67 Works

Data from: Genomic divergence between the migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod

Bård O. Karlsen, Kevin A. Klingan, Åse Emblem, Tor E. Jørgensen, Alexander Jüterbock, Tomasz Furmanek, Galice Hoarau, Steinar D. Johansen, Jarle T. Nordeide & Truls Moum
Atlantic cod displays a range of phenotypic and genotypic variations, which includes the differentiation into coastal stationary and offshore migratory types of cod that co-occur in several parts of its distribution range and are often sympatric on the spawning grounds. Differentiation of these ecotypes may involve both historical separation and adaptation to ecologically distinct environments, the genetic basis of which is now beginning to be unravelled. Genomic analyses based on recent sequencing advances are able...

Data from: Genetically distinct populations of northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, in the North Atlantic: adaptation to different temperatures as an isolation factor

Per Erik Jorde, Guldborg Søvik, Jon-Ivar Westgaard, Jon Albretsen, Carl André, Carsten Hvingel, Torild Johansen, Anne Dagrun Sandvik, Michael Kingsley & Knut Eirik Jørstad
The large-scale population genetic structure of northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, was investigated over the species’ range in the North Atlantic, identifying multiple genetically distinct groups. Genetic divergence among sample localities varied among 10 microsatellite loci (range: FST = −0.0002 to 0.0475) with a highly significant average (FST = 0.0149; P < 0.0001). In contrast, little or no genetic differences were observed among temporal replicates from the same localities (FST = 0.0004; P = 0.33). Spatial...

Data from: Thermal plasticity in farmed, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon during early development: has domestication caused divergence in low temperature tolerance?

Monica Favnebøe Solberg, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar Helge Matre & Kevin Alan Glover
Background: In the past three decades, millions of domesticated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. have escaped from farms into the wild. Their offspring display reduced survival in the natural environment, which demonstrates that gene-flow is likely to have a negative effect on wild populations. However, inter-population differences in introgression of farmed salmon have been observed, and the underlying ecological mechanisms remain enigmatic. We hypothesised that domestication-driven divergence in tolerance to low temperatures during early development...

Data from: Geographic extent of introgression in Sebastes mentella and its effect on genetic population structure

Atal Saha, Torild Johansen, Rasmus Hedeholm, Einar E. Nielsen, Jon-Ivar Westgaard, Lorenz Hauser, Benjamin Planque, Steven X. Cadrin & Jesper Boje
Genetic population structure is often used to identify management units in exploited species, but the extent of genetic differentiation may be inflated by geographic variation in the level of hybridization between species. We identify the genetic population structure of Sebastes mentella and investigate possible introgression within the genus by analyzing 13 microsatellites in 2,562 redfish specimens sampled throughout the North Atlantic. The data support an historical divergence between the “shallow” and “deep” groups, beyond the...

Data from: Habitat discontinuities separate genetically divergent populations of a rocky shore marine fish

Enrique Blanco Gonzalez, Halvor Knutsen & Per Erik Jorde
Habitat fragmentation has been suggested to be responsible for major genetic differentiations in a range of marine organisms. In this study, we combined genetic data and environmental information to unravel the relative role of geography and habitat heterogeneity on patterns of genetic population structure of corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), a rocky shore species at the northern limit of its distribution range in Scandinavia. Our results revealed a major genetic break separating populations inhabiting the western...

Data from: Does density influence relative growth performance of farm, wild, and F1 hybrid Atlantic salmon in semi-natural and hatchery common garden conditions?

Alison C. Harvey, Gareth Juleff, Gary R. Carvalho, Martin I. Taylor, Monica F. Solberg, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar-Helge Matre & Kevin A. Glover
The conditions encountered by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in aquaculture are markedly different from the natural environment. Typically, farmed salmon experience much higher densities than wild individuals, and may therefore have adapted to living in high densities. Previous studies have demonstrated that farmed salmon typically outgrow wild salmon by large ratios in the hatchery, but these differences are much less pronounced in the wild. Such divergence in growth may be explained partly by the...

