191 Works

Data from: Parental coordination with respect to colour polymorphism in a crater lake fish

Topi K. Lehtonen
In many taxa, success in parental care requires the coordinated efforts of both parents. Given the evolutionary potential of parental performance, as well as phenotype-related behavioural differences, it is surprising that parental coordination in polymorphic species has attracted only very limited research attention. To redress this gap, I combined multiple approaches to assess parental performance and coordination of parental effort in the colour polymorphic and biparental cichlid fish, Amphilophus sagittae, in its natural crater lake...

Data from: SNPs to discriminate different classes of hybrid between wild Atlantic salmon and aquaculture escapees

Victoria L. Pritchard, Jaakko Erkinaro, Matthew P. Kent, Eero Niemelä, Panu Orell, Sigbjørn Lien & Craig R. Primmer
Many wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations are threatened by introgressive hybridization from domesticated fish that have escaped from aquaculture facilities. A detailed understanding of the hybridization dynamics between wild salmon and aquaculture escapees requires discrimination of different hybrid classes, however markers currently available to discriminate the two types of parental genome have limited power to do this. Using a high-density Atlantic salmon SNP array in combination with pooled-sample allelotyping and an Fst outlier approach,...

Data from: Spatiotemporal variation in local adaptation of a specialist insect herbivore to its long-lived host plant

Aino Kalske, Roosa Leimu, J.F. Scheepens, Pia Mutikainen & J. F. Scheepens
Local adaptation of interacting species to one another indicates geographically variable reciprocal selection. This process of adaptation is central in the organization and maintenance of genetic variation across populations. Given that the strength of selection and responses to it often vary in time and space, the strength of local adaptation should in theory vary between generations and among populations. However, such spatiotemporal variation has rarely been explicitly demonstrated in nature and local adaptation is commonly...

Data from: Quantitative trait loci for growth and body size in the nine-spined stickleback Pungitius pungitius L.

Veronika N. Laine, Takahito Shikano, Gábor Herczeg, Johanna Vilkki & Juha Merilä
Body size is an ecologically important trait shown to be genetically variable both within and among different animal populations as revealed by quantitative genetic studies. However, few studies have looked into underlying genetic architecture of body size variability in the wild using genetic mapping methods. With the aid of quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses based on 226 microsatellite markers, we mapped body size and growth rate traits in the nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) using an...

Data from: Low heritability of nest construction in a wild bird

Pauliina Järvinen, Edward Kluen & Jon E. Brommer
In birds and other taxa, nest construction varies considerably between and within populations. Such variation is hypothesized to have an adaptive (i.e. genetic) basis, but estimates of heritability in nest construction are largely lacking. Here, we demonstrate with data collected over 10 years of 1010 nests built by blue tits in nest boxes that nest size (height of nest material) and nest composition (proportion of feathers in the nest) are repeatable but only weakly (12-13%)...

Data from: Counting with DNA in metabarcoding studies: how should we convert sequence reads to dietary data?

Bruce E. Deagle, Austen C. Thomas, Julie C. McInnes, Laurence J. Clarke, Eero J. Vesterinen, Elizabeth L. Clare, Tyler R. Kartzinel & J. Paige Eveson
Advances in DNA sequencing technology have revolutionised the field of molecular analysis of trophic interactions and it is now possible to recover counts of food DNA sequences from a wide range of dietary samples. But what do these counts mean? To obtain an accurate estimate of a consumer’s diet should we work strictly with datasets summarising frequency of occurrence of different food taxa, or is it possible to use relative number of sequences? Both approaches...

Data from: Preference for outbred host plants and positive effects of inbreeding on egg survival in a specialist herbivore

Aino Kalske, Anne Muola, Pia Mutikainen & Roosa Leimu
Inbreeding can profoundly affect the interactions of plants with herbivores as well as with the natural enemies of the herbivores. We studied how plant inbreeding affects herbivore oviposition preference, and whether inbreeding of both plants and herbivores alters the probability of predation or parasitism of herbivore eggs. In a laboratory preference test with the specialist herbivore moth Abrostola asclepiadis and inbred and outbred Vincetoxicum hirundinaria plants, we discovered that herbivores preferred to oviposit on outbred...

Data from: Rapid sex-specific evolution of age at maturity is shaped by genetic architecture in Atlantic salmon

Yann Czorlich, Tutku Aykanat, Jaakko Erkinaro, Panu Orell & Craig R. Primmer
Understanding the mechanisms by which populations adapt to their environments is a fundamental aim in biology. However, it remains challenging to identify the genetic basis of traits, provide evidence of genetic changes and quantify phenotypic responses. Age at maturity in Atlantic salmon represents an ideal trait to study contemporary adaptive evolution as it has been associated with a single locus in the vgll3 region, and has also strongly changed in recent decades. Here, we provide...

