195 Works

Data from: Climatic effects on planning behavior

Yong Liu, Vassilis Kostakos & Hongxiu Li
What mechanism links climate change and social change? Palaeoanthropological analysis of human remains suggests that abrupt climate change is linked to societal restructuring, but it has been challenging to reliably identify the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. Here we identify one potential mechanism that can link climate to behavior change, and underpins many of the reported findings on social restructuring. Specifically, we show that daily weather is linked to human planning behavior, and this effect...

Data from: Maternal egg hormones in the mating context: the effect of pair personality

Suvi Ruuskanen, Ton G. G. Groothuis, Alexander T. Baugh, Sonja V. Schaper, Bonnie DeVries, Kees Van Oers & Bonnie De Vries
Animal personality traits emerge developmentally from the interaction of genetic and early environmental factors. Maternal hormones, such as androgens (testosterone, T and androstenedione, A4), transferred to embryos and egg yolks may simultaneously organize multiple behavioural and physiological traits. Whereas previous studies demonstrated an association between the mother's personality and yolk androgen levels, the independent effects of the male partner's personality and pair combination are unknown. We test this association using an ecological model species for...

Data from: Genomic signatures of parasite-driven natural selection in north European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Ksenia J. Zueva, Jaakko Lumme, Alexei E Veselov, Matthew P. Kent & Craig R. Primmer
Understanding the genomic basis of host-parasite adaptation is important for predicting the long-term viability of species and developing successful management practices. However, in wild populations, identifying specific signatures of parasite-driven selection often presents a challenge, as it is difficult to unravel the molecular signatures of selection driven by different, but correlated, environmental factors. Furthermore, separating parasite-mediated selection from similar signatures due to genetic drift and population history can also be difficult. Populations of Atlantic salmon...

Data from: Why do top predators engage in superpredation? From an empirical scenario to a theoretical framework

Rui Lourenço, Maria Del Mar Delgado, Letizia Campioni, Fernando Goytre, João E. Rabaça, Erkki Korpimäki & Vincenzo Penteriani
Lethal interactions can shape ecosystem structure, and consequently understanding their causes is ecologically relevant. To improve both empirical and theoretical knowledge on superpredation (i.e. predation on high-order predators), we studied an eagle owl population, including its main prey and mesopredators, and then we crossed these results with existing theories to provide a reasoning framework. We fitted our field data into four main causes explaining lethal interactions: food stress, opportunistic superpredation, removal of a competitor, and...

Contrasting multi-level relationships between behavior and body mass in blue tit nestlings

Barbara Class & Jon Brommer
Repeatable behaviors (i.e. animal personality) are pervasive in the animal kingdom and various mechanisms have been proposed to explain their existence. Genetic and non-genetic mechanisms, which can be equally important, predict correlations between behavior and body mass on different levels (e.g. genetic, environmental) of variation. We investigated multi-level relationships between body mass measured on weeks 1, 2, and 3 and three behavioral responses to handling, measured on week 3, and which form a behavioral syndrome...

Data from: Neighborhood bully: no difference in territorial response towards neighbors or strangers in marmots

Mariona Ferrandiz-Rovira, Timothée Zidat, Pierre Dupont, Vérane Berger, Célia Rézouki & Aurélie Cohas
Territorial animals are expected to adjust their response to intruders according to the perceived threat-level. One of the factors that drives threat-level is the identity of the intruder. The dear enemy phenomenon theory postulates that individuals should respond with lower intensity to neighbors, already possessing a territory, than to strangers that may fight to evict them. In social species, the hierarchical status of the intruder might also mediate this response. Such behavioral adjustments presuppose a...

Data from: Can dominance genetic variance be ignored in evolutionary quantitative genetic analyses of wild populations?

Barbara Class & Jon Brommer
Accurately estimating genetic variance components is important for studying evolution in the wild. Empirical work on domesticated and wild outbred populations suggests that dominance genetic variance represents a substantial part of genetic variance, and theoretical work predicts that ignoring dominance can inflate estimates of additive genetic variance. Whether this issue is pervasive in natural systems is unknown, because we lack estimates of dominance variance in wild populations obtained in situ. Here, we estimate dominance and...