Data from: Fine-scale population dynamics in a marine fish species inferred from dynamic state-space models

Lauren A. Rogers, Geir O. Storvik, Halvor Knutsen, Esben M. Olsen & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Identifying the spatial scale of population structuring is critical for the conservation of natural populations and for drawing accurate ecological inferences. However, population studies often use spatially aggregated data to draw inferences about population trends and drivers, potentially masking ecologically relevant population sub-structure and dynamics. The goals of this study were to investigate how population dynamics models with and without spatial structure affect inferences on population trends and the identification of intrinsic drivers of population...

Data from: Seasonal dynamics of spatial distribution and overlap between Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) and capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the Barents Sea

Johanna Fall, Lorenzo Ciannelli, Georg Skaret & Edda Johannesen
The trophic link between cod (Gadus sp.) and capelin (Mallotus sp.) is important in many panarctic ecosystems. Since the early 2000s, the Northeast Arctic cod stock (G. morhua) in the Barents Sea has increased greatly, and the sea has been exceptionally warm. Such changes have potentially large effects on species distributions and overlap, which in turn could affect the strength of species interactions. Due to its high latitude location, the Barents Sea has strong seasonal...

Data from: Personalities influence spatial responses to environmental fluctuations in wild fish

David Villegas‐Ríos, Denis Réale, Carla Freitas, Even Moland & Esben M. Olsen
1. Although growing evidence supports the idea that animal personality can explain plasticity in response to changes in the social environment, it remains to be tested whether it can explain spatial responses of individuals in the face of natural environmental fluctuations. This is a major challenge in ecology and evolution as spatial dynamics link individual- and population-level processes. 2. In this study we investigated the potential of individual personalities to predict differences in fish behaviour...

Data from: Are we underestimating the occurrence of sympatric populations?

Per Erik Jorde, Anastasia Andersson, Nils Ryman & Linda Laikre
Sympatric populations are conspecific populations that co-exist spatially. They are of interest in evolutionary biology by representing the potential first steps of sympatric speciation and are important to identify and monitor in conservation management. Sympatric existence in freshwater habitats can be more easily defined than terrestrial ones, and a series of sympatric fish populations have been reported. Reviewing the literature pertaining to sympatric populations of salmonid fishes, we find that most cases of sympatry appear...

Data from: Field metabolic rates of teleost fishes are recorded in otolith carbonate

Ming-Tsung Chung, Clive N. Trueman, Jane A. Godiksen, Mathias Engell Holmstrup & Peter Grønkjær
Field metabolic rate (FMR) is key to understanding individual and population-level responses to environmental changes, but is challenging to measure in field conditions, particularly in aquatic environments. Here we show that FMR can be estimated directly from the isotopic composition of carbon in fish otoliths (δ13Coto). We describe the relationship between δ13Coto values and oxygen consumption rate, and report results from laboratory experiments relating individual-level measurements of oxygen consumption rates to δ13Coto values in Atlantic...

Genetic structuring in Atlantic haddock contrasts with current management regimes

Paul R. Berg, Per E. Jorde, Kevin A. Glover, Geir Dahle, John B. Taggart, Knut Korsbrekke, Gjert E. Dingsør, Jon E. Skjæraasen, Peter J. Wright, Steven X. Cadrin, Halvor Knutsen & Jon-Ivar Westgaard
The advent of novel genetic methods has made it possible to investigate population structure and connectivity in mobile marine fish species: knowledge of which is essential to ensure a sustainable fishery. Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is a highly exploited marine teleost distributed along the coast and continental shelf on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean. However, little is known about its population structure. Here, we present the first study using single nucleotide polymorphism markers to...

