26 Works

The future of African nowcasting

Lorraine Youds, Douglas Parker, Elijah A Adefisan, Leonard Kofitse Amekudzi, Jeffrey N. A. Aryee, Ifeoluwa Adebowale BALOGUN, Alan Blyth, Bernard Chanzu, Sylvester Danuor, Abdoulahat Diop, Jennifer Fletcher, Andre K Foamouhoue, Amadou T Gaye, Morne Gijben, Steven Goodman, Peter Hill, Ishiyaku Ibrahim, David Koros, Kamoru Abiodun Lawal, John Marsham, Bethwel Mutai K, Joseph Mutemi, Coumba Niang, Ousmane Ndiaye & Eniola Olaniyan
Nowcasting (weather forecasting predictions from zero to several hours) has enormous value and potential in Africa, where populations and economic activity are highly vulnerable to rapidly changing weather conditions. Timely issuing of warnings, a few hours before an event, can enable the public and decision-makers to take action. Rainfall radar estimates are not widely available in Africa, nor likely to be in the coming years, and numerical weather prediction (NWP) currently has low skill over...

GCRF African SWIFT White Paper Policy Brief: The future of African weather forecasting

Lorraine Youds, Douglas Parker, Elijah A Adefisan , Philip Antwi-Agyei, Caroline L Bain , Emily Black, Alan Blyth, Andrew Dougill, Linda C Hirons , Victor S Indasi, Benjamin L Lamptey, Fionne Marshall, John Marsham, Thorwald H M Stein, Christopher M Taylor , Martin C Todd, Emma L Visman & Steven Woolnough
There is a huge opportunity for the African continent to benefit from the ‘silent revolution’ in weather forecasting that has been realised in the mid-latitudes throughout the twentieth century. While there are tremendous societal and economic benefits from advancing the science behind weather forecasting in sub-Saharan Africa, there are also significant barriers to realising advances. This policy brief examines the value of investment in African weather forecasting science and the technical & communication challenges that...

Data from: Geography of roadkills within the Tropical Andes biodiversity hotspot: poorly known vertebrates are part of the toll

Pablo Medrano-Vizcaíno & Santiago Espinosa
We explore the effect of roads in animal mortality within the Biodiversity Hotspot with the highest number of endemic species of vertebrates on Earth, the Tropical Andes. Our objectives were to know which species are killed on roads in this particularly biodiversity-rich area and how landscape composition and configuration influences roadkills. We systematically looked for roadkills along roads that border three protected areas in the Ecuadorian Andes. To evaluate our hypotheses, we used correlation, logistic...

Nectar values from: Quantifying nectar production by flowering plants in urban and rural landscapes

Nicholas Tew, Jane Memmott, Ian Vaughan, Stephanie Bird, Graham Stone, Simon Potts & Katherine Baldock
Floral resources (nectar and pollen) provide food for insect pollinators but have declined in the countryside due to land use change. Given widespread pollinator loss, it is important that we quantify their food supply to help develop conservation actions. While nectar resources have been measured in rural landscapes, equivalent data are lacking for urban areas, an important knowledge gap as towns and cities often host diverse pollinator populations. We quantified the nectar supply of urban...

HadCM3 and HadGEM3 LIG model outputs: A sea ice-free Arctic

Maria Vittoria Guarino & Louise Sime
The HadGEM3 (HadGEM3-GC3.1 or HadGEM3-GC3.1-N96ORCA1) PI simulation was initialized using the standard CMIP6 protocol using constant 1850 GHGs, ozone, solar, tropospheric aerosol, stratospheric volcanic aerosol and land-use forcing. The PI spin-up was 700 model-years, which allowed the land and oceanic masses to attain approximate steady state. The HadGEM3 LIG (Last Interglacial) simulation was initialized from the end of the spin-up phase of the equivalent pre-industrial (PI) simulation. After initialization, the LIG was run for 350...

