220 Works

Data from: Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from different surface types in a created urban wetland

Xuefei Li, Outi Wahlroos, Sami Haapanala, Jukka Pumpanen, Harri Vasander, Anna Ojala1, Timo Vesala & Ivan Mammarella
Many wetlands have been drained due to urbanization, agriculture, forestry or other purposes, which has resulted in losing their ecosystem services. To protect receiving waters and to achieve services such as flood control and stormwater quality mitigation, new wetlands are created in urbanized areas. However, our knowledge of greenhouse gas exchange in newly created wetlands in urban areas is currently limited. In this paper we present measurements carried out at a created urban wetland in...

Time spent in distinct life-history stages has sex-specific effects on reproductive fitness in wild Atlantic salmon

Kenyon Mobley, Hanna Granroth-Wilding, Mikko Ellmen, Panu Orell, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig Primmer
In species with complex life cycles, life history theory predicts that fitness is affected by conditions encountered in previous life history stages. Here, we use a four-year pedigree to investigate if time spent in two distinct life history stages has sex-specific reproductive fitness consequences in anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We determined the amount of years spent in fresh water as juveniles (freshwater age, FW, measured in years), and years spent in the marine environment...

Female preference and adverse developmental effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on ecologically relevant traits in Japanese quail

Suvi Ruuskanen, Rainio Miia, Venla Kuosmanen, Miika Laihonen, Kari Saikkonen, Irma Saloniemi & Marjo Helander
Controversial glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are the most frequently used herbicides globally. An increasing number of studies have identified GBH residues in soil, water and even human food that may expose non-target organism including wildlife, livestock, and humans to health risks. After a heated debate, European Union allowed the use of GBHs to continue until 2022, after which their risks will be re-evaluated. Thus, decision makers urgently need scientific evidence on GBH residues and their possible...

Data from: Increased glucocorticoid concentrations in early life cause mitochondrial inefficiency and short telomeres

Stefania Casagrande, Antoine Stier, Pat Monaghan, Winniefred Boner, Jasmine Loveland, Sara Lupi, Rachele Trevisi & Michaela Hau
Telomeres are DNA structures that protect chromosome ends. However, telomeres shorten during cell replication and at critically low lengths can reduce cell replicative potential, induce cell senescence and decrease fitness. Stress exposure, which elevates glucocorticoid hormone concentrations, can exacerbate telomere attrition. This phenomenon has been attributed to increased oxidative stress generated by glucocorticoids ("oxidative stress hypothesis"). We recently instead suggested that glucocorticoids increase telomere attrition during stressful periods by reducing the resources available for telomere...

Data from: Biocultural approaches to sustainability: a systematic review of the scientific literature

Jan Hanspach, L. Jamila Haider, Elisa Oteris-Rozas, Anton Stahl Olafsson, Natalie Gulsrud, Chris Raymond, Mario Torralba, Berta Martín-López, Claudia Bieling, María García Martín, Christian Albert, Thomas Beery, Nora Fagerholm, Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, Annika Drews-Shambroom & Tobias Plieninger
Current sustainability challenges demand approaches that acknowledge a plurality of human-nature interactions and worldviews, for which biocultural approaches are considered appropriate and timely. This systematic review analyses the application of biocultural approaches to sustainability in scientific journal articles published between 1990 and 2018 through a mixed methods approach combining qualitative content analysis and quantitative multivariate methods. The study identifies seven distinct biocultural lenses, i.e. different ways of understanding and applying biocultural approaches, which to different...

Data from: The difference between generalist and specialist: the effects of wide fluctuations in main food abundance on numbers and reproduction of two co-existing predators

Erkki Korpimäki, Kari Hongisto, Giulia Masoero & Toni Laaksonen
Specialist individuals within animal populations have shown to be more efficient foragers and/or to have higher reproductive success than generalist individuals, but interspecific reproductive consequences of the degree of diet specialisation in vertebrate predators have remained unstudied. Eurasian pygmy owls (hereafter POs) have less vole-specialised diets than Tengmalm’s owls (TOs), both of which mainly subsist on temporally fluctuating food resources (voles). To test whether the specialist TO is more limited by the main prey abundance...

Data for: Risk in the circular food economy: Glyphosate-based herbicide residues in manure fertilizers decrease crop yield

Anne Muola, Benjamin Fuchs, Miika Laihonen, Kalle Rainio, Lauri Heikkonen, Suvi Ruuskanen, Kari Saikkonen & Marjo Helander
Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are the most frequently used herbicides globally. They were launched as a safe solution for weed control, but recently, an increasing number of studies have shown the existence of GBH residues and highlighted the associated risks they pose throughout ecosystems. Conventional agricultural practices often include the use of GBHs, and the use of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops is largely based on the application of glyphosate, which increases the likelihood of its residues...