Data from: Local divergence of thermal reaction norms among amphibian populations is affected by pond temperature variation

Alex Richter-Boix, Marco Katzenberger, Helder Duarte, María Quintela, Miguel Tejedo & Anssi Laurila
While temperature variation is known to cause large-scale adaptive divergence, its potential role as a selective factor over microgeographic scales is less well understood. Here, we investigated how variation in breeding pond temperature affects divergence in multiple physiological (thermal performance curve (TPC) and critical thermal maximum (CTmax)) and life history (thermal developmental reaction norms (TDRN)) traits in a network of Rana arvalis populations. The results supported adaptive responses to face two main constraints limiting the...

Data from: First indications that northern bottlenose whales are sensitive to behavioural disturbance from anthropogenic noise

P. J. O. Miller, P. H. Kvadsheim, F. P. A. Lam, P. L. Tyack, C. Curé, S. L. DeRuiter, L. Kleivane, L. D. Sivle, S. P. Van IJsselmuide, F. Visser, P. J. Wensveen, A. M. Von Benda-Beckmann, L. M. Martín López, T. Narazaki & S. K. Hooker
Although northern bottlenose whales were the most heavily hunted beaked whale, we have little information about this species in its remote habitat of the North Atlantic Ocean. Underwater anthropogenic noise and disruption of their natural habitat may be major threats, given the sensitivity of other beaked whales to such noise disturbance. We attached dataloggers to 13 northern bottlenose whales and compared their natural sounds and movements to those of one individual exposed to escalating levels...

Data from: Temperature-associated habitat selection in a cold-water marine fish

Carla Freitas, Esben Moland Olsen, Halvor Knutsen, Jon Albretsen & Even Moland
Habitat selection is a complex process, which involves behavioural decisions guided by the multiple needs and constraints faced by individuals. Climate-induced changes in environmental conditions may alter those trade-offs and resulting habitat use patterns. In this study we investigated the effect of sea temperature on habitat selection and habitat use of acoustically tagged Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. Significant relationships between ocean temperature and habitat selection and use were found. Under...

Data from: Behavioural responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes

Carla Freitas, Esben Moland Olsen, Even Moland, Lorenzo Ciannelli & Halvor Knutsen
Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30–80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a...

Data from: Stable isotope-based location in a shelf sea setting: accuracy and precision are comparable to light-based location methods

Clive N. Trueman, Kirsteen M. MacKenzie, Katie St. John Glew & Katie St John Glew
Retrospective determination of location for marine animals would facilitate investigations of migration, connectivity and food provenance. Predictable spatial variations in carbon and nitrogen isotopes in primary production across shelf seas provide a basis for stable isotope-based location. Here, we assess the accuracy and precision that can be obtained through dietary-isotope-based location methods. We build isoscapes from jellyfish tissues and use these to assign scallops of fixed and known individual location, and herring with well-understood population-level...

Data from: The genetic basis for ecological adaptation of the Atlantic herring revealed by genome sequencing

Alvaro Martinez Barrio, Sangeet Lamichhaney, Guangyi Fan, Nima Rafati, Mats Pettersson, He Zhang, Jacques Dainat, Diana Ekman, Marc Höppner, Patric Jern, Marcel Martin, Björn Nystedt, Xin Liu, Wenbin Chen, Xinming Liang, Chengcheng Shi, Yuanyuan Fu, Kailong Ma, Xiao Zhan, Chungang Feng, Ulla Gustafson, Carl-Johan Rubin, Markus Sällman Almén, Martina Blass, Michele Casini … & Leif Andersson
Ecological adaptation is of major relevance to speciation and sustainable population management, but the underlying genetic factors are typically hard to study in natural populations due to genetic differentiation caused by natural selection being confounded with genetic drift in subdivided populations. Here, we use whole genome population sequencing of Atlantic and Baltic herring to reveal the underlying genetic architecture at an unprecedented detailed resolution for both adaptation to a new niche environment and timing of...

Data from: Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales

Halvor Knutsen, Per Erik Jorde, Jeffrey A. Hutchings, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Peter Grønkjær, Kris-Emil Mose Jørgensen, Carl Andre, Marte Sodeland, Jon Albretsen, Esben M. Olsen & Peter Grønkjaer
Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution, diversification, and the potential for organisms to adapt and persist in response to a changing environment. Recent studies have documented cryptic, sympatric populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in coastal areas. We analyzed genetic origin of...

