65 Works

Data from: Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists

Susanne Kortsch, Raul Primicerio, Maria Fossheim, Andrey V. Dolgov & Michaela Aschan
Climate-driven poleward shifts, leading to changes in species composition and relative abundances, have been recently documented in the Arctic. Among the fastest moving species are boreal generalist fish which are expected to affect arctic marine food web structure and ecosystem functioning substantially. Here, we address structural changes at the food web level induced by poleward shifts via topological network analysis of highly resolved boreal and arctic food webs of the Barents Sea. We detected considerable...

Data from: The importance of social dimension and maturation stage for the probabilistic maturation reaction norm in Poecilia reticulata

Beatriz Diaz Pauli & Mikko Heino
Maturation is an important event in an organism's life history, with important implications on dynamics of both wild and captive populations. The probabilistic maturation reaction norm (PMRN) has emerged as an important method to describe variation in maturation in wild fish. Because most PMRNs are based on age and size only, it is important to understand limitations of these variables in explaining maturation. We experimentally assessed (i) the sensitivity of age- and size-based PMRNs to...

Data from: Canine mammary tumours are affected by frequent copy number aberrations, including amplification of MYC and loss of PTEN

Kaja S. Borge, Silje Nord, Peter Van Loo, Ole C. Lingjærde, Gjermund Gunnes, Grethe I. G. Alnæs, Hiroko K. Solvang, Torben Lüders, Vessela N. Kristensen, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale & Frode Lingaas
Background: Copy number aberrations frequently occur during the development of many cancers. Such events affect dosage of involved genes and may cause further genomic instability and progression of cancer. In this survey, canine SNP microarrays were used to study 117 canine mammary tumours from 69 dogs. Results: We found a high occurrence of copy number aberrations in canine mammary tumours, losses being more frequent than gains. Increased frequency of aberrations and loss of heterozygosity were...

Data from: Novel adverse outcome pathways revealed by chemical genetics in a developing marine fish

Elin Sørhus, John P. Incardona, Tomasz Furmanek, Giles W. Goetz, Nathaniel L. Scholz, Sonnich Meier, Rolf B. Edvardsen & Sissel Jentoft
Crude oil spills are a worldwide ocean conservation threat. Fish are particularly vulnerable to the oiling of spawning habitats, and crude oil causes severe abnormalities in embryos and larvae. However, the underlying mechanisms for these developmental defects are not well understood. Here, we explore the transcriptional basis for four discrete crude oil injury phenotypes in the early life stages of the commercially important Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). These include defects in (1) cardiac form and...

Data from: Can we rely on selected genetic markers for population identification? evidence from coastal Atlantic cod

Per Erik Jorde, Ann-Elin Synnes, Sigurd Heiberg Espeland, Marte Sodeland & Halvor Knutsen
The use of genetic markers under putative selection in population studies carries the potential for erroneous identification of populations and misassignment of individuals to population of origin. Selected markers are nevertheless attractive, especially in marine organisms that are characterized by weak population structure at neutral loci. Highly fecund species may tolerate the cost of strong selective mortality during early life stages, potentially leading to a shift in offspring genotypes away from the parental proportions. In...

Data from: Meroplankton diversity, seasonality and life-history traits across the Barents Sea Polar Front revealed by high-throughput DNA barcoding

Raphaelle Descoteaux, Elizaveta Ershova, Owen Wangensteen, Kim Præbel, Paul Renaud, Finlo Cottier & Bodil Bluhm
In many species of marine benthic invertebrates, a planktonic larval phase plays a critical role in dispersal. Very little is known about the larval biology of most species, however, in part because species identification has historically been hindered by the microscopic size and morphological similarity among related taxa. This study aimed to determine the taxonomic composition and seasonal distribution of meroplankton in the Barents Sea, across the Polar Front. We collected meroplankton during five time...