Lupclip: Annual mowing has the potential to reduce the invasion of herbaceous Lupinus polyphyllus

Satu Ramula
In order to manage invasive plant species efficiently, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of different strategies of population control, including the underlying mechanisms of action and the consequences for target populations. Here, I explored the effectiveness of biomass removal as a method of control for the invasive perennial herb Lupinus polyphyllus. More specifically, using seed material from 11 populations, I assessed among-population variation (if any) in plant compensatory growth as a response...

The roles of temperature, nest predators and information parasites for geographical variation in egg covering behaviour of tits (Paridae)

Olli Loukola, Peter Adamik, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Blandine Doligez, Einar Flensted-Jensen, Tapio Eeva, Sami Kivelä, Toni Laaksonen, Chiara Morosinotto, Raivo Mänd, Petri Niemelä, Vladimir Remeš, Jelmer Samplonius, Manrico Sebastiano, Juan Carlos Senar, Tore Slagsvold, Alberto Sorace, Barbara Tschirren, János Török & Jukka Forsman
Aim: Nest building is widespread among animals. Nests may provide receptacles for eggs, developing offspring and the parents, and protect them from adverse environmental conditions. Nests may also indicate the quality of the territory and its owner and can be considered as an extended phenotype of its builder(s). Nests may, thus, function as a sexual and social signal. Here, we examined ecological and abiotic factors—temperature, nest predation and interspecific information utilization—shaping geographical variation in a...

Introduced plants of Lupinus polyphyllus are larger but flower less frequently than conspecifics from the native range: Results of the first year

Satu Ramula & Aino Kalske
Introduced species, which establish in novel environments, provide an opportunity to explore trait evolution and how it may contribute to the distribution and spread of species. Here, we explore trait changes of the perennial herb Lupinus polyphyllus based on 11 native populations in the western USA and 17 introduced populations in Finland. More specifically, we investigated whether introduced populations outperformed native populations in traits measured in situ (seed mass) and under common garden conditions during...

Data from: Reverse taxonomy applied to the Brachionus calyciflorus cryptic species complex: morphometric analysis confirms species delimitations revealed by molecular phylogenetic analysis and allows the (re)description of four species

Evangelia Michaloudi, Spiros Papakostas, Georgia Stamou, Vilém Neděla, Eva Tihlaříková, Wei Zhang & Steven A. J. Declerck
The discovery and exploration of cryptic species have been profoundly expedited thanks to developments in molecular biology and phylogenetics. In this study, we apply a reverse taxonomy approach to the Brachionus calyciflorus species complex, a commonly studied freshwater monogonont rotifer. By combining phylogenetic, morphometric and morphological analyses, we confirm the existence of four cryptic species that have been recently suggested by a molecular study. Based on these results and according to an exhaustive review of...

Data from: Size-selective harvesting fosters adaptations in mating behavior and reproductive allocation, affecting sexual selection in fish

Valerio Sbragaglia, Catalina Gliese, David Bierbach, Andrew Honsey, Silva Uusi-Heikkilä & Robert Arlinghaus
1. The role of sexual selection in the context of harvest-induced evolution is poorly understood. However, elevated and trait-selective harvesting of wild populations may change sexually-selected traits, which in turn can affect mate choice and reproduction. 2. We experimentally evaluated the potential for fisheries-induced evolution of mating behavior and reproductive allocation in fish. 3. We used a unique experimental system of zebrafish (Danio rerio) lines exposed to large, small, or random (i.e. control) size-selective mortality....

Data from: Is bigger better? The relationship between size and reproduction in female Asian elephants

J. A. H. Crawley, H. S. Mumby, S. N. Chapman, M. Lahdenperä, K. U. Mar, W. Htut, A. Thura Soe, H. H. Aung & V. Lummaa
The limited availability of resources is predicted to impose trade-offs between growth, reproduction and self-maintenance in animals. However, although some studies have shown that early reproduction suppresses growth, reproduction positively correlates with size in others. We use detailed records from a large population of semi-captive elephants in Myanmar to assess the relationships between size (height and weight), reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants, a species characterized by slow, costly life history. Although female height...