Data on measuring splash dispersal of a major wheat pathogen in the field

Petteri Karisto, Frédéric Suffert & Alexey Mikaberidze
Capacity for dispersal is a fundamental fitness component of plant pathogens. Characterization of plant pathogen dispersal is important for understanding how pathogen populations change in time and space. We devised a systematic approach to measure and analyze rain splash-driven dispersal of plant pathogens in field conditions, using the major fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici as a case study.We inoculated field plots of wheat (Triticum aestivum) with two distinct Z. tritici strains. Next, we measured disease...

Historical warming consistently decreased size, dispersal and speciation rate of fish

Jorge Avaria-Llautureo, Chris Venditti, Marcelo Rivadeneira, Oscar Inostroza-Michael, Reinaldo Rivera, Cristián Hernández & Cristian Canales-Aguirre
There is ongoing debate as to whether fish body size will decrease with global warming and how these changes may impact dispersal ability and speciation rate. Theory predicts that, under warmer temperatures, fish grow to a smaller size, undergo a reduction in dispersal ability and increase speciation rates. However, evaluations of such predictions are hampered owing to the lack of empirical data spanning both wide temporal and geographical scales. Here, using phylogenetic methods, we show...

WFDE5 over land merged with ERA5 over the ocean (W5E5 v2.0)

Stefan Lange, Christoph Menz, Stephanie Gleixner, Marco Cucchi, Graham P. Weedon, Alessandro Amici, Nicolas Bellouin, Hannes Müller Schmied, Hans Hersbach, Carlo Buontempo & Chiara Cagnazzo
The W5E5 dataset was compiled to support the bias adjustment of climate input data for the impact assessments carried out in phase 3b of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP3b).
Version 2.0 of the W5E5 dataset covers the entire globe at 0.5° horizontal and daily temporal resolution from 1979 to 2019. Data sources of W5E5 are version 2.0 of WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA5 data (WFDE5; Weedon et al., 2014; Cucchi et al.,...

Data from: Quantifying nectar production by flowering plants in urban and rural landscapes

Nicholas Tew, Jane Memmott, Ian Vaughan, Stephanie Bird, Graham Stone, Simon Potts & Katherine Baldock
Floral resources (nectar and pollen) provide food for insect pollinators but have declined in the countryside due to land use change. Given widespread pollinator loss, it is important that we quantify their food supply to help develop conservation actions. While nectar resources have been measured in rural landscapes, equivalent data are lacking for urban areas, an important knowledge gap as towns and cities often host diverse pollinator populations. We quantified the nectar supply of urban...

Private governance initiatives and commodity production in Brazil: Roundtables and the socio-environmental commitments in beef and soybean production

Louise Nakagawa, Marcello De Maria & Matheus Couto
This output has been funded in whole or part by the UK Research and Innovation’s Global Challenges Research Fund under the Trade, Development and the Environment Hub project (project number ES/S008160/1).

GCRF African SWIFT Testbed 1 Report

Jennifer K. Fletcher, Douglas Parker, Andrew Hartley, Elias Nkiaka, Elijah Adefisa, Sam Clarke, Thorwald Stein, , David Koros & Berth Woodhams
This document describes the activities and outcomes of the GCRF African Science for Weather Information and Forecasting Techniques (SWIFT) Weather Forecasting Testbed 1. Testbed 1 was conducted in the first part of 2019, from an operational forecasting office at IMTR Nairobi, at the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD). Other centres connected to the Testbed by video-conference. The Testbed was designed to support SWIFT’s programme of research capability-building in the science of weather prediction. New forecasting and...


Chloe Brimicombe, Claudia Di Napoli, Tiago Quintino, Florian Pappenberger, Rosalind Cornforth & Hannah Cloke

Nitrogen oxide and ozone concentrations, pollinator visitation frequencies and yield metrics of Brassica nigra in fumigation rings, Sonning, UK, 2018-2019

J.M.W. Ryalls, L.M. Bromfield, B. Langford, N. Mullinger, E. Nemitz, C. Pfrang & R.D. Girling
The dataset contains concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, collectively NOx) and ozone (O3), frequencies of insect pollinators and flower visits and yield metrics of Brassica nigra plants collected from within eight field-based fumigation rings located at the University of Reading's Sonning Farm, UK.