Data from: Table for five, please: dietary partitioning in boreal bats

Eero J. Vesterinen, Anna I. E. Puisto, Anna S. Blomberg & Thomas M. Lilley
Differences in diet can explain resource partitioning in apparently similar, sympatric species. Here, we analyzed 1,252 fecal droppings from five species (Eptesicus nilssonii, Myotis brandtii, M. daubentonii, M. mystacinus, and Plecotus auritus) to reveal their dietary niches using fecal DNA metabarcoding. We identified nearly 550 prey species in 13 arthropod orders. Two main orders (Diptera and Lepidoptera) formed the majority of the diet for all species, constituting roughly 80%–90% of the diet. All five species...

Data from: Grab my tail: evolution of dazzle stripes and colourful tails in lizards

Gopal Murali, Sami Merilaita & Ullasa Kodandaramaiah
Understanding the functions of animal coloration has been a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. For example, the widespread occurrence of striking longitudinal stripes and colourful tails in lizards begs for an explanation. Experiments have suggested that colourful tails can deflect attacks towards the tail (the ‘deflection’ hypothesis), which is sacrificable in most lizards, thereby increasing the chance of escape. Studies also suggest that in moving lizards, longitudinal body stripes can redirect predators’ strikes towards the...

Data from: Water-borne defense induction of a rockweed in the wild

Fiia Haavisto & Veijo Jormalainen
1. Laboratory-scale studies suggest that water-borne chemical cues released in grazing of marine macroalgae act as info-chemicals allowing the yet-undamaged conspecifics to increase their resistance before the actual herbivore attack. The relevance of this finding in natural populations has thus far remained unexplored. 2. We investigated spread of water-borne herbivore resistance in a field experiment using the littoral foundation species Fucus vesiculosus. We exposed algal genotypes for water-borne cues in the distances of 0.5 and...

Data from: Cultural and climatic changes shape the evolutionary history of the Uralic languages

T Honkola, O Vesakoski, N Wahlberg, J Lehtinen & K Korhonen
Quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used to study the evolutionary relationships and divergence times of biological species, and recently, these have also been applied to linguistic data to elucidate the evolutionary history of language families. In biology, the factors driving macroevolutionary processes are assumed to be either mainly biotic (the Red Queen model) or mainly abiotic (the Court Jester model) or a combination of both. The applicability of these models is assumed to depend on...

Data from: Characterizing genic and non-genic molecular markers: comparison of microsatellites and SNPs

Jacquelin DeFaveri, Heidi Viitaniemi, Erica Leder & Juha Merilä
The implications of transitioning to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) from microsatellite markers (MSs) have been investigated in a number of population genetics studies, but the effect of genomic location on the amount of information each type of marker reveals has not been explored in detail. We developed novel SNP markers flanking 1 kb regions of 13 genic (within gene or <1 kb away from gene) and 13 nongenic (>10 kb from annotated gene) MSs in...

Data from: Facial attractiveness is related to women’s cortisol and body fat, but not with immune responsiveness

Markus J. Rantala, Vinet Coetzee, Fhionna R. Moore, Ilona Skrida, Sanita Kecko, Tatjana Krama, Inese Kivleniece, Indrikis Krams & I. Skrinda
Recent studies suggest that facial attractiveness indicates immune responsiveness in men and that this relationship is moderated by stress hormones which interact with testosterone levels. However, studies testing whether facial attractiveness in women signals their immune responsiveness are lacking. Here, we photographed young Latvian women, vaccinated them against hepatitis B and measured the amount of specific antibodies produced, cortisol levels and percentage body fat. Latvian men rated the attractiveness of the women's faces. Interestingly, in...

Data from: SNP-array reveals genome wide patterns of geographical and potential adaptive divergence across the natural range of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Vincent Bourret, Matthew P. Kent, Craig R. Primmer, Anti Vasemägi, Sten Karlsson, Kjetil Hindar, Philip McGinnity, Eric Verspoor, Louis Bernatchez & Sigbjørn Lien
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the most extensively studied fish species in the world due to its significance in aquaculture, fisheries and ongoing conservation efforts to protect declining populations. Yet, limited genomic resources have hampered our understanding of genetic architecture in the species and the genetic basis of adaptation to the wide range of natural and artificial environments it occupies. In this paper, we describe the development of a medium density Atlantic salmon...

Data from: Heterozygosity-behaviour correlations in nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations: contrasting effects at random and functional loci

Veronika N. Laine, Gábor Herczeg, Takahito Shikano & Craig R. Primmer
The study of heterozygosity-fitness correlations has a long history in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology but remains controversial. Recently, it has been shown that the location of markers i.e. their genomic position with respect to their distance from functional loci can be an important factor to be considered in addition to marker number and variability. In this study, we investigated the correlation between individual heterozygosity and behaviour (aggression, boldness and feeding activity) in...