Data from: Seasonal variation in male alternative reproductive tactics

Melanie J. Monroe, Trond Amundsen, Anne Christine Utne Palm, Kenyon B. Mobley & A. C. Utne-Palm
Genetic parentage analyses reveal considerable diversity in alternative reproductive behaviours (e.g. sneaking) in many taxa. However, little is known about whether these behaviours vary seasonally and between populations. Here, we investigate seasonal variation in male reproductive behaviours in a population of two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens) in Norway. Male two-spotted gobies guard nests, attract females and care for fertilized eggs. We collected clutches and nest-guarding males early and late in the breeding season in artificial nests...

Data from: Can collective memories shape fish distributions? A test, linking space-time occurrence models and population demographics

Jed I. Macdonald, Kai Logemann, Elias T. Krainski, Þorsteinn Sigurðsson, Colin M. Beale, Geir Huse, Solfrid S. Hjøllo & Guðrún Marteinsdóttir
Social learning can be fundamental to cohesive group living, and schooling fishes have proven ideal test subjects for recent work in this field. For many species, both demographic factors, and inter- (and intra-) generational information exchange are considered vital ingredients in how movement decisions are reached. Yet key information is often missing on the spatial outcomes of such decisions, and questions concerning how migratory traditions are influenced by collective memory, density-dependent and density-independent processes remain...

Pathways to the Denmark Strait Overflow: A Lagrangian Study in the Iceland Sea

Marieke Femke de Jong, Amy Bower, Henrik Søiland, Heather Furey & Andree L. Ramsey
The goal of this project was to directly measure the dense water pathways upstream of the Denmark Strait in the Iceland Sea and compare the results to existing ideas about the dynamics of the circulation by deploying 45 acoustically tracked RAFOS floats over a two year time period (24-Jul-2013 to 29-May-2015). The floats were ballasted to drift at a target depth of 500m, recording pressure, temperature, and Times Of Arrivals (TOAs) every six hours or...

EMODnet Phase V Updated guidelines for SeaDataNet ODV production Eutrophication Contaminants

Marina Lipizer, Maria Eugenia Molina Jack, ELISABETH KUBIN, Luminita Buga, Lotta Fyrberg, Julie Gatti, Martin M Larsen, Gwenaëlle Moncoiffé, Ann Kristin Ostrem, Reiner Schlitzer, Karin Wesslander & Alessandra GIORGETTI

Data from: Climate and fishing steer ecosystem regeneration to uncertain economic futures

Thorsten Blenckner, Marcos Llope, Christian Möllmann, Rudi Voss, Martin F. Quaas, Michele Casini, Martin Lindegren, Carl Folke, Nils Chr. Stenseth & C. Mollmann
Overfishing of large predatory fish populations has resulted in lasting restructurings of entire marine food webs worldwide, with serious socio-economic consequences. Fortunately, some degraded ecosystems show signs of recovery. A key challenge for ecosystem management is to anticipate the degree to which recovery is possible. By applying a statistical food-web model, using the Baltic Sea as a case study, we show that under current temperature and salinity conditions, complete recovery of this heavily altered ecosystem...

Data from: The stress hormone corticosterone in a marine top-predator reflects short-term changes in food availability

Robert T. Barrett, Kjell Einar Erikstad, Hanno Sandvik, Mari S. Myksvoll, Susi Jenni-Eiermann, Ditte L. Kristensen, Truls Moum, Tone K. Reiertsen, Frode Vikebø & Mari Myksvoll
In many seabird studies, single annual proxies of prey abundance have been used to explain variability in breeding performance, but much more important is probably the timing of prey availability relative to the breeding season when energy demand is at a maximum. Until now, intraseasonal variation in prey availability has been difficult to quantify in seabirds. Using a state-of-the-art ocean drift model of larval cod Gadus morhua, an important constituent of the diet of common...

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