Data from: Microbiome symbionts and diet diversity incur costs on the immune system of insect larvae

Indrikis Krams, Sanita Kecko, Priit Jõers, Giedrius Trakimas, Didzis Elferts, Ronalds Krams, Severi Luoto, Markus J. Rantala, Inna Inashkina, Dita Gudrā, Dāvids Fridmanis, Jorge Contreras-Garduño, Lelde Grantiņa-Ieviņa & Tatjana Krama
Communities of symbiotic microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract play an important role in food digestion and protection against opportunistic microbes. Diet diversity increases the number of symbionts in the intestines, a benefit that is considered to impose no cost for the host organism. However, less is known about the possible immunological investments that hosts have to make in order to control the infections caused by symbiont populations that increase due to diet diversity. By...

Data from: Evolution of defence and herbivory in introduced plants - testing enemy release using a known source population, herbivore trials and time since introduction

Claire Brandenburger, Martin Kim, Eve Slavich, Floret Meredith, Juha-Pekka Salminen, William Sherwin & Angela Moles
The enemy release hypothesis is often cited as a potential explanation for the success of introduced plants; yet empirical evidence for enemy release is mixed. We aimed to quantify changes in herbivory and defence in introduced plants while controlling for three factors that might have confounded past studies: using a wide native range for comparison with the introduced range, measuring defence traits without determining whether they affect herbivore preferences, and not considering the effect of...

Data from: Mosaic metabolic ageing: Basal and standard metabolic rate age in opposite directions and independent of environmental quality, sex and lifespan in a passerine

Michael Briga & Simon Verhulst
1. Crucial to our understanding of the ageing process is identifying how traits change with age, which variables alter their ageing process and how these traits associate with fitness. 2. Here we investigated metabolic ageing in outdoor-living captive zebra finches experiencing foraging costs. We longitudinally monitored 407 individuals over six years and collected 3213 measurements of two independent mass-adjusted metabolic traits: basal metabolic rate (BMRm) at thermoneutral temperatures and standard metabolic rate (SMRm), measured as...

Data from: Capture from the wild has long-term costs on reproductive success in Asian elephants

Mirkka Lahdenperä, John Jackson, Win Htut & Virpi Lummaa
Capturing wild animals is common for conservation, economic, or research purposes. Understanding how capture itself affects lifetime fitness measures is often difficult because wild and captive populations live in very different environments and there is a need for long-term life-history data. Here we show how wild-capture influences reproduction in 2685 female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) used in the timber industry in Myanmar. Wild-caught females demonstrated a consistent reduction in breeding success relative to captive-born females,...

Don’t judge a lizard by its colour: no evidence for differential socio-sexual behaviour and space use in the colour morphs of the European common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis)

Javier Abalos, Guillem Pérez I De Lanuza, Alicia Bartolomé, Océane Liehrmann, Hanna Laakkonen, Fabien Aubret, Tobias Uller, Pau Carazo & Enrique Font
Explaining the evolutionary origin and maintenance of colour polymorphisms is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Such polymorphisms are commonly thought to reflect the existence of alternative behavioural or life-history strategies under negative frequency-dependent selection. The European common wall lizard Podarcis muralis exhibits a striking ventral colour polymorphism that has been intensely studied and is often assumed to reflect alternative reproductive strategies, similar to the iconic “rock-paper-scissors” system described in the North American lizard Uta...

Supplementary material for: Exploring the impact of unstable terminals on branch support values in paleontological data

Jorge R Flores, Samuli Lehtonen & Jaakko Hyvönen
The dataset consists of a PDF file and two plain-text TNT scripts (*.run files). The PDF includes supporting Figures for the additional analyses conducted by Flores et al. on paleontological datasets. The TNT scripts conduct two complementary sets of analyses: (a) evaluation of taxon instability relative to the incompleteness ("mc.run"), and (b) changes in branch support values after pruning unstable taxa ("avmc.run"). To properly run these files in TNT, the name of the matrix files...