Invertebrate pests, natural enemies, pollinators, pest damage and yields associated with different understorey treatments in an agroforestry system, Nottinghamshire, UK, 2020

T. Staton, R.J. Walters, J. Smith, T.D. Breeze & R.D. Girling
This resource comprises abundance data for invertebrates, pest damage to apples, and yields from an agroforestry system subject to two different understorey management treatments, comprising an unmown flowering understorey and a mown understorey. The data was collected from an intercropped apple-arable agroforestry site in Screveton, Nottinghamshire, UK, from five experimental blocks, each block split between the two understorey management treatments. The data was collected between April and September 2020. Data was collected using (i) pitfall...

GCRF African SWIFT White Paper Policy Brief. Exploiting Sub-seasonal Forecast Predictability in Africa: a key to sustainable development

Linda Hirons, Steven Woolnough, Dione Cheikh , Elisabeth Thompson, Felipe Andrade, Joshua Talib, Oumar Konte, Tidiane Diedhiou, David Quaye, Nana Opoku, Kamoru Abiodun Lawal, Eniola Olaniyan, Patricia Nying’uro, Chris Kiptum, Masilin Gudoshava, Phillips Lauren , Lorraine Youds, Douglas Parker & Alan Blyth
New real-time sub-seasonal forecast information is aiding preparedness and disaster risk reduction decisions in key flood- and drought-vulnerable sectors across Africa and enabling significant progress in sub-Saharan Africa towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals. These services are demonstrating the potential for wider development of sub-seasonal user-focussed services at scale across Africa. We make key recommendations to achieve this vision.

Data from: Evaluating predictive performance of statistical models explaining wild bee abundance in a mass-flowering crop

Maria Blasi Romero, Ignasi Bartomeus, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Sandra A.M. Lindström, Peter Olsson, Chiara Polce, Simon G. Potts, , Jeroen Scheper, Henrik G. Smith, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Yann Clough
Wild bee populations are threatened by current agricultural practices in many parts of the world, which may put pollination services and crop yields at risk. Loss of pollination services can potentially be predicted by models that link bee abundances with landscape-scale land-use, but there is little knowledge on the degree to which these statistical models are transferable across time and space. This study assesses the transferability of models for wild bee abundance in a mass-flowering...

The effect of face masks and sunglasses on identity and expression recognition with super-recognisers and typical observers

Eilidh Noyes, Josh P. Davis, Nikolay Petrov, Katie L.H. Gray & Kay L. Ritchie
Face masks present a new challenge to face identification and emotion recognition in Western cultures. Here we present the results of three experiments that test the effect of masks, and also the effect of sunglasses (an occlusion that individuals tend to have more experience with) on 1) familiar face matching, 2) unfamiliar face matching, and 3) emotion recognition. Occlusion reduced accuracy in all three tasks, with most errors in the mask condition, however, there was...

Mycorrhizal symbiosis and phosphorus supply determine interactions among plants with contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies

Rachel Standish, Felipe Albornoz, Tim Morald, Richard Hobbs & Mark Tibbett
Highly diverse plant communities growing on nutrient-impoverished soils are test beds for theories on species coexistence. Here, neighbouring mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants compete for limited phosphorus. The impact of belowground interactions on community dynamics is underexplored. We used an experimental approach to investigate effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and a phosphorus supply gradient on competitive and facilitative interactions among mixed assemblages of woody plants in microcosms. The plant species, one cluster-root forming...