Life history genomic regions explain differences in Atlantic salmon marine diet specialization

Tutku Aykanat, Martin Rasmussen, Mikhail Ozerov, Eero Niemelä, Lars Paulin, Juha-Pekka Vaha, Kjetil Hindar, Vidar Wennevik, Torstein Pedersen, Martin Svenning & Craig Primmer
Abstract 1. Animals employ various foraging strategies along their ontogeny to acquire energy, and with varying degree of efficiencies, to support growth, maturation and subsequent reproduction events. Individuals that can efficiently acquire energy early are more likely to mature at an earlier age, as a result of faster energy gain which can fuel maturation and reproduction. 2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that heritable resource acquisition variation that co-varies with efficiency along the ontogeny...

Predation risk in relation to brain size in alternative prey of pygmy owls varies depending on the abundance of main prey

Anders Møller, Kari Hongisto & Erkki Korpimäki
Large brains in prey may allow adoption of anti-predator behavior that facilitates escape. Prey species with relatively large brains have been shown to be less likely to fall prey to predators. This leads to the hypothesis that individuals that have been captured by predators on average should have smaller brains than sympatric individuals. We exploited the fact that Eurasian pygmy owls Glaucidium passerinum hoard small mammals and birds in cavities and nest-boxes for over-winter survival,...

Disentangling the latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in community composition induced by climate change: the case of riparian birds

Elie Gaget, Vincent Devictor, Bernard Frochot, Régis Desbrosses, Marie-Christine Eybert & Bruno Faivre
Aim. This study investigates whether, and how the composition of riparian bird communities has been affected by climate warming and habitat change. Although these two forces act separately, their respective contributions are rarely examined. Moreover, while the response of a given community may be a function of latitude and altitude, most studies have focused on these gradients separately. Riparian ecosystems are an opportunity to investigate community change along latitudinal and elevational gradients. Location. France, three...

Insect herbivory increases from forest to alpine tundra in Arctic mountains

Elena Zvereva, Vitali Zverev & Mikhail Kozlov
Current theory holds that the intensity of biotic interactions decreases with increases in latitude and elevation; however, empirical data demonstrate great variation in the direction, strength and shape of elevational changes in herbivory. The latitudinal position of mountains may be one important source of this variation, but the acute shortage of data from polar mountains hampers exploration of latitude effects on elevational changes in herbivory. Here, we reduce this knowledge gap by testing the prediction...

Performance and microbiota of Lupinus polyphyllus for Plant and Soil

Satu Ramula, Suni Mathew, Aino Kalske, Riitta Nissinen, Kari Saikkonen & Marjo Helander
Purpose: In cold climates, glyphosate residues may linger in soils, with effects on plant-microbe interactions and, consequently, plant performance. Here, we explore the influence of glyphosate residues on the endophytic microbiota (bacteria and fungi) and performance of the perennial nitrogen-fixing weed Lupinus polyphyllus. Methods: In a common garden, we grew plants from six populations of L. polyphyllus in glyphosate-treated or untreated control soils, with or without additional phosphorus. We sampled plant microbiota (leaves, roots, nodules)...

Data belonging to the article: Estimating pre-harvest density, adult sex ratio and fecundity of white-tailed deer using wildlife cameras

Jon Brommer, Jenni Poutanen, Jyrki Pusenius & Mikael Wikström
Adult sex ratio and fecundity (juveniles per female) are key population parameters in sustainable wildlife management, but inferring these requires abundance estimates of at least three age/sex classes of the population (male and female adults and juveniles). Prior to harvest, we used an array of 36 wildlife camera traps during 2 and 3 weeks in the early autumn of 2016 and 2017 respectively. We recorded white-tailed deer adult males, adult females and fawns from the...

Maternally-transferred thyroid hormones and life-history variation in birds

Bin-Yan Hsu Hsu, Veli-Matti Pakanen, Winnie Boner, Blandine Doligez, Tapio Eeva, Ton Groothuis, Erkki Korpimäki, Toni Laaksonen, Asmoro Lelono, Pat Monaghan, Tom Sarraude, Robert Thomson, Jere Tolvanen, Barbara Tschirren, Rodrigo Vásquez & Suvi Ruuskanen
1. In vertebrates, thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in the regulation of growth, development, metabolism, photoperiodic responses and migration. Maternally transferred THs are important for normal early-phase embryonic development when embryos are not able to produce endogenous THs. Previous studies have shown that variation in maternal THs within the physiological range can influence offspring phenotype. 2. Given the essential functions of maternal THs in development and metabolism, THs may be a mediator of...

Data from: Organizing effects of adverse early-life condition on body mass, compensatory growth and reproduction: experimental studies in rock pigeons

Bin-Yan Hsu, Cor Dijkstra & Ton G. G. Groothuis
Early-life food conditions can have profound impact on adult behavioural performance. In song birds, early-life food conditions affect adult physiology and cognitive performance such as song learning and spatial learning. However, effects on reproductive behaviour other than song, such as visual courtship display, pair formation, and egg laying, which are all important determinants of fitness, received hardly any attention. In this study, rock pigeons Columba livia were raised either in a food ad-libitum or at...