Predator-prey overlap in three dimensions: cod benefit from capelin coming near the seafloor

Johanna Fall, Edda Johannesen, Göran Englund, Geir Odd Johansen & Øyvind Fiksen
Spatial overlap between predator and prey is a prerequisite for predation, but the degree of overlap is not necessarily proportional to prey consumption. This is because many of the behavioural processes that precede ingestion are non-linear and depend on local prey densities. In aquatic environments, predators and prey distribute not only across a surface, but also vertically in the water column, adding another dimension to the interaction. Integrating and simplifying behavioural processes across space and...

Inferring individual fate from aquatic acoustic telemetry data

David Villegas Ríos, Carla Freitas, Even Moland, Susanna Huneide Thorbjørnsen & Esben Olsen
Acoustic telemetry has become a popular means of obtaining individual behavioural data from a wide array of species in marine and freshwater systems. Fate information is crucial to understand important aspects of population dynamics such as mortality, predation or dispersal rates. Here we present a method to infer individual fate from acoustic telemetry arrays of receivers with overlapping detection ranges. Our method depends exclusively on information on animal movements and the characteristics and configuration of...

Life history genomic regions explain differences in Atlantic salmon marine diet specialization

Tutku Aykanat, Martin Rasmussen, Mikhail Ozerov, Eero Niemelä, Lars Paulin, Juha-Pekka Vaha, Kjetil Hindar, Vidar Wennevik, Torstein Pedersen, Martin Svenning & Craig Primmer
Abstract 1. Animals employ various foraging strategies along their ontogeny to acquire energy, and with varying degree of efficiencies, to support growth, maturation and subsequent reproduction events. Individuals that can efficiently acquire energy early are more likely to mature at an earlier age, as a result of faster energy gain which can fuel maturation and reproduction. 2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that heritable resource acquisition variation that co-varies with efficiency along the ontogeny...

Smolt outmigration timing in Norway

Robert Lennox, Knut Vollset, Ola Ugedal, Anders Lamberg, Øystein Skaala, Anne Sandvik, Harald Saegrov, Torstein Kristiensen, Arne Jensen, Tormond Haraldstad & Bjørn Barlaup
Aim - Accurate predictions about transition timing of salmon smolts between freshwater and marine environments are key to effective management. We aimed to use available data on Atlantic salmon smolt migration to predict the emigration timing in rivers throughout Norway. Location - In this study, we used data outmigration timing data of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts from 41 rivers collected from 1984-2018 to make a predictive model for the timing of out-migrating salmon smolts...

Pathways to the Denmark Strait Overflow: A Lagrangian Study in the Iceland Sea

Marieke Femke de Jong, Amy Bower, Henrik Søiland, Heather Furey & Andree L. Ramsey
The goal of this project was to directly measure the dense water pathways upstream of the Denmark Strait in the Iceland Sea and compare the results to existing ideas about the dynamics of the circulation by deploying 45 acoustically tracked RAFOS floats over a two year time period (24-Jul-2013 to 29-May-2015). The floats were ballasted to drift at a target depth of 500m, recording pressure, temperature, and Times Of Arrivals (TOAs) every six hours or...

Data from: Local divergence of thermal reaction norms among amphibian populations is affected by pond temperature variation

Alex Richter-Boix, Marco Katzenberger, Helder Duarte, María Quintela, Miguel Tejedo & Anssi Laurila
While temperature variation is known to cause large-scale adaptive divergence, its potential role as a selective factor over microgeographic scales is less well understood. Here, we investigated how variation in breeding pond temperature affects divergence in multiple physiological (thermal performance curve (TPC) and critical thermal maximum (CTmax)) and life history (thermal developmental reaction norms (TDRN)) traits in a network of Rana arvalis populations. The results supported adaptive responses to face two main constraints limiting the...