Hazelnut SSR database: genetic profiles of the accessions, list of synonyms, and true-to-type genotypes

Paolo Boccacci, Maria Aramini, Matthew Ordidge, Theo Van Hintum, Daniela Torello Marinoni, Nadia Valentini, Jean-Paul Sarraquigne, Anita Solar, Mercè Rovira, Loretta Bacchetta & Roberto Botta
Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is one of the most important tree nut crops in Europe. Germplasm accessions are conserved in ex situ repositories, located in countries where hazelnut production occurs. In this work, we used ten simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers as the basis to establish a core collection representative of the hazelnut genetic diversity conserved in different European collections. A total of 480 accessions were used: 430 from ex situ collections and 50 landraces...

Projected climatic changes lead to biome changes in areas of previously constant biome

Brian Huntley, Judy Allen, Matthew Forrest, Thomas Hickler, Ralf Ohlemüller, Joy Singarayer & Paul Valdes
Aim: Recent studies in southern Africa identified past biome stability as an important predictor of biodiversity. We aimed to assess the extent to which past biome stability predicts present global biodiversity patterns, and the extent to which projected climatic changes may lead to eventual biome changes in areas with constant past biome. Location: Global. Taxon: Spermatophyta; terrestrial vertebrates. Methods: Biome constancy was assessed and mapped using results from 89 dynamic global vegetation model simulations, driven...

Larval mass and survival data for Maniola jurtina under drought stress, UK

M.P. Greenwell, M.S. Botham, M.W. Bruford, J.C. Day, L.C. Evans, M. Gibbs, I. Middlebrook, D.B. Roy, K. Watts & T.H. Oliver
Larval mass and survival data for Meadow Brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) originating from nine different source populations in the UK and reared under one of two host plant treatment groups (either control or drought stress) in an outdoor insectary at UKCEH under natural environmental conditions. Each individual larva was monitored at three growth check points throughout development: 49 days after hatching (pre-overwintering), 162 days after hatching (post overwintering during larval growth) and 309 days after...

The Children’s ‘68

Sophie Heywood & Cécile Boulaire

Causation and climate change litigation: ‘bridge too far’?

Mark Wilde
The phenomenon of ‘climate change litigation’ has come to the fore in recent years as campaigners and activists have become increasingly frustrated at a perceived lack of action on the part of the international community and individual states in terms of getting to grips with the climate change problem. Existing legal mechanisms available to private parties and other bodies, such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been used as a means of endeavouring to hold governments...

Prey and predator density-dependent interactions under different water volumes

Ross Cuthbert, Tatenda Dalu, Ryan Wasserman, Arnaud Sentis, Olaf Weyl, William Froneman, Amanda Callaghan & Jaimie Dick
Predation is a critical ecological process that directly and indirectly mediates population stabilities, as well as ecosystem structure and function. The strength of interactions between predators and prey may be mediated by multiple density-dependences concerning numbers of predators and prey. In temporary wetland ecosystems in particular, fluctuating water volumes may alter predation rates through differing search space and prey encounters rates. Using a functional response approach, we examined the influence of predator and prey densities...

Diversity of response and effect traits provides complementary information about avian community dynamics linked to ecological function

Lisbeth Hordley, Simon Gillings, Owen Petchey, Joseph Tobias, Thomas Oliver, Lisbeth A. Hordley, Owen L. Petchey, Joseph A. Tobias & Thomas H. Oliver
Functional diversity metrics based on species traits are widely used to investigate ecosystem functioning. In theory, such metrics have different implications depending on whether they are calculated from traits mediating responses to environmental change (response traits) or those regulating function (effect traits), yet trait choice in diversity metrics is rarely scrutinized. Here, we compile effect and response traits for British bird species supplying two key ecological services – seed dispersal and insect predation – to...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text
  • Other
  • Software


  • University of Reading
  • Met Office
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
  • University of Leeds
  • African Center of Meteorological Application for Development
  • Cardiff University
  • University of Bristol
  • Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
  • Royal Horticultural Society
  • Lund University