Data from: Home ground advantage: local Atlantic salmon have higher reproductive fitness than dispersers in the wild

Kenyon B. Mobley, Hanna Granroth-Wilding, Mikko Ellmen, Juha-Pekka Vähä, Tutku Aykanat, Susan E. Johnston, Panu Orell, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig R. Primmer
A long-held, but poorly tested, assumption in natural populations is that individuals that disperse into new areas for reproduction are at a disadvantage compared to individuals that reproduce in their natal habitat, underpinning the eco-evolutionary processes of local adaptation and ecological speciation. Here, we capitalize on fine-scale population structure and natural dispersal events to compare the reproductive success of local and dispersing individuals captured on the same spawning ground in four consecutive parent-offspring cohorts of...

Data from: Association mapping reveals candidate loci for resistance and anemic response to an emerging temperature-driven parasitic disease in a wild salmonid fish

Freed Ahmad, Paul Debes, Gemma Palomar & Anti Vasemägi
Even though parasitic infections are often costly or deadly for the host, we know very little which genes influence parasite susceptibility and disease severity. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging and, at elevated water temperatures, potentially deadly disease of salmonid fishes that is caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. By screening > 7.6 K SNPs in 255 wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) and combining association mapping and random forest approaches, we identified several...

Data from: Scary clowns: adaptive function of anemonefish coloration

Sami Merilaita & Jennifer L. Kelley
Clownfishes, with their showy colouration, are well known for their symbiosis with sea anemones and for their hierarchical reproductive system, but the function of their colouration is unclear. We used a phylogeny of 27 clownfish species to test whether fish colouration: (1) serves a protective function that involves their anemone hosts, or (2) signals species identity in species with overlapping host ranges that can potentially share the same host. We tested for an association between...

Data from: Parasite infection and decreased thermal tolerance: impact of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) on a wild salmonid fish in the context of climate change

Matthieu Bruneaux, Marko Visse, Riho Gross, Lilian Pukk, Lauri Saks & Anti Vasemägi
Parasites and pathogens can have an important effect on their host's thermal resistance. The impact of parasite infection on host physiological performances has traditionally been studied in controlled laboratory conditions, and much less is known about its actual effects in wild populations. Nonetheless, such knowledge is critical when assessing the effect of climate change on the future survival of the host. Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a myxozoan endoparasite causing proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in salmonids. Infection...

Data from: Mate sampling and choosiness in the sand goby

Kai Lindström & Topi K. Lehtonen
To date, mate choice studies have mostly focused on establishing which mates are chosen or how the choices are performed. Here, we combined these two approaches by empirically testing how latency to mate is affected by various search costs, variation in mate quality and female quality in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Our results show that females adjust their mating behaviour according to the costs and benefits of the choice situation. Specifically, they mated sooner...

Data from: Increased male bias in eider ducks can be explained by sex-specific survival of prime-age breeders

Satu Ramula, Markus Öst, Andreas Lindén, Patrik Karell & Mikael Kilpi
In contrast to theoretical predictions of even adult sex ratios, males are dominating in many bird populations. Such bias among adults may be critical to population growth and viability. Nevertheless, demographic mechanisms for biased adult sex ratios are still poorly understood. Here, we examined potential demographic mechanisms for the recent dramatic shift from a slight female bias among adult eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) to a male bias (about 65% males) in the Baltic Sea, where...

Data from: Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range

Paula K. Lehtonen, Toni Laaksonen, Aleksandr V. Artemyev, Eugen Belskii, Paul R. Berg, Christiaan Both, Laura Buggiotti, Stanislav Bureš, Malcolm D. Burgess, Andrey V. Bushuev, Indrikis Krams, Juan Moreno, Marko Mägi, Andreas Nord, Jaime Potti, Pierre-Alain Ravussin, Glenn Peter Sætre, Paivi Sirkiä, Wolfgang Winkel & Craig R. Primmer
The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed two of fourteen loci to exhibit...

Data from: Population genomic analyses of early phase Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) domestication/captive breeding.

Hannu Mäkinen, Anti Vasemägi, Philip McGinnity, Tom F. Cross, Craig Primmer & Craig R. Primmer
Domestication can have adverse genetic consequences, which may reduce the fitness of individuals once released back into the wild. Many wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations are threatened by anthropogenic influences and they are supplemented with captively bred fish. The Atlantic salmon is also widely used in selective breeding programs to increase the mean trait values for desired phenotypic traits. We analyzed a genome-wide set of SNPs in three domesticated Atlantic salmon strains and...

Data from: Avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden eagle

Mari S. Lyly, Alexandre Villers, Elina Koivisto, Pekka Helle, Tuomo Ollila & Erkki Korpimäki
Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian...

Data from: Capturing genetic variation in crop wild relatives: an evolutionary approach

Paul A. Egan, Anne Muola & Johan A. Stenberg
Crop wild relatives (CWRs) offer novel genetic resources for crop improvement. To assist in the urgent need to collect and conserve CWR germplasm, we advance here the concept of an ‘evolutionary’ approach. Central to this approach is the predictive use of spatial proxies of evolutionary processes (natural selection, gene flow, and genetic drift) to locate and capture genetic variation. As a means to help validate this concept, we screened wild-collected genotypes of woodland strawberry (Fragaria...

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