorporate agroforestry elements, have been proposed as a solution that could maintain and improve multiple ecosystem services. However, habitat diversification in and around arable fields has complex and inconsistent effects on invertebrate crop pests and their natural enemies. This hinders the development of policy recommendations to promote the adoption of such management strategies for the provision of natural pest control services. Here, for the first time we conducted...

Data from: A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland

Lorna Cole, David Kleijn, Lynn Dicks, Jane Stout, Simon Potts, Matthias Albrecht, Mario Balzan, Ignasi Bartomeus, Penelope Bebeli, Danilo Bevk, Jacobus Biesmeijer, Róbert Chlebo, Anželika Dautartė, Nikolaos Emmanouil, Chris Hartfield, John Holland, Andrea Holzschuh, Nieke Knoben, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Yael Mandelik, Heleni Panou, Robert Paxton, Theodora Petanidou, Miguel Pinheiro De Carvalho, … & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural intensification and associated loss of high-quality habitats are key drivers of insect pollinator declines. With the aim of decreasing the environmental impact of agriculture, the 2014 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined a set of habitat and landscape features (Ecological Focus Areas: EFAs) farmers could select from as a requirement to receive basic farm payments. To inform the post-2020 CAP, we performed a European-scale evaluation to determine how different EFA options vary in...

Data from: Mass-flowering crops dilute pollinator abundance in agricultural landscapes across Europe

Andrea Holzschuh, Matteo Dainese, Juan P. González-Varo, Sonja Mudri-Stojnić, Verena Riedinger, , Jeroen Scheper, Jennifer B. Wickens, Victoria J. Wickens, Riccardo Bommarco, David Kleijn, Simon G. Potts, Stuart P.M. Roberts, Henrik G. Smith, Montserrat Vilà, Ante Vujić, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Stuart P. M. Roberts
Mass-flowering crops (MFCs) are increasingly cultivated and might influence pollinator communities in MFC fields and nearby semi-natural habitats (SNHs). Across six European regions and 2 years, we assessed how landscape-scale cover of MFCs affected pollinator densities in 408 MFC fields and adjacent SNHs. In MFC fields, densities of bumblebees, solitary bees, managed honeybees and hoverflies were negatively related to the cover of MFCs in the landscape. In SNHs, densities of bumblebees declined with increasing cover...

Historical warming consistently decreased size, dispersal and speciation rate of fish

Jorge Avaria-Llautureo, Chris Venditti, Marcelo Rivadeneira, Oscar Inostroza-Michael, Reinaldo Rivera, Cristián Hernández & Cristian Canales-Aguirre
There is ongoing debate as to whether fish body size will decrease with global warming and how these changes may impact dispersal ability and speciation rate. Theory predicts that, under warmer temperatures, fish grow to a smaller size, undergo a reduction in dispersal ability and increase speciation rates. However, evaluations of such predictions are hampered owing to the lack of empirical data spanning both wide temporal and geographical scales. Here, using phylogenetic methods, we show...

Data on measuring splash dispersal of a major wheat pathogen in the field

Petteri Karisto, Frédéric Suffert & Alexey Mikaberidze
Capacity for dispersal is a fundamental fitness component of plant pathogens. Characterization of plant pathogen dispersal is important for understanding how pathogen populations change in time and space. We devised a systematic approach to measure and analyze rain splash-driven dispersal of plant pathogens in field conditions, using the major fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici as a case study.We inoculated field plots of wheat (Triticum aestivum) with two distinct Z. tritici strains. Next, we measured disease...

Cover of Land Cover Map 2007 broad habitat classes in the upstream catchment of the 20 Wessex chalkstream sites, England, UK

J. Murphy & T. Oliver
The data consists of a matrix of 12 land cover classes by 20 stream sites with the area of each land cover class given in km2. The areal coverage (km2) of each of 12 land cover classes was recorded for each of 20 chalkstream catchments in southern England. The 20 discrete chalkstream catchments are distributed along the white chalk geology extending from Dorset in the south west, through Wiltshire, to Hampshire in the north east,...

Plant-pollinator interactions database for construction of potential networks

J.W. Redhead, C.F. Coombes, H.J. Dean, R. Dyer, T.H. Oliver, M.J.O. Pocock, S.L. Rorke, A.J. Vanbergen, B.A. Woodcock & R.F. Pywell
Plant-pollinator interactions database derived from biological recording data, unpublished experimental data and published interactions in books and papers. The database covers all recorded interactions for bees, hoverflies and butterflies in mainland GB. Interactions were inferred from biological recording metadata by algorithmically screening for text matching a valid scientific or vernacular plant name (or a widely used synonym or abbreviation of either), followed by manual data cleaning. These data were compiled for the construction of multiple...

Lepidoptera distribution and behaviour data from transects within the Stonehenge landscape, UK, between 2010 and 2011

G. Twiston-Davies, S. R. Mortimer & J. Mitchley
This dataset consists of behaviour and distribution data of Lepidoptera at the Stonehenge World Heritage Site in Wiltshire, UK, between 2010-2011. A long term landscape scale grassland restoration and re-creation project has been underway at the site since 2000. 200m long transects were located in the centre of different grassland re-creation fields of different ages, arable land, chalk grassland fragments on slopes and on ancient burial mounds, and semi-improved pasture. Transects were surveyed on three...

Nectar values from: Quantifying nectar production by flowering plants in urban and rural landscapes

Nicholas Tew, Jane Memmott, Ian Vaughan, Stephanie Bird, Graham Stone, Simon Potts & Katherine Baldock
Floral resources (nectar and pollen) provide food for insect pollinators but have declined in the countryside due to land use change. Given widespread pollinator loss, it is important that we quantify their food supply to help develop conservation actions. While nectar resources have been measured in rural landscapes, equivalent data are lacking for urban areas, an important knowledge gap as towns and cities often host diverse pollinator populations. We quantified the nectar supply of urban...

Reliably predicting pollinator abundance: challenges of calibrating process-based ecological models

Emma Gardner, Tom Breeze, Yann Clough, Henrik Smith, Katherine Baldock, Alistair Campbell, Michael Garratt, Mark Gillespie, William Kunin, Megan McKerchar, Jane Memmott, Simon Potts, Deepa Senapathi, Graham Stone, Felix Wäckers, Duncan Westbury, Andrew Wilby & Thomas Oliver
1. Pollination is a key ecosystem service for global agriculture but evidence of pollinator population declines is growing. Reliable spatial modelling of pollinator abundance is essential if we are to identify areas at risk of pollination service deficit and effectively target resources to support pollinator populations. Many models exist which predict pollinator abundance but few have been calibrated against observational data from multiple habitats to ensure their predictions are accurate. 2. We selected the most...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Data from: Using areas of known occupancy to identify sources of variation in detection probability of raptors: taking time lowers replication effort for surveys

Campbell Murn & Graham J. Holloway
Species occurring at low density can be difficult to detect and if not properly accounted for, imperfect detection will lead to inaccurate estimates of occupancy. Understanding sources of variation in detection probability and how they can be managed is a key part of monitoring. We used sightings data of a low-density and elusive raptor (white-headed vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis) in areas of known occupancy (breeding territories) in a likelihood-based modelling approach to calculate detection probability and...

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