Mind the outgroup and bare branches in total-evidence dating: a case study of Pimpliform Darwin Wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae)

Tamara Spasojevic, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi, Masato Ito, Stanislav Korenko, Seraina Klopfstein, Gavin R. Broad & Martin Schwarz
Taxon sampling is a central aspect of phylogenetic study design, but it has received limited attention in the context of total-evidence dating, a widely used dating approach that directly integrates molecular and morphological information from extant and fossil taxa. We here assess the impact of commonly employed outgroup sampling schemes and missing morphological data in extant taxa on age estimates in a total-evidence dating analysis under the uniform tree prior. Our study group is Pimpliformes,...

Data from: Global fern and lycophyte richness explained: how regional and local factors shape plot richness

Michael Kessler, Anna Weigand, Helge Bruelheide, Hanna Tuomisto, Holger Kreft & Patrick Weigelt
Aim To disentangle the influence of environmental factors at different spatial grains (regional and local) on fern and lycophyte species richness and ask how regional and plot-level richness are related to each other. Location Global. Time Period Present. Major Taxa studied Ferns and lycophytes. Methods We explored fern and lycophyte species richness at two spatial grains, regional (hexagonal grid cells of 7666 km2) and plot-level (300–500 m2), in relation to environmental data at regional and...

Opposite latitudinal patterns for bird and arthropod predation revealed in the experiments with differently colored artificial prey

Elena Zvereva, Bastien Castagneyrol, Tatiana Cornelissen, Anders Forsman, Juan Antonio Hernández-Agüero, Tero Klemola, Lucas Paolucci, Vicente Polo, Norma Salinas, K. Jurie Theron, Guorui Xu, Vitali Zverev & Mikhail Kozlov
The strength of biotic interactions is generally thought to increase towards the equator, but support for this hypothesis is contradictory. We explored whether predator attacks on artificial prey of eight different colours vary among climates and whether this variation affects the detection of latitudinal patterns in predation. The data set provides number of damage marks on each of 1320 plasticine caterpillars of eight different colours, which were attached to branches of woody plants and exposed...

Data from: Fledging mass is color morph specific and affects local recruitment in a wild bird

Chiara Morosinotto, Jon Brommer, Atte Lindqvist, Kari Ahola, Esa Aaltonen, Teuvo Karstinen & Patrik Karell
Early life conditions may have long-lasting effects on life history. In color polymorphic species, morph-specific sensitivity to environmental conditions may lead to differential fitness. In tawny owl (Strix aluco) pheomelanin-based color polymorphism is expected to be maintained because the brown morph has higher adult fitness in warmer environments, while selection favors the grey morph under colder conditions. Here we investigate body mass at fledging and its consequences until adulthood in a population at the species’...

Data from: Experimental manipulation of food availability leads to short-term intra-clutch adjustment in egg mass but not in yolk androgen or thyroid hormones

Suvi Ruuskanen, Veerle M. Darras, Bonnie De Vries, Marcel E. Visser & Ton G. G. Groothuis
In birds, mothers can affect their offspring's phenotype and thereby survival via egg composition. It is not well known to what extent and time-scales environmental variation in resource availability, either via resource constrains or adaptive adjustment to predicted rearing conditions, influences maternal effects. We experimentally studied whether egg and yolk mass and yolk hormone levels respond to short-term changes in food availability during laying in wild great tits Parus major. Our treatment groups were: 1)...

Data from: Genome-wide evidence reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals are distinct species

Klaus-Peter Koepfli, John Pollinger, Raquel Godinho, Jacqueline Robinson, Amanda Lea, Sarah Hendricks, Rena M. Schweizer, Olaf Thalmann, Pedro Silva, Zhenxin Fan, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Pavel Dobrynin, Alexey Makunin, James A. Cahill, Beth Shapiro, Francisco Álvares, José C. Brito, Eli Geffen, Jennifer A. Leonard, Kristofer M. Helgen, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Blaire Van Valkenburgh & Robert K. Wayne
The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a...

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