Data from: Seasonal variation in male alternative reproductive tactics

Melanie J. Monroe, Trond Amundsen, Anne Christine Utne Palm, Kenyon B. Mobley & A. C. Utne-Palm
Genetic parentage analyses reveal considerable diversity in alternative reproductive behaviours (e.g. sneaking) in many taxa. However, little is known about whether these behaviours vary seasonally and between populations. Here, we investigate seasonal variation in male reproductive behaviours in a population of two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens) in Norway. Male two-spotted gobies guard nests, attract females and care for fertilized eggs. We collected clutches and nest-guarding males early and late in the breeding season in artificial nests...

Data from: Stable isotope-based location in a shelf sea setting: accuracy and precision are comparable to light-based location methods

Clive N. Trueman, Kirsteen M. MacKenzie, Katie St. John Glew & Katie St John Glew
Retrospective determination of location for marine animals would facilitate investigations of migration, connectivity and food provenance. Predictable spatial variations in carbon and nitrogen isotopes in primary production across shelf seas provide a basis for stable isotope-based location. Here, we assess the accuracy and precision that can be obtained through dietary-isotope-based location methods. We build isoscapes from jellyfish tissues and use these to assign scallops of fixed and known individual location, and herring with well-understood population-level...

Data from: Can collective memories shape fish distributions? A test, linking space-time occurrence models and population demographics

Jed I. Macdonald, Kai Logemann, Elias T. Krainski, Þorsteinn Sigurðsson, Colin M. Beale, Geir Huse, Solfrid S. Hjøllo & Guðrún Marteinsdóttir
Social learning can be fundamental to cohesive group living, and schooling fishes have proven ideal test subjects for recent work in this field. For many species, both demographic factors, and inter- (and intra-) generational information exchange are considered vital ingredients in how movement decisions are reached. Yet key information is often missing on the spatial outcomes of such decisions, and questions concerning how migratory traditions are influenced by collective memory, density-dependent and density-independent processes remain...

Data from: The genetic basis for ecological adaptation of the Atlantic herring revealed by genome sequencing

Alvaro Martinez Barrio, Sangeet Lamichhaney, Guangyi Fan, Nima Rafati, Mats Pettersson, He Zhang, Jacques Dainat, Diana Ekman, Marc Höppner, Patric Jern, Marcel Martin, Björn Nystedt, Xin Liu, Wenbin Chen, Xinming Liang, Chengcheng Shi, Yuanyuan Fu, Kailong Ma, Xiao Zhan, Chungang Feng, Ulla Gustafson, Carl-Johan Rubin, Markus Sällman Almén, Martina Blass, Michele Casini … & Leif Andersson
Ecological adaptation is of major relevance to speciation and sustainable population management, but the underlying genetic factors are typically hard to study in natural populations due to genetic differentiation caused by natural selection being confounded with genetic drift in subdivided populations. Here, we use whole genome population sequencing of Atlantic and Baltic herring to reveal the underlying genetic architecture at an unprecedented detailed resolution for both adaptation to a new niche environment and timing of...

Data from: First indications that northern bottlenose whales are sensitive to behavioural disturbance from anthropogenic noise

P. J. O. Miller, P. H. Kvadsheim, F. P. A. Lam, P. L. Tyack, C. Curé, S. L. DeRuiter, L. Kleivane, L. D. Sivle, S. P. Van IJsselmuide, F. Visser, P. J. Wensveen, A. M. Von Benda-Beckmann, L. M. Martín López, T. Narazaki & S. K. Hooker
Although northern bottlenose whales were the most heavily hunted beaked whale, we have little information about this species in its remote habitat of the North Atlantic Ocean. Underwater anthropogenic noise and disruption of their natural habitat may be major threats, given the sensitivity of other beaked whales to such noise disturbance. We attached dataloggers to 13 northern bottlenose whales and compared their natural sounds and movements to those of one individual exposed to escalating levels...

Data from: Behavioural responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes

Carla Freitas, Esben Moland Olsen, Even Moland, Lorenzo Ciannelli & Halvor Knutsen
Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30–80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a...