Data from: Molecular evolutionary and population genomic analysis of the nine-spined stickleback using a modified restriction-site-associated DNA tag approach

Matthieu Bruneaux, Susan E. Johnston, Gábor Herczeg, Juha Merilä, Craig R. Primmer & Anti Vasemägi
In recent years, the explosion of affordable next generation sequencing technology has provided an unprecedented opportunity to conduct genome-wide studies of adaptive evolution in organisms previously lacking extensive genomic resources. Here, we characterise genome-wide patterns of variability and differentiation using pooled DNA from eight populations of the nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius L.) from marine, lake and pond environments. We developed a novel genome complexity reduction protocol, defined as paired-end double restriction-site associated DNA (PE dRAD),...

Data from: The evolution of competitive ability for essential resources

Joey R. Bernhardt, Pavel Kratina, Aaron Pereira, Manu Tamminen, Mridul K. Thomas & Anita Narwani
Competition for limiting resources is among the most fundamental ecological interactions and has long been considered a key driver of species coexistence and biodiversity. Species' minimum resource requirements, their R*s, are key traits that link individual physiological demands to the outcome of competition. However, a major question remains unanswered - to what extent are species’ competitive traits able to evolve in response to resource limitation? To address this knowledge gap, we performed an evolution experiment...

Data from: Assessing the effectiveness of a national protected area network in maintaining carnivore populations

Julien Terraube, Jasper Van Doninck, Pekka Helle & Mar Cabeza
Protected areas (PAs) are essential to prevent further biodiversity loss yet their effectiveness varies largely with governance and external threats. Although methodological advances have permitted assessments of PA effectiveness in mitigating deforestation, we still lack similar studies for the impact of PAs on wildlife populations. Here we demonstrate the application ofuse an innovative combination of matching methods and hurdle-mixed models with a large-scale and long-term dataset of unprecedented coverage for Finland’s large carnivore species. We...

Data from: Insect oviposition preference between Epichloë-symbiotic and -free grasses does not necessarily reflect larval performance

Miika Laihonen, Kari Saikkonen, Marjo Helander & Toomas Tammaru
Variation in plant communities is likely to modulate the feeding and oviposition behavior of herbivorous insects, and plant associated microbes are largely ignored in this context. Here we take into account that insects feeding on grasses commonly encounter systemic and vertically transmitted (via seeds) fungal Epichloë endophytes, which are regarded as defensive grass mutualists. Defensive mutualism is primarily attributable to alkaloids of fungal origin. To study the effects of Epichloë on insect behavior and performance,...

Data from: Estimating population density of the white-tailed deer in Finland using non-invasive genetic sampling and spatial capture–recapture

Jenni Poutanen, Jyrki Pusenius, Mikael Wikström & Jon E. Brommer
The white-tailed deer is an important game species in Finland. We evaluated the potential of estimating the white-tailed deer pre-harvest density using non-invasive DNA collection within a spatial capture–recapture (SCR) framework. We sampled faeces during three weekly visits in autumn 2015 from 180, 20 x 20 m plots clustered in groups of four. Individual identification was based on 12–14 microsatellites. Of the 245 faecal samples collected, an individual could be identified from only 36 (15%)....

Data from: Transient growth-enhancing effects of elevated maternal thyroid hormones at no apparent oxidative cost during early postnatal period

Bin-Yan Hsu, Blandine Doligez, Lars Gustafsson & Suvi Ruuskanen
Maternal thyroid hormones (THs) have been proven crucial for embryonic development in humans, but their influence within the natural variation on wild animals remains unknown. So far the only two studies that experimentally investigated the potential fitness consequences of maternal THs in birds found inconsistent results. More studies are thus required to assess the general effects of maternal THs and their influences on more behavioral and physiological parameters. In this study, we experimentally elevated yolk...

Data for: Female-biased sex ratios in urban centres create a fertility trap in post war Finland

Jenni Pettay
Because sex ratios are a key factor regulating mating success and subsequent fitness both across and within species, there is widespread interest in how population-wide sex ratio imbalances affect marriage markets and the formation of families in human societies. Although most modern cities have more women than men and suffer from low fertility rates, the effects of female-biased sex ratios have garnered less attention than male-biased ratios. Here, we analyze how sex ratios are linked...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Pulsed food resources, but not forest cover, determines lifetime reproductive success in a forest-dwelling rodent

Katrine S. Hoset, Alexandre Villers, Ralf Wistbacka & Vesa Selonen
1. The relative contributions of habitat and food availability on fitness may provide evidence for key habitat features needed to safeguard population persistence. However, defining habitat quality for a species can be a complex task, especially if knowledge on the relationship between individual performance and habitat quality is lacking. 2. Here, we determined the relative importance of availability of suitable forest habitat, body mass, and food from masting tree species on female lifetime reproductive success...

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