Data from: Temperature-associated habitat selection in a cold-water marine fish

Carla Freitas, Esben Moland Olsen, Halvor Knutsen, Jon Albretsen & Even Moland
Habitat selection is a complex process, which involves behavioural decisions guided by the multiple needs and constraints faced by individuals. Climate-induced changes in environmental conditions may alter those trade-offs and resulting habitat use patterns. In this study we investigated the effect of sea temperature on habitat selection and habitat use of acoustically tagged Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. Significant relationships between ocean temperature and habitat selection and use were found. Under...

Data from: Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales

Halvor Knutsen, Per Erik Jorde, Jeffrey A. Hutchings, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Peter Grønkjær, Kris-Emil Mose Jørgensen, Carl Andre, Marte Sodeland, Jon Albretsen, Esben M. Olsen & Peter Grønkjaer
Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution, diversification, and the potential for organisms to adapt and persist in response to a changing environment. Recent studies have documented cryptic, sympatric populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in coastal areas. We analyzed genetic origin of...

Data from: Are we underestimating the occurrence of sympatric populations?

Per Erik Jorde, Anastasia Andersson, Nils Ryman & Linda Laikre
Sympatric populations are conspecific populations that co-exist spatially. They are of interest in evolutionary biology by representing the potential first steps of sympatric speciation and are important to identify and monitor in conservation management. Sympatric existence in freshwater habitats can be more easily defined than terrestrial ones, and a series of sympatric fish populations have been reported. Reviewing the literature pertaining to sympatric populations of salmonid fishes, we find that most cases of sympatry appear...

Data from: Does density influence relative growth performance of farm, wild, and F1 hybrid Atlantic salmon in semi-natural and hatchery common garden conditions?

Alison C. Harvey, Gareth Juleff, Gary R. Carvalho, Martin I. Taylor, Monica F. Solberg, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar-Helge Matre & Kevin A. Glover
The conditions encountered by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in aquaculture are markedly different from the natural environment. Typically, farmed salmon experience much higher densities than wild individuals, and may therefore have adapted to living in high densities. Previous studies have demonstrated that farmed salmon typically outgrow wild salmon by large ratios in the hatchery, but these differences are much less pronounced in the wild. Such divergence in growth may be explained partly by the...

Data from: Personalities influence spatial responses to environmental fluctuations in wild fish

David Villegas‐Ríos, Denis Réale, Carla Freitas, Even Moland & Esben M. Olsen
1. Although growing evidence supports the idea that animal personality can explain plasticity in response to changes in the social environment, it remains to be tested whether it can explain spatial responses of individuals in the face of natural environmental fluctuations. This is a major challenge in ecology and evolution as spatial dynamics link individual- and population-level processes. 2. In this study we investigated the potential of individual personalities to predict differences in fish behaviour...

Data from: Habitat discontinuities separate genetically divergent populations of a rocky shore marine fish

Enrique Blanco Gonzalez, Halvor Knutsen & Per Erik Jorde
Habitat fragmentation has been suggested to be responsible for major genetic differentiations in a range of marine organisms. In this study, we combined genetic data and environmental information to unravel the relative role of geography and habitat heterogeneity on patterns of genetic population structure of corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), a rocky shore species at the northern limit of its distribution range in Scandinavia. Our results revealed a major genetic break separating populations inhabiting the western...

Data from: Genomic divergence between the migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod

Bård O. Karlsen, Kevin A. Klingan, Åse Emblem, Tor E. Jørgensen, Alexander Jüterbock, Tomasz Furmanek, Galice Hoarau, Steinar D. Johansen, Jarle T. Nordeide & Truls Moum
Atlantic cod displays a range of phenotypic and genotypic variations, which includes the differentiation into coastal stationary and offshore migratory types of cod that co-occur in several parts of its distribution range and are often sympatric on the spawning grounds. Differentiation of these ecotypes may involve both historical separation and adaptation to ecologically distinct environments, the genetic basis of which is now beginning to be unravelled. Genomic analyses based on recent sequencing advances are able...

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